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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104342/effects-of-waste-water-irrigation-on-soil-properties-and-soil-fauna-of-spinach-fields-in-a-west-african-urban-vegetable-production-system
#1
Kathrin Stenchly, Juliane Dao, Désiré Jean-Pascal Lompo, Andreas Buerkert
The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103106/low-temperature-alkaline-ph-hydrolysis-of-oxygen-free-titan-tholins-carbonates-impact
#2
Coralie Brassé, Arnaud Buch, Patrice Coll, François Raulin
Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is one of the key planetary objects in the field of exobiology. Its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere is the site of important organic chemistry. This paper focuses on the organic aerosols produced in Titan's atmosphere that play an important role in atmospheric and surface processes and in organic chemistry as it applies to exobiological interests. To produce reliable laboratory analogues of these aerosols, we developed, tested, and optimized a device for the synthesis of clean tholins...
January 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102938/low-energy-catalytic-electrolysis-for-simultaneously-hydrogen-evolution-and-lignin-depolymerization
#3
Xu Du, Wei Liu, Zhe Zhang, Arie Mulyadi, Alex Brittain, Jian Gong, Yulin Deng
Hereby we present a novel proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis process in which lignin was used as the hydrogen source at anode for hydrogen production. Either polyoxometalate (POM) or FeCl3 was used as the catalysts and charge transfer agents in anode. Over 90% Faraday efficiency was achieved. In a thermal insulation reactor, the heat energy can be maintained at a very low stage for continuous operation. Compared to the best alkaline water electrolysis reported in literature, the electrical energy consumption could be 40% lower with novel lignin electrolysis method...
January 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102612/nickel-nanoparticles-encapsulated-in-few-layer-nitrogen-doped-graphene-derived-from-metal-organic-frameworks-as-efficient-bifunctional-electrocatalysts-for-overall-water-splitting
#4
You Xu, Wenguang Tu, Bowei Zhang, Shengming Yin, Yizhong Huang, Markus Kraft, Rong Xu
Nickel nanoparticles encapsulated in few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene (Ni@NC) have been synthesized by using a Ni-based metal-organic framework as the precursor for high-temperature annealing treatment. The resulting Ni@NC materials exhibit highly efficient and ultrastable electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction as well as overall water splitting in alkaline environment.
January 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102364/indefinitely-stable-iron-iv-cage-complexes-formed-in-water-by-air-oxidation
#5
Stefania Tomyn, Sergii I Shylin, Dmytro Bykov, Vadim Ksenofontov, Elzbieta Gumienna-Kontecka, Volodymyr Bon, Igor O Fritsky
In nature, iron, the fourth most abundant element of the Earth's crust, occurs in its stable forms either as the native metal or in its compounds in the +2 or +3 (low-valent) oxidation states. High-valent iron (+4, +5, +6) compounds are not formed spontaneously at ambient conditions, and the ones obtained synthetically appear to be unstable in polar organic solvents, especially aqueous solutions, and this is what limits their studies and use. Here we describe unprecedented iron(IV) hexahydrazide clathrochelate complexes that are assembled in alkaline aqueous media from iron(III) salts, oxalodihydrazide and formaldehyde in the course of a metal-templated reaction accompanied by air oxidation...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099508/effects-of-soil-salinity-on-the-expression-of-bt-toxin-cry1ac-and-the-control-efficiency-of-helicoverpa-armigera-in-field-grown-transgenic-bt-cotton
#6
Jun-Yu Luo, Shuai Zhang, Jun Peng, Xiang-Zhen Zhu, Li-Min Lv, Chun-Yi Wang, Chun-Hua Li, Zhi-Guo Zhou, Jin-Jie Cui
An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW) Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in the field, is poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097816/effect-of-temperature-and-colonization-of-legionella-pneumophila-and-vermamoeba-vermiformis-on-bacterial-community-composition-of-copper-drinking-water-biofilms
#7
Helen Y Buse, Pan Ji, Vicente Gomez-Alvarez, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards, Nicholas J Ashbolt
It is unclear how the water-based pathogen, Legionella pneumophila (Lp), and associated free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts change or are changed by the microbial composition of drinking water (DW) biofilm communities. Thus, this study characterized the bacterial community structure over a 7-month period within mature (> 600-day-old) copper DW biofilms in reactors simulating premise plumbing and assessed the impact of temperature and introduction of Lp and its FLA host, Vermamoeba vermiformis (Vv), co-cultures (LpVv)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095711/systemic-alkalinisation-delays-prostate-cancer-cell-progression-in-tramp-mice
