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Alkaline water

Fatma Bouaziz, Mohamed Koubaa, Rhoudha Ellouz Ghorbel, Semia Ellouz Chaabouni
The aim of this work was to investigate the biological activities of almond gum polysaccharides (AGP) and almond gum hemicelluloses (AGH). Almond gum was first fractionated into AGP and AGH using hot water and alkaline solution, respectively. The antioxidant activities of both extracted polymers revealed interesting free radical scavenging activities through DPPH test (IC50 AGP=4mg/mL, IC50 AGH=6mg/mL), 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity test (% inhibition ABTS=40...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ying Yin, Xian Xue, Qian Wang, Ning Chen, Dengshun Miao
To explore whether polycomb repressor Bmi1 plays an important role in dentin and mandible development homeostasis by maintaining redox balance, 3-week-old Bmi1 gene knockout (Bmi1(-/-)) mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 2 weeks in their drinking water and phenotypes of the tooth and mandibles were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1(-/-) mice and wild-type mice by radiograph, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Alterations of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell proliferation and cell cycle-related parameters were also examined in mandibles...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Heather E Driscoll, James J Vincent, Erika L English, Elizabeth D Dolci
Here we report on a metagenomics investigation of the microbial diversity in a serpentine-hosted aquatic habitat created by chrysotile asbestos mining activity at the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine in northern Vermont, USA. The now-abandoned VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in the towns of Eden and Lowell includes three open-pit quarries, a flooded pit, mill buildings, roads, and > 26 million metric tons of eroding mine waste that contribute alkaline mine drainage to the surrounding watershed. Metagenomes and water chemistry originated from aquatic samples taken at three depths (0...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Jonathan M Jones, Julia Sweet, Mark A Brzezinski, Heather M McNair, Uta Passow
Ocean acidification is a threat to many marine organisms, especially those that use calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons. The ability to accurately measure the carbonate system is the first step in characterizing the drivers behind this threat. Due to logistical realities, regular carbonate system sampling is not possible in many nearshore ocean habitats, particularly in remote, difficult-to-access locations. The ability to autonomously measure the carbonate system in situ relieves many of the logistical challenges; however, it is not always possible to measure the two required carbonate parameters autonomously...
2016: PloS One
Qiong Hu, Minhui He, Yaqi Mei, Wenjie Feng, Su Jing, Jinming Kong, Xueji Zhang
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays a vital role in dephosphorylation- and phosphorylation-related cellular regulation and signaling processes. Accordingly, the development of efficient methods for ALP activity assay is of significant importance in clinical diagnosis. In this work, a simple and practical method is reported for the first time for the sensitive and selective colorimetric assay of ALP activity by exploiting a water-soluble Cu(II)-phenanthroline complex as the probe, on the basis of the distinctive metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) properties...
January 15, 2017: Talanta
Yanran Dai, Juan Wu, Xiaohang Ma, Fei Zhong, Naxin Cui, Shuiping Cheng
We assembled mesocosms to address the coherent mechanisms that an increasing phosphorus (P) concentration in water columns coupled with the phytoplankton bloom and identify the performance gap of regulating phytoplankton growth between two macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Vallisneria spiralis L. Intense alkaline phosphatase activities (APA) were observed in the unplanted control, with their predominant part, phytoplankton APA (accounting for up to 44.7% of the total APA), and another large share, bacterial APA...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
L Alanoca, S Guédron, D Amouroux, S Audry, M Monperrus, E Tessier, S Goix, D Acha, P Seyler, D Point
Lake Uru Uru (3686 m a.s.l.) located in the Bolivian Altiplano region receives both mining effluents and urban wastewater discharges originating from the surrounding local cities which are under rapid development. We followed the spatiotemporal distribution of different mercury (Hg) compounds and other metal(oid)s (e.g., Fe, Mn, Sb, Ti and W) in both water and sediments during the wet and dry seasons along a north-south transect of this shallow lake system. Along the transect, the highest Hg and metal(oid) concentrations in both water and sediments were found downstream of the confluences with mining effluents...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Irina Timofeeva, Semen Timofeev, Leonid Moskvin, Andrey Bulatov
In this article, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), based on the use of so-called switchable polarity dispersive solvent (SPDS) for microextraction, is presented for the first time. The new extraction technique makes use of a mixture of extraction solvent (dichloromethane) and the SPDS (acrylic acid). This mixture is injected into the aqueous sample solution, which was previously fortified with the alkaline agent (NaOH). The SPDS is dissolved in aqueous phase and a cloudy solution consisting of fine droplets of extraction solvent fully dispersed in the aqueous phase is observed...
January 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sean Taylor, Alexander Samokhvalov
Alkaline earth metal titanates are broad bandgap semiconductors with applications in electronic devices, as catalysts, photocatalysts, sorbents, and sensors. Strontium titanate SrTiO3 is of interest in electronic devices, sensors, in the photocatalytic hydrogen generation, as catalyst and sorbent. Both photocatalysis and operation of electronic devices rely upon the pathways of relaxation of excited charge in the semiconductor, including relaxation through the midgap states. We report characterization of nanocrystalline SrTiO3 at room temperature by "conventional" vs...
November 13, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Gauthier J-P Deblonde, Alexandre Chagnes, Marie-Aude Roux, Valérie Weigel, Gérard Cote
Solvent extraction of Nb(v) from alkaline aqueous media using quaternary ammonium solutions, especially Aliquat® 336 diluted in an aliphatic diluent, was investigated. The hexaniobate ions (HxNb6O19(x-8)) were extracted into the organic phase with very high yields at room temperature and within a few minutes, affording easy access to organic solutions of hexaniobates. Several parameters were found to influence the extraction of HxNb6O19(x-8) including the nature and concentration of alkali cations, confirming subtle effects previously described for polyoxoniobates such as ion-pairing with alkali ions...
