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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547681/exploratory-behaviors-and-recalibration-what-processes-are-shared-between-functionally-similar-affordances
#1
John M Franchak
Recalibration of affordance perception allows observers to adapt to changes in the body's size or abilities that alter possibilities for action. Of key interest is understanding how exploratory behaviors lead to successful recalibration. The present study was designed to test a novel hypothesis-that the same processes of exploration and recalibration should generalize between affordances that share a similar function. Most affordances for fitting the body through openings are recalibrated without feedback from practicing the action; locomotion exploration is sufficient...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546660/can-we-deliver-better
#2
REVIEW
Ajay Rane, Jay Iyer, Harsha Ananthram, Thomas Currie
Human childbirth has been described as an "obstetrical dilemma". Evolution favours enlargement of the foetal brain, whilst bipedal locomotion demands a reduction in pelvic breadth for improvements in biomechanical efficiency. The result of this conflict is a human pelvis incongruous with the dynamics of childbirth. Acute genital distortion at delivery can inflict lasting damage to female pelvic function. Pelvic organ prolapse, urinary, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are long-term sequelae rarely discussed at antenatal care, impacting upon the expectant mother's ability to make an informed decision...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546506/age-dependent-effects-of-water-striders-moving-on-perturbed-water-surfaces
#3
Victor Manuel Ortega-Jimenez, Lisa von Rabenau, Robert Dudley
Surface roughness is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both oceanic and terrestrial waters. For insects that live at the air-water interface, such as water striders, non-linear and multi-scale perturbations produce dynamic surface deformations which may impair locomotion. We studied escape jumps of adults, juveniles, and first-instar larvae of the water strider Aquarius remigis on smooth, wave-dominated, and bubble-dominated water surfaces. Effects of substrate on takeoff jumps were substantial, with significant reductions in take-off angles, peak translational speeds, attained heights, and power expenditure on more perturbed water surfaces...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#4
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544680/multiscale-modulation-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-hydrogel-via-nanocarbon-hybridization-for-3d-neuronal-bilayer-formation
#5
Dongyoon Kim, Subeom Park, Insu Jo, Seong-Min Kim, Dong Hee Kang, Sung-Pyo Cho, Jong Bo Park, Byung Hee Hong, Myung-Han Yoon
Bacterial biopolymers have drawn much attention owing to their unconventional three-dimensional structures and interesting functions, which are closely integrated with bacterial physiology. The nongenetic modulation of bacterial (Acetobacter xylinum) cellulose synthesis via nanocarbon hybridization, and its application to the emulation of layered neuronal tissue, is reported. The controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes into bacterial cellulose (BC) culture media not only induces structural changes within a crystalline cellulose nanofibril, but also modulates their 3D collective association, leading to substantial reduction in Young's modulus (≈50%) and clear definition of water-hydrogel interfaces...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544613/qtl-and-systems-genetics-analysis-of-mouse-grooming-and-behavioral-responses-to-novelty-in-an-open-field
#6
Anna Delprato, Marie-Paule Algéo, Brice Bonheur, Jason A Bubier, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Elissa J Chesler, Wim E Crusio
The open field is a classic test used to assess exploratory behavior, anxiety, and locomotor activity in rodents. Here we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors displayed in an open field, using a panel of 53 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains with deep replication (10 per strain and sex). The use of these strains permits the integration and comparison of data obtained in different laboratories, and also offers the possibility to study trait covariance by exploiting powerful bioinformatics tools and resources...
May 24, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544270/localization-and-domain-characterization-of-the-sfla-regulator-of-flagellar-formation-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#7
Satoshi Inaba, Takehiko Nishigaki, Norihiro Takekawa, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma
Many swimming bacteria use flagella as locomotive organelles. The spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis differs by bacterial species. The marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus use a single polar flagellum whose number is regulated positively by FlhF and negatively by FlhG. Cells lacking FlhF and FlhG have no flagellum. The motility defect in an flhFG deletion was suppressed by a mutation in the sflA gene that resulted in the production of multiple, peritrichous flagella. SflA is a Vibrio-specific protein...
