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Alkaline water

Weiwei Cai, Yu Liu
Although on-line chemical cleaning has been extensively employed for maintaining the MBR permeability, little attention has been given to the negative impacts of such prevalent membrane cleaning practice. This study thus comparatively investigated the potential release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from activated sludge upon the exposure to different kinds of frequently-used cleaning reagents, i.e. NaClO, H2O2, HCl and NaOH. It was found that NaClO at 50 and 80 mg L(-1) triggered significant release of DOM, while NaOH strongly promoted soluble nitrogen release...
November 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Qingxi Yang, Guangdong Ji, Rongtao Pan, Yinghui Zhao, Peng Yan
The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on the liver function of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy. A controlled, randomized, single-blind clinical trial was designed. A total of 152 patients with CRC were recruited by the Department of Oncology of Taishan Hospital (Taian, China) between June 2010 and February 2016, among whom 146 met the inclusion criteria. Subsequently, 144 patients were randomized into the treatment (n=80) and placebo (n=64) groups...
November 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Nguyễn Hoàng Ly, Thanh Danh Nguyen, Kyung-Duk Zoh, Sang-Woo Joo
A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection method for environmental copper ions (Cu(2+)) was developed according to the vibrational spectral change of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra indicated that DDTC formed a complex with Cu(2+), showing a prominent peak at ~450 nm. We found Raman spectral changes in DDTC from ~1490 cm(-1) to ~1504 cm(-1) on AuNPs at a high concentration of Cu(2+) above 1 μM. The other ions of Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), NH₄⁺, Mn(2+), Mg(2+), K⁺, Hg(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), and Ca(2+) did not produce such spectral changes, even after they reacted with DDTC...
November 15, 2017: Sensors
Hendrik Reuter, Julia Gensel, Marcus Elvert, Dominik Zak
A novel approach for the analysis of dissolved lignin in freshwaters is presented. Lignin concentrations in natural waters are low and a lignin extraction is usually required to obtain sufficient sample for analysis. In this method, extraction and dry down of the dissolved lignin are omitted and alkaline CuO oxidation is directly performed using 15 mL water sample in a microwave digestion system, thus reducing the required amount of sample and its preparation time considerably. Low procedural blank values are obtained by solid phase extraction (SPE) of the oxidized lignin phenols on HLB sorbents...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tao Ling, Dong-Yang Yan, Hui Wang, Yan Jiao, Zhenpeng Hu, Yao Zheng, Lirong Zheng, Jing Mao, Hui Liu, Xi-Wen Du, Mietek Jaroniec, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Designing high-performance and cost-effective electrocatalysts toward oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions in water-alkali electrolyzers is pivotal for large-scale and sustainable hydrogen production. Earth-abundant transition metal oxide-based catalysts are particularly active for oxygen evolution reaction; however, they are generally considered inactive toward hydrogen evolution reaction. Here, we show that strain engineering of the outermost surface of cobalt(II) oxide nanorods can turn them into efficient electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Gregory A Newby, Susan Lindquist
To thrive in an ever-changing environment, microbes must widely distribute their progeny to colonize new territory. Simultaneously, they must evolve and adapt to the stresses of unpredictable surroundings. In both of these regards, diversity is key-if an entire population moved together or responded to the environment in the same way, it could easily go extinct. Here, we show that the epigenetic prion switch [SWI+] establishes a specialized subpopulation with a "pioneer" phenotypic program in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
Bernadette C Proemse, Rolan S Eberhard, Chris Sharples, John P Bowman, Karen Richards, Michael Comfort, Leon A Barmuta
Stromatolites are the oldest evidence for life on Earth, but modern living examples are rare and predominantly occur in shallow marine or (hyper-) saline lacustrine environments, subject to exotic physico-chemical conditions. Here we report the discovery of living freshwater stromatolites in cool-temperate karstic wetlands in the Giblin River catchment of the UNESCO-listed Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Australia. These stromatolites colonize the slopes of karstic spring mounds which create mildly alkaline (pH of 7...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohammed Harir, Bellahcene Miloud, Maria Camilla Baratto, Simona Pollini, Gian Maria Rossolini, Lorenza Trabalzini, Enrico Fatarella, Rebecca Pogni
In the present study different actinomycete strains were collected and isolated from algerian Sahara soil with the aim to select novel enzymes with promising features for biotechnological applications. The Ms1 strain was selected, amongst the others, for its capability to produce melanin in different solid media. Ms1 chromosomal DNA was sequenced and the strain assigned to Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus sp. A tyrosinase (MW∼30kD) encoding sequence was identified and the corresponding enzyme was isolated and biochemically characterized...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Harmen Reyngoudt, Suna Turk, Pierre G Carlier
In recent years, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (NMRI and NMRS) have been used more systematically as outcome measures in natural history and clinical trial studies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Whereas most of these studies have emphasized the evaluation of the fat fraction as an assessment for disease severity, less focus has been placed on metabolic indices measured by NMRS. (31) P NMRS in DMD reveals an alkaline inorganic phosphate (Pi ) pool, originating from either leaky dystrophic myocytes or an increased interstitial space...
