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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333886/anaemia-worsens-early-functional-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-preliminary-study
#1
N Scott Litofsky, Douglas C Miller, Zhenzhou Chen, Agnes Simonyi, Diana Klakotskaia, Andrew Giritharan, Qi Feng, Diane McConnell, Jiankun Cui, Zezong Gu
OBJECTIVE: To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. HYPOTHESIS: Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. METHODS: CCI was induced with electromagnetic impaction in four groups of C57BL/6J mice: sham, sham+anaemia; TBI; and TBI+anaemia. Anaemia was created by withdrawal of 30% of calculated intravascular blood volume and saline replacement of equal volume...
January 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333801/efficacy-of-the-regent-suit-based-rehabilitation-on-gait-emg-patterns-in-hemiparetic-subjects-a-pilot-study
#2
Luigi Iuppariello, Giovanni D'Addio, Maria Romano, Paolo Bifulco, Nicola Pappone, Bernardo Lanzillo, Mario Cesarelli
BACKGROUND: The recovery of the functional limb mobility of patients with cerebral damages can take great benefit of the role offered by proprioceptive rehabilitation. Recently have been developed a special Regent Suit (RS) for rehabilitative applications. Actually, there are preliminary studies which describes the effects of RS on gait recovery of stroke patients in acute stage, but none in chronic stage. Moreover, it is known that motor recovery does not always reflect improvements of the muscle activity and coactivity...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332257/kynurenic-acid-and-its-derivatives-are-able-to-modulate-the-adhesion-and-locomotion-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#3
Eszter Lajkó, Bernadett Tuka, Ferenc Fülöp, István Krizbai, József Toldi, Kálmán Magyar, László Vécsei, László Kőhidai
The neuroprotective actions of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its derivatives in several neurodegenerative disorders [characterized by damage to the cerebral endothelium and to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)] are well established. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is supposedly involved in recovery of impaired cerebral endothelium integrity (endothelial repair). The present work aimed to investigate the effects of KYNA and its synthetic derivatives on cellular behaviour (e.g. adhesion and locomotion) and on morphology of the GP8 rat brain endothelial cell line, modeling the BBB endothelium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332092/early-life-stress-activates-glial-cells-in-the-hippocampus-but-attenuates-cytokine-secretion-in-response-to-an-immune-challenge-in-rat-pups
#4
Luis Miguel Saavedra, Bertha Fenton Navarro, Luz Torner
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability to developing psychopathological disorders in adulthood that are accompanied by brain inflammatory processes. However, it is not known how a combined double hit (stress and immune) at an early age affects the response of the neuroimmune system. Here we investigated the effect of periodic maternal separation (MS) followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glial cells in the CA3 region and hilus of the hippocampus and on cytokine release on postnatal day (PN) 15...
January 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331489/modulation-of-lower-extremity-joint-stiffness-work-and-power-at-different-walking-and-running-speeds
#5
Li Jin, Michael E Hahn
Locomotion task and speed changes affect dynamic joint function. Walking and running require different coordination patterns of lower extremity joint mechanics. These coordination differences can result in measurable changes in kinematic and kinetic patterns. When locomotion speed changes, the functional role and movement strategy of each joint is altered. A deeper understanding of joint level mechanics and functional interactions will benefit rehabilitation programs and assistive device development. In this study, joint stiffness, joint mechanical work and power were assessed, as they relate to dynamic function of joints during locomotion...