May 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543166/chronic-emgs-in-treadmill-running-sod1-mice-reveal-early-changes-in-muscle-activation
#8
K A Quinlan, E Kajtaz, J D Ciolino, R D Imhoff-Manuel, M C Tresch, C J Heckman, V M Tysseling
To improve our understanding of early disease mechanisms and find reliable biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, we measured electromyogram (EMG) activity in hind limb muscles of SOD1G93A mice. In contrast to clinical diagnostic measures using EMGs, which are performed on quiescent patients, we monitored activity during treadmill running in order to detect presymptomatic changes in motor patterning. Chronic EMG electrodes were implanted into vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris posterior (BFP), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) in mice from postnatal day (P) 55-100, and results were assessed using linear mixed models...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543057/combination-of-kinematic-analyses-and-diffusion-tensor-tractrography-to-evaluate-the-residual-motor-functions-in-spinal-cord-hemisected-monkeys
#9
Can Zhao, Wei Song, Jia-Sheng Rao, Wen Zhao, Rui-Han Wei, Xia Zhou, Peng-Yu Tian, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of locomotor functions. Nowadays, the relationship between the residual locomotion after SCI and the diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) results still remains unclear. METHODS: Four rhesus monkeys were suffered thoracic cord hemisection. Kinematic evaluation and DTT were performed prior- and post-SCI (6 and 12 weeks). The longitudinal changes of gait parameters and the DTT parameters were analyzed for the injury-contralateral hindlimb...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542704/trabecular-and-cortical-bone-structure-of-the-talus-and-distal-tibia-in-pan-and-homo
#10
Zewdi J Tsegai, Matthew M Skinner, Andrew H Gee, Dieter H Pahr, Graham M Treece, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Internal bone structure, both cortical and trabecular bone, remodels in response to loading and may provide important information regarding behavior. The foot is well suited to analysis of internal bone structure because it experiences the initial substrate reaction forces, due to its proximity to the substrate. Moreover, as humans and apes differ in loading of the foot, this region is relevant to questions concerning arboreal locomotion and bipedality in the hominoid fossil record...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540927/regional-differences-in-striatal-neuronal-ensemble-excitability-following-cocaine-and-extinction-memory-retrieval-in-fos-gfp-mice
#11
Joseph Ziminski, Meike C Sieburg, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Learned associations between drugs of abuse and the drug administration environment play an important role in addiction. In rodents, exposure to a drug-associated environment elicits conditioned psychomotor activation, which may be weakened following extinction learning. While widespread drug-induced changes in neuronal excitability have been observed, little is known about specific changes within neuronal ensembles activated during the recall of drug-environment associations. Using a cocaine conditioned locomotion procedure, the present study assessed the excitability of neuronal ensembles in the nucleus accumbens core and shell (NAc(core) and NAc(shell)), and dorsal striatum (DS) following cocaine conditioning and extinction in Fos-GFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in activated neurons (GFP+)...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539483/fundamentals-of-soft-robot-locomotion
#12
REVIEW
M Calisti, G Picardi, C Laschi
Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539422/galanin-expressing-gaba-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-modulate-food-reward-and-non-compulsive-locomotion
#13
Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Sangho Yu, Marie Francois, John Hoang, Clara Huesing, Annadora Bruce-Keller, David Burk, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Christopher D Morrison, Heike Münzberg
The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) integrates reward and appetitive behavior and is composed of many overlapping neuronal populations. Recent studies associated LHA GABAergic neurons (LHA (GABA) ), that densely innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), with modulation of food reward and consumption; yet, LHA (GABA) >VTA projections exclusively modulated food consumption, not reward. We identified a subpopulation of LHA (GABA) neurons that co-express the neuropeptide galanin (LHA (Gal) ). These LHA (Gal) neurons also modulate food reward, but lack direct VTA innervation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539392/sodium-pump-regulation-of-locomotor-control-circuits
