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Alkaline water

Manjie Li, Zhaowei Liu, Yongcan Chen, Yang Hai
Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Hoon Taek Chung, Ulises Martinez, Ivana Matanovic, Yu Seung Kim
Rotating disk electrode voltammograms and infrared reflection absorption spectra indicate that the hydrogen oxidation reaction of platinum in 0.1 M tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution is adversely impacted by time-dependent and potential-driven cation-hydroxide-water co-adsorption. Impedance analysis suggests that the HOR inhibition is mainly caused by the hydrogen diffusion barrier of the co-adsorbed tri-layer rather than intuitive catalyst site blocking by the adsorbed cation species. These results give useful insights on how to design ionomeric binders and hydrogen oxidation electrocatalysts for advanced alkaline membrane fuel cells...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Macc Rigdon, Yen-Con Hung, Alexander M Stelzleni
Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes...
October 14, 2016: Meat Science
Helen P Jarvie, Stephen M King, Colin Neal
River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yanhong Ma, Ziang Zhang, Yueling Xu, Ming Ma, Bo Chen, Lin Wei, Lehui Xiao
In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of bright and water-soluble carbon dots (CDs) by carbonizing sodium citrate and glutathione together in a hydrothermal method for the first time. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized CDs display fluorescence quantum yield (QY) as high as 21.03% and show superior stability not only in concentrated salt solutions but also in neutral and alkaline media. The probe exhibits selective and sensitive recognition capability towards mercury ion (Hg(2+)) in aqueous solution...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Iuliana L Calugaru, Carmen Mihaela Neculita, Thomas Genty, Bruno Bussière, Robin Potvin
In the present study, wood ash was modified by alkaline fusion, prior to hydrothermal synthesis, for potential application in the treatment of mine drainage impacted water. With this objective, two types of wood ash (both raw and modified) were evaluated for the treatment of Ni and Zn in contaminated neutral drainage (CND). Batch adsorption experiments were initially conducted on synthetic CND, and then on two real CND, sampled on two active mine sites, contaminated by either Ni (3.7 mg/L) or Zn (9.1 mg/L)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Chanhee Boo, Jongho Lee, Menachem Elimelech
Microporous membranes fabricated from hydrophobic polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been widely used for membrane distillation (MD). However, hydrophobic MD membranes are prone to wetting by low surface tension substances, thereby limiting their use in treating challenging industrial wastewaters, such as shale gas produced water. In this study, we present a facile and scalable approach for the fabrication of omniphobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes that repel both water and oil...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Shoubing Wang, Ziran Xu
Increased eutrophication in the recent years has resulted in considerable research focus on identification of methods for preventing cyanobacterial blooms that are rapid and efficient. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dihydroartemisinin and artemether on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and to elucidate its mode of action. Variations in cell density, chlorophyll a, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, ETR, rapid light curves, fast chlorophyll fluorescence curves on fluorescence intensity, and relative variable fluorescence) were evaluated by lab-cultured experiments...
2016: PloS One
Mahamud-Ur Rashid, Zillur Rahman, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Munshi Mustafiz, Shirajum Monira, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Md Toslim Mahmud, R Bradley Sack, David Sack, Munirul Alam, Christine Marie George
OBJECTIVE: In urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 30% of source water samples collected from the households of cholera patients had detectable Vibrio cholerae. These findings indicate an urgent need for a public health intervention for this population. The Crystal VC(®) dipstick test is a rapid method for detecting V.cholerae in stool and water. However, to date no study has investigated the use of the rapid dipstick test for household surveillance of stored drinking water. METHODS: The efficacy of the Crystal VC(®) dipstick test for detecting V...
October 18, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Fengyang Sui, Shuying Zang, Yawen Fan, Huaxiang Ye
Many lakes located in the Songnen Plain of China exhibit a high saline-alkaline level. 25 lakes in the Songnen Plain were selected as research objects in this study. Water samples in these lakes were collected from June to August in 2008. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Total Alkalinity (TA) were measured to assess the saline-alkaline level, and partial canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was conducted as well. The results show that the majority of these lakes in the study area could be categorized into HCO3--Na+-I type...
