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Alkaline water

Laith Furatian, Madjid Mohseni
The 185 nm wavelength radiation generated by the conventional low pressure mercury lamp forms the basis of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) that does not require chemical addition. The photolysis of water by 185 nm photons generates the hydroxyl radical (OH) used to degrade trace organic contaminants. While AOPs in general suffer decreased efficiency in direct proportion to the concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and alkalinity (HCO3 - /CO3 2- ), acting as OH scavengers, such solutes impose an additional parasitic effect on the 185 nm AOP as absorbers of photons...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Bert Marc Weckhuysen, Ronald Jong, Guido Mul, Jochem Wijten
Photocathodes for hydrogen evolution from water were made by electro-deposition of Ni-Mo layers on NiFe2O4 substrates, deposited by spin coating on F:SnO2-glass. SEM-EDX and XRD analysis confirmed the formation of two separate layers, without significant reduction of NiFe2O4. Bare NiFe2O4 was found unstable under alkaline conditions during (photo)-electrochemistry. To improve the stability significantly the deposition of a bifunctional Ni-Mo layer through a facile electrodeposition process was performed, and the composite electrodes show stable operation for at least 1 h...
March 12, 2018: ChemSusChem
Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Cèlia Marrasé, Ana Muñoz-Fernández, M Montserrat Sala, Rafel Simó, Josep M Gasol
Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs) are a subclass of organic particles with high impact in biogeochemical and ecological processes, such as the biological carbon pump, air-sea interactions, or the microbial loop. However, the complexity in production and consumption makes TEP dynamics hardly predictable, calling for the need of descriptive studies about the in situ dynamics of these particles. We followed monthly TEP dynamics and combined them with a dataset of environmental variables during three years in a coastal site of the oligotrophic North Western Mediterranean (Blanes Bay)...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yingzhi Gu, Yuxing Bai, Dongliang Zhang
The aim of the present study was to construct and compare gelatin-HA-TCP scaffolds with a gelatin-only scaffold and to investigate the effect of the scaffold on osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. We developed a novel scaffold for bone tissue engineering via a solution casting/particle washing method, and the physical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were examined using scanning electron microscopy and a universal testing machine, respectively. Scaffold cytotoxicity toward hDPSCs was evaluated with the CCK8 method, and hDPSC differentiation was evaluated with an alkaline phosphatase activity assay, alizarin red S staining, and real-time PCR...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Ziling Peng, Chunmei Xiong, Wei Wang, Fatang Tan, Xinyun Wang, Xueliang Qiao, Po Keung Wong
Usually, nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) cannot float on water because of high density and hydrophilic surface. Herein, alkyltrimethoxysilanes with different carbon chain lengths (C1, C8 and C16) were used as "water-repellent legs" to graft onto NZVI, enduing NZVI with hydrophobic and floatable characteristics like a water strider. The hydrophobic performance of as-modified NZVI materials was found to be better when NZVI was modified by alkyltrimethoxysilane with longer carbon chain, and a large contact angle of 151...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Saurabh Dhanda, Smriti Gupta, Avishek Halder, Aditya Sunkaria, Rajat Sandhir
Chronic liver disease per se induces neuroinflammation that contributes to cognitive deficits in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the processes by which pro-inflammatory molecules result in cognitive impairment still remain unclear. In the present study, a significant increase in the activity of liver function enzymes viz. alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed along with increase in plasma ammonia levels after four weeks of bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats suggesting hepatocellular damage...