November 12, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
Zhiyuan Zheng, Ming Zhang, Yuancan Xiao, Lixin Wei, Cen Li
Zuotai, also named as "gTso thal", a known Tibetan medicinal mixture containing insoluble cubic crystal mercuric sulfide (β-HgS), has been used to treat diseases with long history. The mercury release ratio from Zuotai in gastrointestinal environment is one determinant factor for its bioavailability and biological effect. However, the information is still scarce now. Therefore, the study was designed to investigate the effect of sulfhydryl biomolecules [L-cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH)] and pH on mercury dissociation from Zuotai, β-HgS, and hexagonal crystal mercuric sulfide (α-HgS) in artificial gastrointestinal juices or pure water with a 1:100 solid-liquid ratio...
November 12, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Arunodaya Gautam, Abhishek Ray, Soumalya Mukherjee, Santanu Das, Kunal Pal, Subhadeep Das, Parimal Karmakar, Mitali Ray, Sajal Ray
Copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate are established contaminants of water and soil. Metaphire posthuma is a common variety of earthworm distributed in moist soil of Indian subcontinent. Comparative toxicity of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate were investigated with reference to selected immune associated parameters of earthworm. Total count, phagocytic response, generation of cytotoxic molecules (superoxide anion, nitric oxide), activities of enzymes like phenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and total protein of coelomocytes were estimated under the exposures of 100, 500, 1000mg of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate per kg of soil for 7 and 14 d...
November 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Thomas Riedel, Christine Kübeck
Most of the knowledge on the occurrence of Uranium (U) in groundwater comes from in-situ manipulation experiments in the field, computational modelling studies or from laboratory analyses where individual processes of U mobilization were studied in isolation. Because of Uranium's vital redox chemistry it interacts, often simultaneously, with many other element cycles (e.g., sulfur, carbon, iron, and manganese) making it difficult to predict U concentrations in natural environments. For the present study a large data set was analyzed to predict the occurrence of U in groundwater from basic hydrochemistry...
November 2, 2017: Water Research
Yuhang Wang, Gangyao Wen, Stergios Pispas, Shicheng Yang, Kun You
Aggregation behavior of an amphiphilic diblock polyelectrolyte poly(n-butylacrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PnBA-b-PAA) at the air/water interface and morphologies of its LB films were characterized by the Langmuir monolayer technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Effects of subphase pH, temperature and ionic strength on the isotherms and hysteresis curves of the PnBA-b-PAA monolayers and the morphologies of its LB films were systematically studied. With the increase of subphase pH, the isotherms shift negatively and the quasi-plateaus disappear under neutral and alkaline conditions...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Valerii P Tarasov, Gayana А Kirakosyan, Konstantin E German
(99) Tc NMR has been suggested as an original method of evaluating the content of oxygen isotopes in oxygen-18 enriched water, a precursor for the production of radioisotope fluorine-18 used in positron emission tomography. To this end, solutions of NH4 TcO4 or NaTcO4 (up to 0.28 mol/L) with natural abundance of oxygen isotopes in virgin or recycled (18) O-enriched water have been studied by (99) Tc NMR. The method is based on (16) O/(17) O/(18) O intrinsic isotope effects in the (99) Tc NMR chemical shifts and the statistical distribution of oxygen isotopes in the coordination sphere of TcO4(-) and makes it possible to quantify the composition of enriched water by measuring the relative intensities of the (99) Tc NMR signals of the Tc(16) O4 - n(18) On(-) isotopologues...