2016: PloS One
Teresa F Mastropietro, Nadia Marino, Giovanni De Munno, Francesc Lloret, Miguel Julve, Emilio Pardo, Donatella Armentano
The preparation and structural characterization of four novel oxalate-based iron(III) compounds of formulas {(MeNH3)2[Fe2(ox)2Cl4]·2.5H2O}n (1), K(MeNH3)[Fe(ox)Cl3(H2O)] (2), {MeNH3[Fe2(OH)(ox)2Cl2]·2H2O}n (3), and {(H3O)(MeNH3)[Fe2O(ox)2Cl2]·3H2O}n (4) (MeNH3(+) = methylammonium cation and H2ox = oxalic acid) are reported here. 1 is an anionic waving chain of oxalato-bridged iron(III) ions with peripheral chloro ligands, the charge balance being ensured by methylammonium cations. 2 is a mononuclear complex with a bidentate oxalate, three terminal chloro ligands, and a coordinated water molecule achieving the six-coordination around each iron(III) ion...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Yang Yang, Di Xu, Qingyong Wu, Peng Diao
Solar powered hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the key reactions in solar-to-chemical energy conversion. It is desirable to develop photocathodic materials that exhibit high activity toward photoelectrochemical (PEC) HER at more positive potentials because a higher potential means a lower overpotential for HER. In this work, the Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites were prepared by a facile method that involved an electrodeposition and a subsequent thermal oxidation. The resulting Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites exhibited a surprisingly high activity and good stability toward PEC HER, expecially at high potentials in alkaline solution...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yun-Ho Hwang, Kyung-Yun Kang, Jong-Jin Kim, Sung-Ju Lee, Young-Jin Son, Soo-Heui Paik, Sung-Tae Yee
Polygonum multiflorum (PM), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat various diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperlipidemia. However, the influence of PM on osteoporosis in animals is unclear. The present study investigated the antiosteoporotic effect of PM on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and its possible mechanism of action. Twenty-five female C3H/HeN mice were divided into five groups of five mice as follows. Sham-operated control mice received daily oral gavage of an equal volume of water, and OVX mice received daily oral gavage of water or an injection of β-estradiol or PM for 6 weeks...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Tarek G Ammari, Marrwa Al-Atiyat, Eyad S Abu-Nameh, Ayoup Ghrair, Daasan Jaradat
Cadmium can enter water, soil and food chain in amounts harmful to human health by industrial wastes. The use of intact and NaOH-treated dried algal tissues (Hydrodictyon reticulatum); a major ecosystem bio-component, for Cd removal from aqueous solutions was characterized. Cadmium biosorption was found to be dependent on solution pH, bioadsorbent dose, the interaction between pH and dose, contact time, and initial Cd concentration. The experimental results indicated that the biosorption performance of alkaline-treated algal tissues was better than that of intact tissues...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Piotr Kowalski, Ilona Olędzka, Alina Plenis, Tomasz Bączek
An indirect UV detection method based on capillary electrophoresis was developed and validated to determinate 12. metal cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition metal, and ammonium. In this paper a new electrolyte system (pH 4.22) contained 20 mM benzimidazole (as co-ion), 75 mM acetic acid (as a counter-ion) as well as 0.6 mM 18-crown-6 ether was applied. The metal ions were completely separated within 8 min under hydrodynamic mode injection with a running voltage of 20 kV at 25 ± 0.1°C. Additional use of the dynamic double coating method enabled to get an excellent repeatability of migration times and quantitative parameters for all analytes...
October 14, 2016: Electrophoresis
Ivo M Rodrigues, M Graça V S Carvalho, Jorge M S Rocha
BACKGROUND: Rapeseed meal is a good source of high-quality vegetal protein but contains antinutritional compounds which limit its use for human and animal feed. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to enhance alkaline protein extraction of rapeseed meal and to produce protein rich products with low levels of phytic acid. Different phytase dosages and operating conditions were used for rapeseed meal pretreatment followed by alkaline extraction at different temperatures, time, pH and solid/liquid ratios (S/L)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Vishnuprasad Mullakkezhil Reghunathan, Sabu Joseph, C Unnikrishnan Warrier, A Shahul Hameed, Sheela Albert Moses
Environmental carrying capacity is a measure of competence of a lake to accommodate pollution inputs without degrading water quality. In the research reported here, we identified the factors influencing the environmental carrying capacity of Vellayani Lake or VL (a typical tropical freshwater lake), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. R-mode factor analysis is used to identify the factors controlling the carrying capacity of the lake, whereas hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) helped to classify the lake...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Maria Bernadete Galrão de Almeida Figueiredo, Vanessa Rocha de Santana, Maria Júlia Nardelli, Matheus de Souza Nogueira, Danilo Xavier Azevedo, Danillo Primo Andrade Santana, Ana Galrão de Almeida Figueiredo, Ívison Xavier Duarte, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Sônia Oliveira Lima
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of aqueous extract of Peumus Boldus (AEPB) on the liver proliferative response after parcial hepatectomy of 70% (PH) in rodents. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were divided in two groups: AEPB100 (whose rats received 100mg/Kg of AEPB, once a day, orally, in 4 days prior to the first surgical procedure) and Vehicle (whose rats were treated similarly with distilled water). Both groups underwent PH. After 24 hours the remaining livers were removed for studying the proliferation of hepatocytes by Ki-67 and 2mL of blood were collected for serological assessment: cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total, direct and indirect bilirubin...
September 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Benjamin W Noffke, Qiqi Li, Krishnan Raghavachari, Liang-Shi Li
Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon materials have been extensively studied as potential replacements for Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, little is known about the catalytic mechanisms, including the parameters that determine the selectivity of the reaction. By comparing theoretical calculations of the ORR selectivity at a well-defined graphene nanostructure with experimental results, we propose a model based on interfacial solvation to explain the observed preference for the four-electron pathway in alkaline electrolytes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Z H Fard, Y Kalinovskyy, D M Spasyuk, B A Blight, G K H Shimizu
A new rigid tritopic phosphonic ligand, 2,4,6-tris(4-phosphonophenyl)pyridine (H6L), was synthesized and used to assemble isostructural barium (1) and strontium (2) phosphonate metal organic frameworks that exhibit fully reversible and selective water-dependent fluorescence red-shift at room temperature.
October 13, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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