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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149205/kir-content-genotypes-associate-with-carriage-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-e-antigen-and-hbv-viral-load-in-gambians
#1
Louis-Marie Yindom, Maimuna Mendy, Christopher Bodimeade, Caroline Chambion, Peter Aka, Hilton C Whittle, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149060/epigenetic-regulation-of-viral-biological-processes
#2
REVIEW
Lata Balakrishnan, Barry Milavetz
It is increasingly clear that DNA viruses exploit cellular epigenetic processes to control their life cycles during infection. This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B, and herpes viruses. For each type of virus, what is known about the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and regulatory RNA in epigenetic regulation of the virus infection will be discussed. The mechanisms used by certain viruses to dysregulate the host cell through manipulation of epigenetic processes and the role of cellular cofactors such as BRD4 that are known to be involved in epigenetic regulation of host cell pathways will also be covered...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147974/genotype-related-variations-in-proinflammatory-and-regulatory-cytokine-levels-in-treated-and-treatment-naive-hcv-infected-patients
#3
Rasoul Baharlou, Bizhan Romani, Seyed Jalal Kiani, Kaveh Sadeghi, Enayatollah Shadmand, Hadi Fazel, Farid Azizi Jalilian, Ebrahim Kord, Sajad Yaghoubi, Yousef Nikmanesh, Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) modulates immune-related inflammatory responses to induce milder reactions leading to virus persistence. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate the link between the HCV genotypes and the proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine levels. Ninety patients with hepatitis C infection (68 treatment-naive and 22 treated patients) and 76 healthy blood donors were studied. The serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17A, and IL-21 were measured by ELISA in the patients and healthy controls...
November 17, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145204/comparing-the-clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-acute-hepatitis-e-viral-infections-with-those-of-acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-infections-in-korea
#4
Hye Won Oh, Ra Ri Cha, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Min Lee, Wan Soo Kim, Yun Won Jo, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Woon Tae Jung, Ok Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the etiology of acute viral hepatitis and compared the clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections with those of other acute viral hepatitis infections in Korea. METHODS: This study included 2,357 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis, based on acute illness with jaundice or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>100 IU/L), between January 2007 and January 2016. Acute viral infections were observed in 23 (19...
November 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143741/eliminating-viral-hepatitis-time-to-match-visions-with-action
#5
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143681/economic-evaluation-of-hcv-testing-approaches-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
REVIEW
Jake R Morgan, Maria Servidone, Philippa Easterbrook, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143675/economic-evaluations-of-hbv-testing-and-treatment-strategies-and-applicability-to-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
REVIEW
Shevanthi Nayagam, Elisa Sicuri, Maud Lemoine, Philippa Easterbrook, Lesong Conteh, Timothy B Hallett, Mark Thursz
BACKGROUND: Many people living with chronic HBV infection remain undiagnosed until later stages of disease. Increasing testing and treatment rates form part of the strategy to respond to the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. However, achieving these ambitious targets is dependent on finding effective and cost-effective methods of scale up strategies. The aim of this study was to undertake a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of testing and treatment for HBV infection, to help inform the development of the 2017 WHO Hepatitis Testing Guidelines...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143672/diagnostic-accuracy-of-serological-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-and-b-using-dried-blood-spot-samples-dbs-two-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#9
Berit Lange, Jennifer Cohn, Teri Roberts, Johannes Camp, Jeanne Chauffour, Nina Gummadi, Azumi Ishizaki, Anupriya Nagarathnam, Edouard Tuaillon, Philippe van de Perre, Christine Pichler, Philippa Easterbrook, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143626/methodological-challenges-in-appraising-evidence-on-diagnostic-testing-for-who-guidelines-on-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#10
Roger Chou, Philippa Easterbrook, Margaret Hellard
Linking persons with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection with appropriate prevention and treatment requires that they first be diagnosed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed its first guidelines on testing for chronic HBV and HCV infection, using a framework based on methods from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for the formulation of recommendations, including determining the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143611/one-or-two-serological-assay-testing-strategy-for-diagnosis-of-hbv-and-hcv-infection-the-use-of-predictive-modelling
#11
John V Parry, Philippa Easterbrook, Anita R Sands
BACKGROUND: Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143609/survey-of-programmatic-experiences-and-challenges-in-delivery-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Azumi Ishizaki, Julie Bouscaillou, Niklas Luhmann, Stephanie Liu, Raissa Chua, Nick Walsh, Sarah Hess, Elena Ivanova, Teri Roberts, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: There have been few reports on programmatic experience of viral hepatitis testing and treatment in resource-limited settings. To inform the development of the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) viral hepatitis testing guidance and in particular the feasibility of proposed recommendations, we undertook a survey across a range of organisations engaged with hepatitis testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our objective was to describe current hepatitis B and C testing practices across a range of settings in different countries, as well as key barriers or challenges encountered and proposed solutions to promote testing scale-up...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142540/clinical-audit-of-dengue-related-deaths-in-2011-mayo-hospital-lahore-pakistan
#13
Somia Iqtadar, Nabeel Akbar, Mehreen Mehmood, Sajid Abaidullah
Background and Objective: Dengue infection has evolved into an epidemic during last few years in Pakistan and has been associated with poor outcomes. Literature with respect to mortality risk factors in Dengue infection is not sufficient. This compelled us to conduct this study to find out major contributory factors to death in patients with dengue viral infection at one of Asia's ancient hospital setting with an aim to recognize complications at earliest and improve case management in future...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141631/detection-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-during-the-wild-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-eradication-from-the-berlengas-archipelago-portugal
#14
F A Abade Dos Santos, C Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J J Correia, M Henriques, M C Peleteiro, M Fevereiro, M D Duarte
BACKGROUND: In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. RESULTS: While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141246/evaluation-of-temporal-virological-responses-to-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-plus-ribavirin-among-genotype-3a-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients
#15
Abida Raza, Muhammad Ovais, Hafsa Aziz, Asim Anwar, Javaid Irfan, Irshad Ahmad, Muhammad Mukhtar
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine the impact of rapid virological response (RVR) and early virological response (EVR) on sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C genotype 3a individuals. METHODS: The patients were given antiviral therapy with IFN-α-2b, 3 million units 3 times a week and 800-1,200 mg of ribavirin daily adjusted to the patient's body weight (<60 kg 800 mg day-1, and >60 kg 1,200 day-1). The patients received this combination therapy for 24 weeks...
