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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212569/mir-124-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-sphingosine-kinase-1-and-its-downstream-signaling-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Yuan Zhao, Zhiqiang Ling, Yubin Hao, Xiaowu Pang, Xianlin Han, Joseph A Califano, Liang Shan, Xinbin Gu
By analyzing the expression profile of microRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), we found that the expression level of miR-124 was 4.59-fold lower in tumors than in normal tissues. To understand its functions, we generated a miR-124-expressing subline (JHU-22miR124) and a mock vector-transfected subline (JHU-22vec) by transfecting the mimic of miR-124 into JHU-22 cancer cells. Restored expression of miR-124 in JHU-22miR124 cells led to reduced cell proliferation, delayed colony formation, and decreased tumor growth, indicating a tumor-suppressive effect of miR-124...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212548/branched-chain-amino-acids-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-and-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-mouse-model
#2
Kai Takegoshi, Masao Honda, Hikari Okada, Riuta Takabatake, Naoto Matsuzawa-Nagata, Jean S Campbell, Masashi Nishikawa, Tetsuro Shimakami, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Yoshio Sakai, Taro Yamashita, Toshinari Takamura, Takuji Tanaka, Shuichi Kaneko
Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212538/sevoflurane-preconditioning-induced-endogenous-neurogenesis-against-ischemic-brain-injury-by-promoting-microglial-activation
#3
Li Li, Hexige Saiyin, Jingmo Xie, Lixiang Ma, Lei Xue, Wei Wang, Weimin Liang, Qiong Yu
Brain ischemia causes irreversible damage to functional neurons in cases of infarct. Promoting endogenous neurogenesis to replace necrotic neurons is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemia patients. The neuroprotective role of sevoflurane preconditioning implies that it might also enhance endogenous neurogenesis and functional restoration in the infarct region. By using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, we discovered that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by sevoflurane preconditioning...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212523/redox-regulation-in-metabolic-programming-and-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Helen R Griffiths, Dan Gao, Chathyan Pararasa
Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212455/retrospective-analysis-of-dental-implants-placed-between-2012-and-2014-indications-risk-factors-and-early-survival
#5
Koenraad Grisar, Deepti Sinha, Joseph Schoenaers, Titiaan Dormaar, Constantinus Politis
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the indications for implant placement, early outcomes, and associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used. The study was composed of a group of 509 consecutive patients, which represented the total number of patients treated from 2012 to 2014 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium. The authors analyzed the indications for implant placement and the potential risk factors for early implant failure...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212454/clinical-comparison-of-screw-retained-and-screwless-morse-taper-implant-abutment-connections-one-year-postloading-results
#6
Esma Geckili, Onur Geckili, Hakan Bilhan, Omer Kutay, Tayfun Bilgin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the screwless Morse taper implant-abutment connection type, in which the retention screw is totally eliminated, in terms of stability, success, periodontal parameters, and marginal bone levels after 1 year of function by comparing it with a passive fit internal implant-abutment connection, wherein a space exists between the matching components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each edentulous subject received an implant with a screwless Morse taper connection (MT) in the left canine area of the mandible and an implant with a screw-retained implant-abutment connection (SR) in the right canine area of the mandible...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212417/splitax-a-novel-method-to-assess-the-function-of-engineered-nucleases
#7
Richard A Axton, Sharmin S Haideri, Martha Lopez-Yrigoyen, Helen A Taylor, Lesley M Forrester
Engineered nucleases have been used to generate knockout or reporter cell lines and a range of animal models for human disease. These new technologies also hold great promise for therapeutic genome editing. Current methods to evaluate the activity of these nucleases are time consuming, require extensive optimization and are hampered by readouts with low signals and high background. We have developed a simple and easy to perform method (SplitAx) that largely addresses these issues and provides a readout of nuclease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#8
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212295/short-chain-chitin-oligomers-promoters-of-plant-growth
#9
Alexander J Winkler, Jose Alfonso Dominguez-Nuñez, Inmaculada Aranaz, César Poza-Carrión, Katrina Ramonell, Shauna Somerville, Marta Berrocal-Lobo
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose, and it forms an integral part of insect exoskeletons, crustacean shells, krill and the cell walls of fungal spores, where it is present as a high-molecular-weight molecule. In this study, we showed that a chitin oligosaccharide of lower molecular weight (tetramer) induced genes in Arabidopsis that are principally related to vegetative growth, development and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Based on plant responses to this chitin tetramer, a low-molecular-weight chitin mix (CHL) enriched to 92% with dimers (2mer), trimers (3mer) and tetramers (4mer) was produced for potential use in biotechnological processes...
February 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212273/oxidative-stress-in-copd-sources-markers-and-potential-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Adam John Anthony McGuinness, Elizabeth Sapey
Markers of oxidative stress are increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are able to alter biological molecules, signaling pathways and antioxidant molecule function, many of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. However, the involvement of ROS in the development and progression of COPD is not proven. Here, we discuss the sources of ROS, and the defences that have evolved to protect against their harmful effects. We address the role that ROS may have in the development and progression of COPD, as well as current therapeutic attempts at limiting the damage they cause...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212163/multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-children-mechanically-ventilated-for-acute-respiratory-failure
#11
Scott L Weiss, Lisa A Asaro, Heidi R Flori, Geoffrey L Allen, David Wypij, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: The impact of extrapulmonary organ dysfunction, independent from sepsis and lung injury severity, on outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory failure is unclear. We sought to determine the frequency, timing, and risk factors for extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and the independent association of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory failure. DESIGN: Secondary observational analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure cluster-randomized prospective clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212077/robust-guided-image-filtering-using-nonconvex-potentials
#12
Bumsub Ham, Minsu Cho, Jean Ponce
Filtering images using a guidance signal, a process called guided or joint image filtering, has been used in various tasks in computer vision and computational photography, particularly for noise reduction and joint upsampling. This uses an additional guidance signal as a structure prior, and transfers the structure of the guidance signal to an input image, restoring noisy or altered image structure. The main drawbacks of such a data-dependent framework are that it does not consider structural differences between guidance and input images, and that it is not robust to outliers...