November 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Ling Yang, Guofeng Zhu, Peiji Shi, Jiafang Li, Yuanfeng Liu, Huali Tong, Pengfei Hu, Feng Liang, Hanxiong Pan, Huiwen Guo, Yu Zhang
Inland rivers play a key role in supplying water for domestic and agricultural purposes in Asian arid inland basin. This paper investigates the chemical composition of precipitation, river water, and groundwater, providing evidence for the influencing factors the water composition in the Shiyang River Basin. Water samples were collected and analyzed to determine the content of major cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), and NH+ 4) and anions (HCO- 3, Cl(-), NO- 3, NO- 2, F(-), and SO2-4), total solid solubility, and pH values...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chunxi Zhao, Yang Jiao, Jianhao Hua, Jian Yang, Yaling Yang
Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) were synthesized though a facile, economical and straightforward hydrothermal method by using polyacrylamide as both carbon and nitrogen sources. The as-prepared N-CQDs offered high quantum yield of 23.1%, exhibited good water solubility and fluorescence properties. Moreover, the N-CQDs can be used as effective probes for sensitive and selective detection of dopamine. Fluorescence of N-CQDs was effectively quenched after the addition of dopamine owing to dopamine would be transformed into dopamine-quinone under alkaline conditions...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
Chunhua Cui, Marc Heggen, Wolf-Dietrich Zabka, Wei Cui, Jürg Osterwalder, Benjamin Probst, Roger Alberto
Atomically dispersed supported catalysts can maximize atom efficiency and minimize cost. In spite of much progress in gas-phase catalysis, applying such catalysts in the field of renewable energy coupled with electrochemistry remains a challenge due to their limited durability in electrolyte. Here, we report a robust and atomically dispersed hybrid catalyst formed in situ on a hematite semiconductor support during photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution by electrostatic adsorption of soluble monomeric [Ir(OH)6](2-) coupled to positively charged NiOx sites...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
Ling Zhang, Ibrahim Saana Amiinu, Xiang Ren, Zhiang Liu, Gu Du, Abdullah M Asiri, Baozhan Zheng, Xuping Sun
Interface engineering has been demonstrated to be effective in promoting hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in an alkaline solution. Herein, we report that the HER activity of a NiS2 nanoarray on a titanium mesh (NiS2/TM) in alkaline media is greatly boosted by the electrodeposition of Ni(OH)2 onto NiS2 [Ni(OH)2-NiS2/TM]. Ni(OH)2-NiS2/TM only needs an overpotential of 90 mV to deliver 10 mA cm(-2) in 1.0 M KOH. Density functional theory calculations confirm that Ni(OH)2-NiS2 has a lower water dissociation free energy and a more optimal hydrogen adsorption free energy than NiS2...
November 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Xin Bo, Yibing Li, Rosalie K Hocking, Chuan Zhao
By introducing chromium into a nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (LDH), a nickel iron chromium hydroxide nanomesh catalyst has been achieved on nickel foam substrate via electrodeposition followed by partially etching of chromium. The electrodeposited chromium acts as sacrificial template to introduce holes in the LDH to increase the electrochemically active surface area and the remaining chromium synergistically modulates the electronic structure of the composite. The obtained electrode shows extraordinary performance for oxygen evolution reaction and excellent electrochemical stability...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Martin G J Löder, Hannes Klaus Imhof, Maike Ladehoff, Lena A Löschel, Claudia Lorenz, Svenja Mintenig, Sarah Piehl, Sebastian Primpke, Isabella Schrank, Christian Laforsch, Gunnar Gerdts
Micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy enable the reliable identification and quantification of microplastics (MPs) in the lower micron range. Since concentrations of MPs in the environment are usually low, the large sample volumes required for these techniques lead to an excess of co-enriched organic or inorganic materials. While inorganic materials can be separated from MPs using density separation, the organic fraction impedes the ability to conduct reliable analyses...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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