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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431386/tebuconazole-alters-morphological-behavioral-and-neurochemical-parameters-in-larvae-and-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Stefani Altenhofen, Débora Dreher Nabinger, Melissa Talita Wiprich, Talita Carneiro Brandão Pereira, Maurício Reis Bogo, Carla Denise Bonan
In this study, we evaluated the effects of tebuconazole on morphology and exploratory larvae behavior and adult locomotion. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of this fungicide on AChE activity and gene expression in zebrafish larvae and in the adult zebrafish brain. Tebuconazole (4 mg/L) increased the ocular distance in larvae and reduced the distance travelled, absolute turn angle, line crossing and time outside area in exposed larvae. Moreover, adult zebrafish that were exposed to this fungicide (4 and 6 mg/L) showed a decrease in distance travelled and mean speed when compared to the control group...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427319/mechanobiological-modelling-of-tendons-review-and-future-opportunities
#2
Mark S Thompson, M Nazri Bajuri, Hanifeh Khayyeri, Hanna Isaksson
Tendons are adapted to carry large, repeated loads and are clinically important for the maintenance of musculoskeletal health in an increasing, actively ageing population, as well as in elite athletes. Tendons are known to adapt to mechanical loading. Also, their healing and disease processes are highly sensitive to mechanical load. Computational modelling approaches developed to capture this mechanobiological adaptation in tendons and other tissues have successfully addressed many important scientific and clinical issues...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426787/correction-treatment-with-riluzole-restores-normal-control-of-soleus-and-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscles-during-locomotion-in-adult-rats-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-at-birth
#3
Wojciech Zmysłowski, Anna M Cabaj, Urszula Sławińska
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170235.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424626/a-rat-immobilization-model-based-on-cage-volume-reduction-a-physiological-model-for-bed-rest
#4
Enrica Marmonti, Sílvia Busquets, Míriam Toledo, Marina Ricci, Marc Beltrà, Victòria Gudiño, Francesc Oliva, José M López-Pedrosa, Manuel Manzano, Ricardo Rueda, Francisco J López-Soriano, Josep M Argilés
Bed rest has been an established treatment in the past prescribed for critically illness or convalescing patients, in order to preserve their body metabolic resource, to prevent serious complications and to support their rapid path to recovery. However, it has been reported that prolonged bed rest can have detrimental consequences that may delay or prevent the recovery from clinical illness. In order to study disuse-induced changes in muscle and bone, as observed during prolonged bed rest in humans, an innovative new model of muscle disuse for rodents is presented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424291/comparison-of-optomotor-and-optokinetic-reflexes-in-mice
#5
Friedrich Kretschmer, Momina Tariq, Walid Chatila, Beverly Wu, Tudor Constantin Badea
During animal locomotion or position adjustments, the visual system uses image stabilization reflexes to compensate for global shifts in the visual scene. These reflexes elicit compensatory head movements (Optomotor response - OMR) in unrestrained animals or compensatory eye movements (Optokinetic response - OKR) in head fixed or unrestrained animals, exposed to globally rotating striped patterns. In mice, OMR responses are relatively easy to observe and find broad use in the rapid evaluation of visual function...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422557/maximal-aerobic-power-in-aging-men-insights-from-1-hour-cycling-unaccompanied-record
#6
Carlo Capelli
PURPOSE: We analyzed best 1-hour unaccompanied performances of Master athletes in ages ranging from 35 to 105 years in order to estimate the decay of Maximal Aerobic Power (MAP) across the spectrum of age. METHODS: MAP at the various ages was estimated by computing the metabolic power ( RESULTS: MAP started monotonically decreasing at 47 years of age. Thereafter, it showed an average percent rate of decrease of about 14 % for decade up to 105 years of age, similarly to other classes of Master athletes...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422047/template-for-the-neural-control-of-directed-stepping-generalized-to-all-legs-of-mantisbot
#7
Nicholas Stephen Szczecinski, Roger Quinn
We previously developed a neural controller for one leg of our six-legged robot, MantisBot, that could direct locomotion toward a goal by modulating leg-local reflexes with simple descending commands from a head sensor. In this work, we successfully apply an automated method to tune the control network for all three pairs of legs of our hexapod robot MantisBot in only 90 seconds with a desktop computer. Each foot's motion changes appropriately as the body's intended direction of travel changes. In addition, several results from studies of walking insects are captured by this model...