November 22, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Haruka Nakanishi, Kosuke Iizuka, Tomoaki Takayama, Akihide Iwase, Akihiko Kudo
Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and La-doped NaTaO3 has arisen as highly active photocatalysts for CO2 reduction to form CO using water as an electron donor accompanied by O2 evolution under UV irradiation and bubbling of 1 atmosphere of CO2 when an Ag cocatalyst was loaded on those photocatalysts. CO, H2 and O2 simultaneously formed. The ratio of the number of reacted electrons to that of holes was almost unity. This result indicated that water was consumed as an electron donor. A liquid-phase reduction method for loading of the Ag cocatalyst was superior to photodeposition and impregnation methods...
November 22, 2016: ChemSusChem
Mahnaz Roohi, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Saleem Arif, Sher Muhammad Shahzad, Tahira Yasmeen, Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, Muhammad Atif Riaz, Ishaq A Mian
Application of raw and treated wastewater for irrigation is an extensive practice for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Raw textile wastewater has been used for cultivation in urban and peri-urban areas in Pakistan without any systematic consideration to soil quality. We conducted a laboratory incubation study to investigate the effects of low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater on soil nitrogen (N) contents, labile carbon (C) as water-soluble C (WSC) contents, and activities of urease and dehydrogenase enzymes...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
E W Slessarev, Y Lin, N L Bingham, J E Johnson, Y Dai, J P Schimel, O A Chadwick
Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility-rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy...
November 21, 2016: Nature
Pablo Hernández-Morales, Jobst Wurl
The existence of hot springs in the northeastern part of Los Cabos Baja California Sur (BCS), is known from pre-Hispanic times, but their hydrochemical composition had not been previously described. Several springs are located within the watershed of Santiago, and the objective of this study was to define the hydrogeochemical composition of the thermal springs and to characterize the geothermal reservoir. A total of 16 water samples were taken in 11 geothermal manifestations under dry (June 2014) and humid (March 2015) conditions...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arundhati Bhowmick, Nilkamal Pramanik, Piyali Jana, Tapas Mitra, Arumugam Gnanamani, Manas Das, Patit Paban Kundu
Here, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were incorporated for the first time in organic-inorganic hybrid composites containing chitosan, poly(ethylene glycol) and nano-hydroxypatite (CS-PEG-HA) to develop bone-like nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering application. These nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM combined with SAED. SEM images and porosity measurements revealed highly porous structure having pore size of less than 1μm to 10μm. Enhanced water absorption capacity and mechanical strengths were obtained compared to previously reported CS-PEG-HA composite after addition of 0...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhaoyu Jin, Panpan Li, Dan Xiao
Decoupled hydrogen and oxygen production have been successfully embedded into an aqueous dual-electrolyte (acid-base) battery for simultaneous energy storage and conversion. We adopt a three-electrode configuration involving an electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolving electrode as cathode, an alkaline battery-type or capacitor-type anode as shuttle, as well as a charging assisting electrode for electro-/photoelectrochemically catalyzing water oxidation. The conceptual battery not only synergistically outputs electricity and chemical fuels with tremendous specific energy and power densities, but also supports various approaches to be charged by pure or solar-assisted electricity...
November 8, 2016: ChemSusChem
Bastien Belzunces, Sophie Hoyau, Magali Benoit, Nathalie Tarrat, Fabienne Bessac
Atrazine, a pesticide belonging to the s-triazine family, is one of the most employed pesticides. Due to its negative impact on the environment, it has been forbidden within the European Union since 2004 but remains abundant in soils. For these reasons, its behavior in soils and water at the atomic scale is of great interest. In this article, we have investigated, using DFT, the adsorption of atrazine onto two different clay surfaces: a pyrophyllite clay and an Mg-substituted clay named montmorillonite, with Ca(2+) compensating cations on its surface...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
William J LaBarre, David R Ownby, Kevin J Rader, Steven M Lev, Ryan E Casey
This study evaluated the ability of two different bioretention stormwater control measures (SCMs), planter boxes and swales, to decrease the toxicity of sheet copper (Cu) roofing runoff to Daphnia magna. This study quantified changes in stormwater chemistry as it passed through the bioretention systems. The study also utilized the biotic ligand model (BLM) to assess whether the observed D. magna toxicity could be predicted by observed variations in water chemistry. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using select storm samples with D...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kris R Jatana, Keith Rhoades, Scott Milkovich, Ian N Jacobs
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Button battery (BB) injuries continue to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality, and there is a need to confirm the mechanism of injury for development of additional mitigation strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric piglet esophageal model. METHODS: Lithium, silver oxide, alkaline, and zinc-air BBs were placed in thawed sections of cadaveric piglet esophagus, bathed in normal saline. Severity of gross visual burn, pH, and temperature were recorded every 30 minutes for 6 hours...
November 9, 2016: Laryngoscope
Zhenting Zhang, Yuejiao Xie, Xiaolan He, Xinli Li, Jinlong Hu, Zhiyong Ruan, Shumiao Zhao, Nan Peng, Yunxiang Liang
Lignocellulose is one of the most abundant renewable feedstocks that has attracted considerable attention as a substrate for biofuel and biochemical production. One such biochemical product, lactic acid, is an important fermentation product because of its great potential for the production of biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid. High-titer lactic acid production from lignocellulosic materials has been achieved recently; however, it requires biodetoxification or results in large amounts of waste washing water...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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