January 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330711/boosting-tendon-repair-interplay-of-cells-growth-factors-and-scaffold-free-and-gel-based-carriers
#6
REVIEW
Zexing Yan, Heyong Yin, Michael Nerlich, Christian G Pfeifer, Denitsa Docheva
BACKGROUND: Tendons are dense connective tissues and critical components for the integrity and function of the musculoskeletal system. Tendons connect bone to muscle and transmit forces on which locomotion entirely depends. Due to trauma, overuse and age-related degeneration, many people suffer from acute or chronic tendon injuries. Owing to their hypovascularity and hypocellularity, tendinopathies remain a substantial challenge for both clinicians and researchers. Surgical treatment includes suture or transplantation of autograft, allograft or xenograft, and these serve as the most common technique for rescuing tendon injuries...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327389/multivariate-analysis-of-variations-in-intrinsic-foot-musculature-among-hominoids
#7
Motoharu Oishi, Naomichi Ogihara, Daisuke Shimizu, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Hideki Endo, Yumi Une, Satoshi Soeta, Hajime Amasaki, Nobutsune Ichihara
Comparative analysis of the foot muscle architecture among extant great apes is important for understanding the evolution of the human foot and, hence, human habitual bipedal walking. However, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of a quantitative comparison of hominoid intrinsic foot muscle dimensions. In the present study, we quantitatively compared muscle dimensions of the hominoid foot by means of multivariate analysis. The foot muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of five chimpanzees, one bonobo, two gorillas, and six orangutans were obtained by our own dissections, and those of humans were taken from published accounts...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327204/neuroprotective-effects-of-filgrastim-in-rotenone-induced-parkinson-s-disease-in-rats-insights-into-its-anti-inflammatory-neurotrophic-and-antiapoptotic-effects
#8
Mariama S Azmy, Esther T Menze, Reem N El-Naga, Mariane G Tadros
All current treatments of Parkinson's disease (PD) focus on enhancing the dopaminergic effects and providing symptomatic relief; however, they cannot delay the disease progression. Filgrastim, a recombinant methionyl granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, demonstrated neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. This study aimed to assess the neuroprotective effects of filgrastim in rotenone-induced rat model of PD and investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of filgrastim actions...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#9
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324752/tet-protein-function-during-drosophila-development
#10
Fei Wang, Svetlana Minakhina, Hiep Tran, Neha Changela, Joseph Kramer, Ruth Steward
The TET (Ten-eleven translocation) 1, 2 and 3 proteins have been shown to function as DNA hydroxymethylases in vertebrates and their requirements have been documented extensively. Recently, the Tet proteins have been shown to also hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine in RNA. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmrC) is enriched in messenger RNA but the function of this modification has yet to be elucidated. Because Cytosine methylation in DNA is barely detectable in Drosophila, it serves as an ideal model to study the biological function of 5hmrC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324700/predicting-lameness-in-sheep-activity-using-tri-axial-acceleration-signals
#11
Jamie Barwick, David Lamb, Robin Dobos, Derek Schneider, Mitchell Welch, Mark Trotter
Lameness is a clinical symptom associated with a number of sheep diseases around the world, having adverse effects on weight gain, fertility, and lamb birth weight, and increasing the risk of secondary diseases. Current methods to identify lame animals rely on labour intensive visual inspection. The aim of this current study was to determine the ability of a collar, leg, and ear attached tri-axial accelerometer to discriminate between sound and lame gait movement in sheep. Data were separated into 10 s mutually exclusive behaviour epochs and subjected to Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA)...
January 11, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324450/quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoform-mrna-transcripts-in-the-supraspinatus-muscle-of-vertical-clinger-primates
#12
Josep Maria Potau, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Juan Francisco Pastor, Félix Jesús de Paz, Mercedes Barbosa, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
Vertical clinging is a specialized form of locomotion characteristic of the primate family Callitrichidae. Vertical clinging requires these pronograde primates to maintain a vertical posture, so the protraction of their forelimbs must resist gravity. Since pronograde primates usually move as horizontal quadrupeds, we hypothesized that the supraspinatus muscle of vertical clingers would present specific characteristics related to the functional requirements imposed on the shoulder area by vertical clinging. To test this hypothesis, we quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction the mRNA transcripts of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus muscle of 15 species of pronograde primates, including vertical clingers...
January 12, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324298/calibration-of-raw-accelerometer-data-to-measure-physical-activity-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Márcio de Almeida Mendes, Inácio C M da Silva, Virgílio V Ramires, Felipe F Reichert, Rafaela C Martins, Elaine Tomasi
Most of calibration studies based on accelerometry were developed using count-based analyses. In contrast, calibration studies based on raw acceleration signals are relatively recent and their evidences are incipient. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the literature in order to summarize methodological characteristics and results from raw data calibration studies. The review was conducted up to May 2017 using four databases: PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Landis and Koch's guidelines...