February 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211810/therapeutics-of-neurotransmitters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Ramesh Kandimalla, P Hemachandra Reddy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the loss of memory, multiple cognitive impairments and changes in the personality and behavior. Several decades of intense research have revealed that multiple cellular changes are involved in disease process, including synaptic damage, mitochondrial abnormalities and inflammatory responses, in addition to formation and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau. Although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the impact of neurotransmitters in the progression and pathogenesis of AD, we still do not have a drug molecule associated with neurotransmitter(s) that can delay disease process in elderly individuals and/or restore cognitive functions in AD patients...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211784/generic-antiretrovirals-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-a-novel-challenge-for-western-countries-%C3%A2
#14
Dario Cattaneo, Massimo Andreoni, Gianpiero Carosi, Roberto Cauda, Adriano Lazzarin, Giuliano Rizzardini
The introduction of generic antiretroviral medications in developing countries has resulted in significant CD4 cell restoration, HIV viral decline, and a noteworthy reduction in the time to initiation of therapy. Projection models have also predicted significant cost saving associated with the extensive diffusion of generic antiretrovirals in developed countries. However, some uncertainties on generics have recently been raised. These concerns mainly relate to the adequacy of the study design for bioequivalence testing, the potential for uncontrolled switching from one generic to another, and the loss of adherence if patients switched from fixed-dose coformulations to single components in order to incorporate the new generic drugs...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211744/rescuing-a-quantum-phase-transition-with-quantum-noise
#15
Gu Zhang, E Novais, Harold U Baranger
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroy quantum effects, as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment, the source of quantum noise. While the charge transport inhibits a quantum phase transition, the quantum noise reduces charge transport and restores the transition. We find a non-Fermi-liquid intermediate fixed point for all strengths of the noise...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211534/in-vitro-differentiation-of-fertile-sperm-from-cryopreserved-spermatogonia-of-the-endangered-endemic-cyprinid-honmoroko-gnathopogon-caerulescens
#16
Shogo Higaki, Manami Shimada, Kazuaki Kawamoto, Takaaki Todo, Toshihiro Kawasaki, Ikuo Tooyama, Yasuhiro Fujioka, Noriyoshi Sakai, Tatsuyuki Takada
Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211492/the-propensity-of-the-bacterial-rodlin-protein-rdlb-to-form-amyloid-fibrils-determines-its-function-in-streptomyces-coelicolor
#17
Wen Yang, Joost Willemse, Elizabeth B Sawyer, Fei Lou, Weibin Gong, Hong Zhang, Sally L Gras, Dennis Claessen, Sarah Perrett
Streptomyces bacteria form reproductive aerial hyphae that are covered with a pattern of pairwise aligned fibrils called rodlets. The presence of the rodlet layer requires two homologous rodlin proteins, RdlA and RdlB, and the functional amyloid chaplin proteins, ChpA-H. In contrast to the redundancy shared among the eight chaplins, both RdlA and RdlB are indispensable for the establishment of this rodlet structure. By using a comprehensive biophysical approach combined with in vivo characterization we found that RdlB, but not RdlA, readily assembles into amyloid fibrils...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211304/granisetron-and-carvedilol-can-protect-experimental-rats-againstadjuvant-induced-arthritis
#18
Yasmin Moustafa Ahmed, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Ali Ahmed Abo-Saif
CONTEXT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disabling autoimmune disorder of the joints as well as other organs, affects about 1% of population. Unfortunately, all current treatments of RA cause severe gastrointestinal, renal and other complications. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the possible antiarthritic effects of a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker, granisetron, and a nonselective adrenergic receptor blocker, carvedilol, on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced RA in adult female albino rats...
April 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211287/efficacy-analysis-of-a-novel-sternoclavicular-hook-plate-for-treatment-of-unstable-sternoclavicular-joint-dislocation-or-fracture
#19
Chuanyi Zhang, Lie Lin, Junbo Liang, Bin Wang, Guofu Chen, Haixiao Chen
PURPOSE: Sternoclavicular joint is an amphiarthrodial joint formed by the clavicle and sternal manubrium. This joint becomes chronically unstable in case of a medial clavicle dislocation or fracture, and improper treatment could cause malformation and pain. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a novel sternoclavicular hook plate for treatment of unstable sternoclavicular joint dislocation or fracture. METHODS: Between June 2011 and December 2013, the sternoclavicular hook plate was used to surgically treat 32 adult patients with unstable sternoclavicular joint dislocation or fracture...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211151/phenotypic-distribution-models-corroborate-species-distribution-models-a-shift-in-the-role-and-prevalence-of-a-dominant-prairie-grass-in-response-to-climate-change
#20
Adam B Smith, Jacob Alsdurf, Mary Knapp, Sara G Baer, Loretta C Johnson
Phenotypic variation within species can vary widely across environmental gradients but forecasts of species' responses to environmental change often assume species respond homogenously across their ranges. We compared predictions from species and phenotype distribution models under future climate scenarios for Andropogon gerardii, a widely distributed, dominant grass found throughout the central United States. Phenotype data on aboveground biomass, height, leaf width, and chlorophyll content were obtained from 33 populations spanning a ~1000-km gradient that encompassed the majority of the species' environmental range...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
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