#8
Simonetta Astigiano, Andrea Puglisi, Luca Mastracci, Stefano Fais, Ottavia Barbieri
The microenvironment of solid tumours is extremely acidic and this condition arises since the precancerous stage. This acidic milieu could therefore provide a useful target for both prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. In TRAMP transgenic mice, an in vivo model of prostate adenocarcinoma (AC), oral administration of alkaline water was devoid of unwanted side effects, and when started from an early age was as effective as NaHCO3 in significantly delaying tumour progression, while when started when prostate tumours were already present, a nonstatistically significant trend in the same direction was detected...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091885/assessing-the-impact-of-preload-on-pyrite-rich-sediment-and-groundwater-quality
#9
Ohene Karikari-Yeboah, Jonas Addai-Mensah
Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088165/genomic-characterization-of-ensifer-aridi-a-proposed-new-species-of-nitrogen-fixing-rhizobium-recovered-from-asian-african-and-american-deserts
#10
Antoine Le Quéré, Nisha Tak, Hukam Singh Gehlot, Celine Lavire, Thibault Meyer, David Chapulliot, Sonam Rathi, Ilham Sakrouhi, Guadalupe Rocha, Marine Rohmer, Dany Severac, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Jose-Antonio Munive
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from hot arid areas in Asia, Africa and America but from diverse leguminous plants have been recently identified as belonging to a possible new species of Ensifer (Sinorhizobium). In this study, 6 strains belonging to this new clade were compared with Ensifer species at the genome-wide level. Their capacities to utilize various carbon sources and to establish a symbiotic interaction with several leguminous plants were examined. RESULTS: Draft genomes of selected strains isolated from Morocco (Merzouga desert), Mexico (Baja California) as well as from India (Thar desert) were produced...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075118/uranyl-peroxide-cage-cluster-solubility-in-water-and-the-role-of-the-electrical-double-layer
#11
Kathryn M Peruski, Varinia Bernales, Mateusz Dembowski, Haylie L Lobeck, Kristi L Pellegrini, Ginger E Sigmon, Sarah Hickam, Christine M Wallace, Jennifer E S Szymanowski, Enrica Balboni, Laura Gagliardi, Peter C Burns
Uranium concentrations as high as 2.94 × 10(5) parts per million (1.82 mol of U/1 kg of H2O) occur in water containing nanoscale uranyl cage clusters. The anionic cage clusters, with diameters of 1.5-2.5 nm, are charge-balanced by encapsulated cations, as well as cations within their electrical double layer in solution. The concentration of uranium in these systems is impacted by the countercations (K, Li, Na), and molecular dynamics simulations have predicted their distributions in selected cases. Formation of uranyl cages prevents hydrolysis reactions that would result in formation of insoluble uranyl solids under alkaline conditions, and these spherical clusters reach concentrations that require close packing in solution...
January 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073055/co2-emissions-from-german-drinking-water-reservoirs
#12
Helmi Saidi, Matthias Koschorreck
Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir...
January 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069495/surface-modification-of-copolymerized-films-from-three-armed-biodegradable-macromers-an-analytical-platform-for-modified-tissue-engineering-scaffolds
#13
Benno M Müller, Rudi Loth, Peter-Georg Hoffmeister, Friederike Zühl, Liv Kalbitzer, Michael C Hacker, Michaela Schulz-Siegmund
: The concept of macromers allows for a broad adjustment of biomaterial properties by macromer chemistry or copolymerization. Copolymerization strategies can also be used to introduce reactive sites for subsequent surface modification. Control over surface features enables adjustment of cellular reactions with regard to site and object of implantation. We designed macromer-derived polymer films which function as non-implantable analytical substrates for the investigation of surface properties of equally composed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068591/feasibility-of-reusing-the-black-liquor-for-enzymatic-hydrolysis-and-ethanol-fermentation
#14
Wen Wang, Xiaoyan Chen, Xuesong Tan, Qiong Wang, Yunyun Liu, Minchao He, Qiang Yu, Wei Qi, Yu Luo, Xinshu Zhuang, Zhenhong Yuan
The black liquor (BL) generated in the alkaline pretreatment process is usually thought as the environmental pollutant. This study found that the pure alkaline lignin hardly inhibited the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (EHC), which led to the investigation on the feasibility of reusing BL as the buffer via pH adjustment for the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The pH value of BL was adjusted from 13.23 to 4.80 with acetic acid, and the alkaline lignin was partially precipitated. It deposited on the surface of cellulose and negatively influenced the EHC via blocking the access of cellulase to cellulose and adsorbing cellulase...