#14
Laurence David Picton, HongYan Zhang, Keith Thomas Sillar
Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three N(a+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539149/mobility-and-agility-during-locomotion-in-the-mark-iii-space-suit
#15
Conor R Cullinane, Richard A Rhodes, Leia A Stirling
INTRODUCTION: The Mark III (MIII) space suit assembly (SSAs) implements a multibearing, hard-material hip brief assembly (HBA). We hypothesize that: 1) the MIII HBA restricts operator mobility and agility which manifests in effects to gait parameters; 2) the waist bearing provides rotational motion, partially alleviating the restrictions; and 3) there are resistive, speed-dependent torques associated with the spinning bearings which further diminish mobility and agility. METHODS: A subject (Suited and Unsuited) performed two planetary tasks-walking forward (WF) and backward (WB)...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536199/active-depinning-of-bacterial-droplets-the-collective-surfing-of-bacillus-subtilis
#16
Marc Hennes, Julien Tailleur, Gaëlle Charron, Adrian Daerr
How systems are endowed with migration capacity is a fascinating question with implications ranging from the design of novel active systems to the control of microbial populations. Bacteria, which can be found in a variety of environments, have developed among the richest set of locomotion mechanisms both at the microscopic and collective levels. Here, we uncover, experimentally, a mode of collective bacterial motility in humid environment through the depinning of bacterial droplets. Although capillary forces are notoriously enormous at the bacterial scale, even capable of pinning water droplets of millimetric size on inclined surfaces, we show that bacteria are able to harness a variety of mechanisms to unpin contact lines, hence inducing a collective slipping of the colony across the surface...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535798/using-kalirin-conditional-knockout-mice-to-distinguish-its-role-in-dopamine-receptor-mediated-behaviors
#17
Taylor P LaRese, Yan Yan, Betty A Eipper, Richard E Mains
BACKGROUND: Mice lacking Kalirin-7 (Kal7(KO)), a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor, self-administer cocaine at a higher rate than wildtype mice, and show an exaggerated locomotor response to experimenter-administered cocaine. Kal7, which localizes to post-synaptic densities at glutamatergic synapses, interacts directly with the GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; GluN) receptor. Consistent with these observations, Kal7 plays an essential role in NMDA receptor dependent long term potentiation and depression, and glutamatergic transmission plays a key role in the response to chronic cocaine...
May 23, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533965/reappraisal-of-the-extinct-seal-phoca-vitulinoides-from-the-neogene-of-the-north-sea-basin-with-bearing-on-its-geological-age-phylogenetic-affinities-and-locomotion
#18
Leonard Dewaele, Eli Amson, Olivier Lambert, Stephen Louwye
BACKGROUND: Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, "Phoca" vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of "Phoca" vitulinoides is lost. METHODS: "Phoca" vitulinoides is redescribed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532853/long-term-test-retest-reliability-of-event-related-potential-erp-recordings-during-treadmill-walking-using-the-mobile-brain-body-imaging-mobi-approach
#19
Brenda R Malcolm, John J Foxe, John S Butler, Wenzhu B Mowrey, Sophie Molholm, Pierfilippo De Sanctis
Advancements in acquisition technology and signal-processing techniques have spurred numerous recent investigations on the electro-cortical signals generated during whole-body motion. This approach, termed Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI), has the potential to elucidate the neural correlates of perceptual and cognitive processes during real-life activities, such as locomotion. However, as of yet, no one has assessed the long-term stability of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded under these conditions. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of cognitive ERPs recorded while walking...
May 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529155/metabolic-insights-into-the-cold-survival-strategy-and-overwintering-of-the-common-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fabricius-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#20
Wei Zhu, Huan Zhang, Qian Meng, Menglong Wang, Guiling Zhou, Xuan Li, Hongtuo Wang, Lin Miao, Qilian Qin, Jihong Zhang
The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12 h) plus 13°C (12 h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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