April 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420977/development-and-training-of-a-neural-controller-for-hind-leg-walking-in-a-dog-robot
#8
Alexander Hunt, Nicholas Szczecinski, Roger Quinn
Animals dynamically adapt to varying terrain and small perturbations with remarkable ease. These adaptations arise from complex interactions between the environment and biomechanical and neural components of the animal's body and nervous system. Research into mammalian locomotion has resulted in several neural and neuro-mechanical models, some of which have been tested in simulation, but few "synthetic nervous systems" have been implemented in physical hardware models of animal systems. One reason is that the implementation into a physical system is not straightforward...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420971/dynamic-increase-in-corticomuscular-coherence-during-bilateral-cyclical-ankle-movements
#9
Takashi Yoshida, Kei Masani, Karl Zabjek, Robert Chen, Milos R Popovic
In humans, the midline primary motor cortex is active during walking. However, the exact role of such cortical participation is unknown. To delineate the role of the primary motor cortex in walking, we examined whether the primary motor cortex would activate leg muscles during movements that retained specific requirements of walking (i.e., locomotive actions). We recorded electroencephalographic and electromyographic signals from 15 healthy, young men while they sat and performed bilateral, cyclical ankle movements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419951/can-fractal-methods-applied-to-video-tracking-detect-the-effects-of-deltamethrin-pesticide-or-mercury-on-the-locomotion-behavior-of-shrimps
#10
Bruno Mendes Tenorio, Eurípedes Alves da Silva Filho, Gentileza Santos Martins Neiva, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva, Fernanda das Chagas Angelo Mendes Tenorio, Themis de Jesus da Silva, Emerson Carlos Soares E Silva, Romildo de Albuquerque Nogueira
Shrimps can accumulate environmental toxicants and suffer behavioral changes. However, methods to quantitatively detect changes in the behavior of these shrimps are still needed. The present study aims to verify whether mathematical and fractal methods applied to video tracking can adequately describe changes in the locomotion behavior of shrimps exposed to low concentrations of toxic chemicals, such as 0.15µgL(-1) deltamethrin pesticide or 10µgL(-1) mercuric chloride. Results showed no change after 1min, 4, 24, and 48h of treatment...
April 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419873/arrestin-2-and-arrestin-3-differentially-modulate-locomotor-responses-and-sensitization-to-amphetamine
#11
Lilia Zurkovsky, Katayoun Sedaghat, M Rafiuddin Ahmed, Vsevolod V Gurevich, Eugenia V Gurevich
Arrestins play a prominent role in shutting down signaling via G protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, a signaling role for arrestins independent of their function in receptor desensitization has been discovered. Two ubiquitously expressed arrestin isoforms, arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, perform similarly in the desensitization process and share many signaling functions, enabling them to substitute for one another. However, signaling roles specific to each isoform have also been described. Mice lacking arrestin-3 (ARR3KO) were reported to show blunted acute responsiveness to the locomotor stimulatory effect of amphetamine (AMPH)...
April 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416119/the-head-direction-signal-plays-a-functional-role-as-a-neural-compass-during-navigation
#12
William N Butler, Kyle S Smith, Matthijs A A van der Meer, Jeffrey S Taube
The rat limbic system contains head direction (HD) cells that fire according to heading in the horizontal plane, and these cells are thought to provide animals with an internal compass. Previous work has found that HD cell tuning correlates with behavior on navigational tasks, but a direct, causal link between HD cells and navigation has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that pathway-specific optogenetic inhibition of the nucleus prepositus caused HD cells to become directionally unstable under dark conditions without affecting the animals' locomotion...
April 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415719/endosomal-sorting-and-c-cbl-targeting-of-paxillin-to-autophagosomes-regulate-cell-matrix-adhesion-turnover-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Chia-Hao Chang, Krikor Bijian, Dinghong Qiu, Jie Su, Amine Saad, Michael S Dahabieh, Wilson H Miller, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali
Post-translational mechanisms regulating cell-matrix adhesion turnover during cell locomotion are not fully elucidated. In this study, we uncovered an essential role of Y118 site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, an adapter protein of focal adhesion complexes, in paxillin recruitment to autophagosomes to trigger turnover of peripheral focal adhesions in human breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that the Rab-7 GTPase is a key upstream regulator of late endosomal sorting of tyrosine118-phosphorylated paxillin, which is subsequently recruited to autophagosomes via the cargo receptor c-Cbl...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414178/short-and-long-term-effects-of-risperidone-on-catalepsy-sensitisation-and-acquisition-of-conditioned-avoidance-response-adolescent-vs-adult-rats
#14
Aung Aung Kywe Moe, Gregory A Medely, Timothy Reeks, Thomas H J Burne, Darryl W Eyles
The effects of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) on the adolescent brain are poorly understood despite a dramatic increase in prescription of these drugs in adolescents over the past twenty years. Neuronal systems continue to be remodeled during adolescence. Therefore, when given in adolescence, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have the potential to affect this remodeling. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic 22-day risperidone treatment (1.3mg/kg/day) in both adolescent and adult rats. We examined short- and long-term changes in behaviour (catalepsy, locomotion and conditioned avoidance response (CAR)), and dopaminergic and serotonergic neurochemistry in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens...