March 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
L Asoka Panamgama, P R U S K Peramune
The structural and thermal features of coconut coir pith lignin, isolated by three different extraction protocols incorporating two different energy supply sources, were characterized by different analytical tools. The three different chemical extraction protocols were alkaline - 7.5% (w/v) NaOH, organosolv - 85% (v/v) formic and acetic acids at 7:3 (v/v) ratio and polyethylene glycol (PEG): water ratio at 80:20 wt%. The two sources of energy were thermal or microwave. Raw lignins were modified by epichlorohydrin to enhance reactivity, and the characteristics of raw and modified lignins were comparatively analysed...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Weiwei Zhang, Adri C T van Duin
The ReaxFF protein reactive force field (protein-2013) has been successfully employed to simulate the biomolecules and membrane fuel cells, but it inaccurately describes the weak interaction of functionalized hydrocarbon/water molecules in condensed phase, especially for the density. In this article, the development of a ReaxFF force field (CHON-2017_weak) on the basis of protein-2013 is presented that improves the weak interaction description between carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. To examine the quality of the force field, we performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations with model systems...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Fei-Long Li, Ying Shi, Jiu-Xun Zhang, Jian Gao, Ye-Wang Zhang
A novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (SmNox) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1374 bp, capable of encoding a polypeptide of 457 amino acid residues. The molecular mass of the purified SmNox was estimated to be ∼49.9 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified SmNox had the highest specific activity of 281.2 U·mg-1 at optimal pH and temperature of 7...
March 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chris Steffi, Dong Wang, Chee Hoe Kong, Zuyong Wang, Poon Nian Lim, Zhilong Shi, Eng San Thian, Wilson Wang
Estrogen, a steroid hormone, plays an important role in modulating osteoclast proliferation and development. Estrogen deficiency boosts osteoclast activity, leading to osteoporosis in elderly women. In this study, 17-ß estradiol (E2) loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/silk fibroin (SF) electrospun microfibers was developed as a proposed localized E2 delivery system to treat osteoporotic fractures. PCL is a synthetic polymer known for its biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties. The bioactivity of PCL was enhanced by mixing it with natural silk fibroin (SF) polymer that has low immunogenicity and inherent bioactivity...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dino Klotz, Daniel A Grave, Hen Dotan, Avner Rothschild
Photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS) is a useful tool for the characterization of photoelectrodes for solar water splitting. However, the analysis of PEIS spectra often involves a priori assumptions that might bias the results. This work puts forward an empirical method that analyzes the distribution of relaxation times (DRT), obtained directly from the measured PEIS spectra of a model hematite photoanode. By following how the DRT evolves as a function of control parameters such as the applied potential and composition of the electrolyte solution, we obtain unbiased insights into the underlying mechanisms that shape the photocurrent...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Zhenming Cao, Huiqi Li, Chenyang Zhan, Jiawei Zhang, Wei Wang, Binbin Xu, Fa Lu, Yaqi Jiang, Zhaoxiong Xie, Lansun Zheng
Single crystalline noble metal nanocages are the most promising candidates for heterogeneous catalysis due to their large specific surface area, well-defined structure and enhanced structural stability. Herein, based on the observation of an unexpected phenomenon that the alloying of Pt and transition metals by co-reduction is more preferential than the formation of pure Pt NCs, we propose a feasible one-pot strategy to synthesize a uniformly epitaxial core-shell Pt-Ni structure with a Ni-rich alloy as the core and a Pt-rich alloy as the shell...
March 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Patricia Rojas, Nuria Rodriguez, Vicenta de la Fuente, Daniel Sánchez-Mata, Ricardo Amils, Jose Luis Sanz Martin
Soda lakes are inhabited by important haloalkaliphilic microbial communities that are well adapted to these extreme characteristics. The surface waters of the haloalkaline Mono Lake (CA, USA) are alkaline but, in contrast to its bottom waters, do not present high salinity. We have studied the microbiota present in the shoreline sediments of Mono Lake using next-generation sequencing techniques. The statistical indexes showed that Bacteria had a higher richness, diversity and evenness compared to Archaea. 17 phyla and 8 "candidate divisions", were identified among the Bacteria, with a predominance of the phyla <i>Firmicutes</i>, <i>Proteobacteria </i>and <i>Bacteroidetes</i>...
March 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Elyssa G Fawaz, Darine A Salam, Lina Kamareddine
Studies of metal toxicity to microalgae have predominantly been conducted using single non-target algae species and without due regard for the chemistry of the treated waters, leading to ineffective or excessive algaecide treatments. In this study, indigenous multi-algal species (Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Scenedesmus subspicatus and Oscillatoria agardhii) were used in laboratory toxicity bioassays under simulated field water chemistry (pH = 7.2, hardness = 196 mg L-1 as CaCO3 , and alkalinity = 222 mg L-1 as CaCO3 ) to determine the optimum copper sulfate treatment dose to control algae growth in an irrigation canal...