December 30, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322527/thalamo-cortical-projections-to-the-macaque-superior-parietal-lobule-areas-pec-and-pe
#14
Daniele Impieri, Michela Gamberini, Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Claudio Galletti
The exposed surface of the superior parietal lobule in macaque brain contains two architectonically defined areas named PEc and PE. The aim of the present study is the characterization of thalamic afferents of these two areas. For this purpose, retrograde neuronal tracers were injected, or placed in crystal form, in areas PEc and PE. We found that the two areas show a similar pattern of thalamic inputs, mainly originating from Lateral Posterior (LP), Pulvinar (Pul), Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL), and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei, all structures known to be involved in visual, somatosensory, and/or sensorimotor processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#15
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317688/precontractile-optical-response-during-excitation-contraction-in-human-muscle-revealed-by-non-invasive-high-speed-spatiotemporal-nir-measurement
#16
Markus Lindkvist, Gabriel Granåsen, Christer Grönlund
During muscle contraction the excitation-contraction process mediates the neural input and mechanical output. Proper muscle function and body locomotion depends on the status of the elements in the same process. However, non-invasive and in-vivo methods to study this are not available. Here we show the existence of an optical response occurring during the excitation-contraction process in human biceps brachii muscle. We developed a non-invasive instrument from a photodiode array and light emitting diodes to detect spatially propagating (~5 m/s) and precontractile (~6 ms onset) optical signals closely related to the action potential during electrostimulation...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317314/phi-in-physiology-psychology-and-biomechanics-the-golden-ratio-between-myth-and-science
#17
REVIEW
Marco Iosa, Giovanni Morone, Stefano Paolucci
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of the so-called golden ratio (Phi, ϕ), an irrational number with fractal properties, used in artworks since V century BC. and now for modelling complex biological structures and functions. This number, in fact, recursively pops-up in human history, from Ancient Greeks to Renaissance, and to contemporary scientific studies. Nevertheless, recent scientific results often fall between two extremes: those of a priori sceptic researchers accusing the artificial emergence of ϕ in many studies, and those of researchers that find a mystic meaning in the presence of ϕ in human physiology...
January 6, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317225/anatomical-recovery-of-the-gabaergic-system-after-a-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-lampreys
#18
D Romaus-Sanjurjo, S M Valle-Maroto, A Barreiro-Iglesias, B Fernández-López, M C Rodicio
Lampreys recover locomotion spontaneously several weeks after a complete spinal cord injury. Dysfunction of the GABAergic system following SCI has been reported in mammalian models. So, it is of great interest to understand how the GABAergic system of lampreys adapts to the post-injury situation and how this relates to spontaneous recovery. The spinal cord of lampreys contains 3 populations of GABAergic neurons and most of the GABAergic innervation of the spinal cord comes from these local cells. GABAB receptors are expressed in the spinal cord of lampreys and they play important roles in the control of locomotion...
January 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316856/food-functionality-research-as-a-new-national-project-in-special-reference-to-improvement-of-cognitive-and-locomotive-abilities
#19
Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka
In Japan, where a super-aging society is realized, we are most concerned about healthy longevity, which would ascertain the wellness of people by improving their quality of life (QOL). In 2014, the Cabinet Office proposed a strategic innovation promotion programme, launching a national project for the development of the agricultural-forestry-fisheries food products with new functionalities for the next generation. In addition to focusing on a conventional prevention of lifestyle-associated metabolic syndromes, the project targets the scientific evidence of the activation of brain cognitive ability and the improvement of bodily locomotive function...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316367/development-of-the-lunate-shaped-caudal-fin-in-white-shark-embryos
#20
Taketeru Tomita, Minoru Toda, Kei Miyamoto, Shin-Ichiro Oka, Keiichi Ueda, Keiichi Sato
The lunate-shaped caudal fin in lamnid sharks is a morphological specialization for their thunniform mode of locomotion, but its developmental process during gestation has been poorly investigated. Observations of 21 embryonic specimens of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) revealed that their caudal fin morphology drastically changes from strongly heterocercal to lunate-shaped through ontogeny. This morphological change involves 1) rapid elongation of the ventral lobe, 2) increased upward curvature of the vertebra within the caudal fin, and 3) formation of keels at both lateral sides of the caudal fin base...
January 6, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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