April 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414047/a-novel-automated-rodent-tracker-art-demonstrated-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Brett M Hewitt, Moi Hoon Yap, Emma F Hodson-Tole, Aneurin J Kennerley, Paul S Sharp, Robyn A Grant
BACKGROUND: Generating quantitative metrics of rodent locomotion and general behaviours from video footage is important in behavioural neuroscience studies. However, there is not yet a free software system that can process large amounts of video data with minimal user interventions. NEW METHOD: Here we propose a new, automated rodent tracker (ART) that uses a simple rule-based system to quickly and robustly track rodent nose and body points, with minimal user input...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412715/non-centralized-and-functionally-localized-nervous-system-of-ophiuroids-evidence-from-topical-anesthetic-experiments
#16
Yoshiya Matsuzaka, Eiki Sato, Takeshi Kano, Hitoshi Aonuma, Akio Ishiguro
Ophiuroids locomote along the seafloor by coordinated rhythmic movements of multi-segmented arms. The mechanisms by which such coordinated movements are achieved are a focus of interest from the standpoints of neurobiology and robotics, because ophiuroids appear to lack a central nervous system that could exert centralized control over five arms. To explore the underlying mechanism of arm coordination, we examined the effects of selective anesthesia to various parts of the body of ophiuroids on locomotion. We observed the following: (1) anesthesia of the circumoral nerve ring completely blocked the initiation of locomotion; however, initiation of single arm movement, such as occurs during the retrieval of food, was unaffected, indicating that the inability to initiate locomotion was not due to the spread of the anesthetic agent...
April 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412561/metastatic-human-breast-cancer-to-the-spine-produces-mechanical-hyperalgesia-and-gait-deficits-in-rodents
#17
Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Alejandro Ruiz-Valls, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Ana M Ampuero, Ismael Jimenez-Estrada, Samantha De Silva, Lydia J Bernhardt, C Rory Goodwin, A Karim Ahmed, Yuxin Li, Neil A Phillips, Ziya L Gokaslan, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Daniel M Sciubba
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Metastases to the spine are a common source of severe pain in cancer patients. The secondary effects of spinal metastases include pain, bone fractures, hypercalcemia, and neurological deficits. As the disease progresses, pain severity can increase until it becomes refractory to medical treatments and leads to a decreased quality of life for patients. A key obstacle in the study of pain-induced spinal cancer is the lack of reliable and reproducible spine cancer animal models...
April 13, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412215/involvement-of-serotonergic-noradrenergic-and-dopaminergic-systems-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-ginsenoside-rb1-a-major-active-ingredient-of-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#18
Guo-Li Wang, Zhong-Mei He, Hong-Yan Zhu, Yu-Gang Gao, Yan Zhao, He Yang, Liangxue Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside Rb1, a 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol, is a major active ingredient of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which as the King of Chinese herbs, has been wildly used for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Previous studies have shown that 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol possesses a novel antidepressant-like effect in the treatment of depression, whereas ginsenoside Rb1 in depression has been rarely reported. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and its relevant mechanisms...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412141/toll-like-receptor-4-activation-can-be-either-detrimental-or-beneficial-following-mild-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury-depending-on-timing-of-activation
#19
Frances Corrigan, Alina Arulsamy, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Joshua L Holmes, Robert Vink
A history of repeated concussion has been linked to the later development of neurodegeneration, which is associated with the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the development of behavioral deficits. However, the role that exogenous factors, such as immune activation, may play in the development of neurodegeneration following repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) has not yet been explored. To investigate, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered three mTBIs 5 days apart using the diffuse impact-acceleration model to generate ∼100G...
April 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411723/fatigue-of-chinese-railway-employees-and-its-influential-factors-structural-equation-modelling
#20
Liuxing Tsao, Jing Chang, Liang Ma
Fatigue is an identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in transport operations. Regarding the railway sector, incident logs and simulation studies show that employee fatigue leads to lack of alertness, impaired performance, and occurrence of incidents. China has one of the largest rail systems in the world, and Chinese railway employees work under high fatigue risks; therefore, it is important to assess their fatigue level and find the major factors leading to fatigue. We designed a questionnaire that uses Multidimensional Fatigue Instrument (MFI-20), NASA-TLX and subjective rating of work overtime feelings to assess employee fatigue...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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