March 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nisbah Mushtaq, Ayesha Younas, Azhar Mashiatullah, Tariq Javed, Arslan Ahmad, Abida Farooqi
Geochemical investigation was carried out for delineating factors responsible for the mobilization of arsenic (As) from aquifer material into the groundwater. Four sites along Ravi River, (Samada, Sarai Chimba, Kot Maiga and Chah Fatehwala), were selected based on the blanket survey. Groundwater-rock interaction and evaporation were the key phenomena controlling groundwater chemistry, as shown by the hydrogeochemical data. Groundwater was predominantly Na-Cl type, with other principle facies being Na-HCO3 , Na-Ca-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Alexandra Whicher, Eloi Camprubi, Silvana Pinna, Barry Herschy, Nick Lane
Metabolism is primed through the formation of thioesters via acetyl CoA and the phosphorylation of substrates by ATP. Prebiotic equivalents such as methyl thioacetate and acetyl phosphate have been proposed to catalyse analogous reactions at the origin of life, but their propensity to hydrolyse challenges this view. Here we show that acetyl phosphate (AcP) can be synthesised in water within minutes from thioacetate (but not methyl thioacetate) under ambient conditions. AcP is stable over hours, depending on temperature, pH and cation content, giving it an ideal poise between stability and reactivity...
March 3, 2018: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Jiao Zhang, Mark W Bligh, Peng Liang, T David Waite, Xia Huang
The application of in situ electrochemical generation of ferrous (Fe(II)) ions for phosphorus (P) removal in wastewater treatment was investigated with attention to the efficacy, kinetics and mechanism. At concentrations typical of municipal wastewater, P could be removed by in situ Fe(II) with removal efficiency higher than achieved on addition of FeSO4 and close to that of FeCl3 under both anoxic and oxic conditions. The generation of alkalinity due to water electrolysis at the cathode created much higher pH conditions compared to FeSO4 dosing thereby resulting in very different pathways of Fe solid phase formation and associated P removal mechanisms...
February 28, 2018: Water Research
M Hermassi, J Dosta, C Valderrama, E Licon, N Moreno, X Querol, N H Batis, J L Cortina
The use of low-cost inorganic sorbents as a new sustainable strategy to enhance the valorization of nutrients (N-P-K), from the urban water cycle (e.g., side streams from sewage sludge anaerobic digestion), in agriculture applications is presented. The simultaneous recovery and stabilization of ammonium and phosphate by using a mixture of two reactive sorbents (Na and K zeolites and magnesium oxide) was evaluated. The nutrients stabilization process, favoured at alkaline pH values, is carried out by a) the precipitation of phosphate ions with magnesium and/or ammonium ions and b) the sorption of ammonium by Na- and K-zeolites...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sengeni Anantharaj, Kannimuthu Karthick, Subrata Kundu
Better hydrogen generation with nonprecious electrocatalysts over Pt is highly anticipated in water splitting. Such an outperforming nonprecious electrocatalyst, nickel telluride (NiTe2 ), has been fabricated on Ni foam for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution in extreme pH conditions, viz., 0 and 14. The morphological outcome of the fabricated NiTe2 was directed by the choice of the Te precursor. Nanoflakes (NFs) were obtained when NaHTe was used, and nanowires (NWs) were obtained when Te metal powder with hydrazine hydrate was used...
March 2, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Merve Ozkaleli, Ayca Erdem
TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs), which are mainly used in consumer products (mostly cosmetics), have been found to cause ecotoxic effects in the aquatic environment. The green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata , as a representative of primary producers of the freshwater ecosystem, has been frequently used to study the effects of metal oxide NPs. An ecotoxicity study was conducted herein to investigate the effects of TiO₂ NPs on survival and membrane deformation of algal cells. Five different concentrations of nano-TiO₂ particles (1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/L) were prepared in synthetic surface water samples with five different water quality characteristics (pH 6...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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