November 16, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141131/simultaneous-detection-of-four-foodborne-viruses-in-food-samples-using-a-one-step-multiplex-reverse-transcription-pcr
#16
Shin-Young Lee, Mi-Ju Kim, Hyun-Joong Kim, KwangCheol Casey Jeong, Hae-Yeong Kim
A one-step multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method comprising six primer sets (for the detection of norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) was developed to simultaneously detect four kinds of pathogenic viruses. The size of the PCR products for norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus (VP3/VP1 and P2A regions), rotavirus, and astrovirus were 330, 164, 244, 198, 629, and 449 bp, respectively. The RT-PCR with the six primer sets showed specificity for the pathogenic viruses...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141010/multiple-effects-of-toxins-isolated-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-on-the-hepatitis-c-virus-life-cycle
#17
Jacqueline Farinha Shimizu, Carina Machado Pereira, Cintia Bittar, Mariana Nogueira Batista, Guilherme Rodrigues Fernandes Campos, Suely da Silva, Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra, Carsten Zothner, Mark Harris, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Victor Hugo Aquino, Paula Rahal, Ana Carolina Gomes Jardim
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver disease and transplantation worldwide. Current therapy is expensive, presents additional side effects and viral resistance has been described. Therefore, studies for developing more efficient antivirals against HCV are needed. Compounds isolated from animal venoms have shown antiviral activity against some viruses such as Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus and Measles virus. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the complex crotoxin (CX) and its subunits crotapotin (CP) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2-CB) isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus on HCV life cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138492/the-antigenic-variability-of-hcv-in-viral-hla-ag-binding-is-related-to-the-activation-of-the-host-immune-response
#18
P Muñoz de Rueda, S M Jiménez-Ruiz, R Quiles, E J Pavón-Castillero, J A Muñoz-Gámez, J Casado, A Gila, A Ruiz-Extremera, J Salmerón
Our previous data show that hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 patients expressing the HLA-DQB1 * 0301 allele have a combined response probability of 69%, while the remaining 31% do not respond, probably because the HCV immunodominant epitope (IE) against the DQB1 * 0301 allele is mutated. HCV IE (region sequenced in NS3 is a region encoding aa 1253-1272) from 37 patients (21 Sustained Virological Response, SVR; 16 non-SVR) HLA-DQB1 * 0301+, were analysed by pyrosequencing. In vitro cultures were also determined by CD4+ proliferation, using non-mutated IE (wild-type synthetic peptide) and synthetic mutated peptide...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138012/systematic-review-on-reporting-quality-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-or-c-in-china
#19
Na Zeng, Cailun Zou, Zhiying He, Hong Ma, Xiaojuan Ou, Hong You, Yuanyuan Kong, Jidong Jia
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) on viral hepatitis in China have been increasing, but few studies have been systematically conducted to evaluate the reporting quality of RCTs in this field. In the present study, we assessed the reporting quality of RCTs on the treatment of hepatitis B or C from 1991 to 2015 in China. METHODS: Articles published between January 1991 and December 2015 were identified via PubMed, Medline, and Embase by using the key words "randomized clinical trials," "treatment," "therapy," "hepatitis B," "HBV," "hepatitis C," "HCV," "China," and "Chinese...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137642/effects-of-mrna-secondary-structure-on-the-expression-of-hev-orf2-proteins-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Nouredine Behloul, Wenjuan Wei, Sarra Baha, Zhenzhen Liu, Jiyue Wen, Jihong Meng
BACKGROUND: Viral protein expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a powerful tool for structural/functional studies as well as for vaccine and diagnostics development. However, numerous factors such as codon bias, mRNA secondary structure and nucleotides distribution, have been indentified to hamper this heterologous expression. RESULTS: In this study, we combined computational and biochemical methods to analyze the influence of these factors on the expression of different segments of hepatitis E virus (HEV) ORF 2 protein and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)...
November 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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