December 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068082/gold-nanoclusters-promote-electrocatalytic-water-oxidation-at-the-nanocluster-cose2-interface
#15
Shuo Zhao, Renxi Jin, Hadi Abroshan, Chenjie Zeng, Hui Zhang, Stephen D House, Eric Gottlieb, Hyung J Kim, Judith C Yang, Rongchao Jin
Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce hydrogen comprises the hydrogen and oxygen evolution half reactions (HER and OER), with the latter as the bottleneck process. Thus, enhancing the OER performance and understanding the mechanism are critically important. Herein, we report a strategy for OER enhancement by utilizing gold nanoclusters to form cluster/CoSe2 composites; the latter exhibit largely enhanced OER activity in alkaline solutions. The Au25/CoSe2 composite affords a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at small overpotential of ~0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067640/effects-of-different-substrates-in-the-mitigation-of-algae-induced-high-ph-wastewaters-in-a-pilot-scale-free-water-surface-wetland-system
#16
Meng Jin, Pascale Champagne, Geoffrey Hall
Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), as part of municipal wastewater treatment strategies, can exhibit variability in performance due to climatic conditions. Under elevated temperature and strong solar radiation, algal blooms and subsequent high pH effluents have often been observed. In this study, four substrates (gravel, peat, organic mulch, and topsoil) were evaluated for their ability to attenuate high pH effluents from a WSP. Synthetic wastewater with pH > 9.5, and low organic and nutrient loadings, was used to mimic algal-induced high pH effluents in 72 L rectangular bench-scale superficial constructed wetland configuration reactors...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063656/effect-of-cyclic-redox-oscillations-on-water-quality-in-freshwater-acid-sulfate-soil-wetlands
#17
Niloofar Karimian, Scott G Johnston, Edward D Burton
Restoration of acid sulfate soil (ASS) wetlands by freshwater re-flooding can lead to the reformation of various Fe(II) and reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) species in surface soil layers. However, in many locations, wetland water levels undergo large seasonal fluctuations that drive extreme redox oscillations. Newly formed RIS species [e.g. greigite, mackinawite, nano-pyrite and S(0)] and Fe(II) are vulnerable to rapid oxidation during dry periods and may generate substantial acidity. Rainfall following a dry period may then mobilise acidity and metal cations in surface waters prior to eventual recovery in pH by re-establishment of reducing conditions...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063315/chemical-modeling-of-groundwater-in-the-banat-plain-southwestern-romania-with-elevated-as-content-and-co-occurring-species-by-combining-diagrams-and-unsupervised-multivariate-statistical-approaches
#18
Sinziana Butaciu, Marin Senila, Costel Sarbu, Michaela Ponta, Claudiu Tanaselia, Oana Cadar, Marius Roman, Emil Radu, Mihaela Sima, Tiberiu Frentiu
The study proposes a combined model based on diagrams (Gibbs, Piper, Stuyfzand Hydrogeochemical Classification System) and unsupervised statistical approaches (Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, Fuzzy Principal Component Analysis, Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering) to describe natural enrichment of inorganic arsenic and co-occurring species in groundwater in the Banat Plain, southwestern Romania. Speciation of inorganic As (arsenite, arsenate), ion concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(-), Cl(-), F(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-), NO3(-)), pH, redox potential, conductivity and total dissolved substances were performed...
December 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060097/assessment-of-nasal-carriage-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-axillar-flora-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#19
Ramazan Gen, Elif Şahin Horasan, Ümit Çinkir, Kerem Sezer, Esen Akbay
PURPOSE: Recent study showed that patients with acromegaly have typical skin findings including increased sebum secretion, decreased transepidermal water loss, more alkaline, and colder skin surface correlated with serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. Different anatomic localizations and texture of the skin differ in bacterial concentrations.Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and axillar flora in patients with acromegaly was compared with normal population with regard to duration of acromegaly as well as the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052672/fabrication-of-superhydrophobic-surfaces-with-controllable-electrical-conductivity-and-water-adhesion
#20
Lijun Ye, Jipeng Guan, Zhixiang Li, Jingxin Zhao, Cuicui Ye, Jichun You, Yongjin Li
A facile and versatile strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable electrical conductivity and water-adhesion is reported. "Vine-on-fence" structured and cerebral cortex-like superhydrophobic surfaces are constructed by filtering a suspension of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using polyoxymethylene nonwovens as the filter paper. The nonwovens with micro- and nanoporous two-tier structures act as the skeleton, introducing a microscale structure. The MWCNTs act as nanoscale structures, creating hierarchical surface roughness...
January 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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