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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483339/opinion-on-monoaminergic-contributions-to-traits-and-temperament
#1
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This article critically reviews evidence relating temperamental traits and personality factors to the monoamine neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and serotonin. The genetic evidence is not yet considered to be conclusive and it is argued that basic neuroscience research on the neural basis of behaviour in experimental animals should be taken more into account. While questionnaire and lexical methodology including the 'Five Factor' theory has been informative (mostly for the traits relevant to social functioning, i...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480575/not-all-smokers-appear-to-seek-nicotine-for-the-same-reasons-implications-for-preclinical-research-in-nicotine-dependence
#2
REVIEW
Vernon Garcia-Rivas, Véronique Deroche-Gamonet
Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that determine the urge to smoke...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460163/noradrenergic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
The role of norepinephrine (NE) in the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been studied over the past several decades. However, the NE system has been largely ignored for many years as a potential target for medication development for AUD. More recently, preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential value of targeting NE signaling for developing new pharmacological treatments for AUD. This review contributes to a special issue of Psychopharmacology focused on promising targets for alcohol addiction...
February 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403383/how-realistic-are-the-scientific-assumptions-of-the-neuroenhancement-debate-assessing-the-pharmacological-optimism-and-neuroenhancement-prevalence-hypotheses
#4
Stephan Schleim, Boris B Quednow
Since two decades, neuroenhancement is a major topic in neuroethics and still receives much attention in the scholarly literature as well as in public media. In contrast to high hopes at the beginning of the "Decade of the Brain" in the United States and Europe that we subsume under the "pharmacological optimism hypothesis," recent evidence from clinical neuroscience suggests that developing drugs that make healthy people smarter is even more difficult than finding new treatments for patients with mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887224/the-zebrafish-as-a-promising-tool-for-modeling-human-brain-disorders-a-review-based-upon-an-ibns-symposium
#5
REVIEW
Soaleha Shams, Jason Rihel, Jose G Ortiz, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity, features that make it useful for modeling and mechanistic analysis of complex brain disorders. Also promising are screens for psychoactive drugs with effects on larval and adult zebrafish behavior. This review, based upon a recent symposium held at the 2016 IBNS Congress, provides different perspectives on how the zebrafish may be utilized to advance research into human central nervous system disorders. It starts with a discussion on an important bottleneck in zebrafish research, measuring the behavior of this species (specifically shoaling), and continues with examples on research on autism spectrum disorder in larval zebrafish, on screening natural products for compounds with psychoactive properties in adult zebrafish, and on the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780896/addressing-the-unmet-needs-of-current-antidepressants-does-neuroscience-help-or-hinder-clinical-psychopharmacology-research
#6
Joseph F Goldberg, A John Rush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690438/a-critical-thinking-activity-on-drug-tolerance-for-undergraduate-neuroscience-courses
#7
Katharine M Cammack
Active teaching techniques that involve critical thinking and analysis lead to better learning and retention, and there is growing need for learner-centered classroom activities in the neurosciences. This article presents a critical thinking activity that offers context and meaning to basic principles of synaptic pharmacology. Students analyze fictional datasets to identify major characteristics of drug tolerance. Students' self-reported perceptions and ungraded quiz scores suggest that this activity was an enjoyable and impactful way to deepen students' understanding and engage them with the course material...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649903/herbal-medicine-for-psychiatric-disorders-psychopharmacology-and-neuroscience-based-nomenclature
#8
Siu W Tang, Wayne H Tang, Brian E Leonard
OBJECTIVES: Herbs are frequently and concurrently used with prescribed drugs by patients worldwide. While clinical trials have found some herbs to be as useful as standard psychiatric drugs, most clinicians are unaware of their pharmacological mechanisms. METHODS: We searched English language and other language literature with English abstracts listed in PubMed website, supplemented by additional through Google Scholar's free academic paper abstract website for publications on herbs, focussing on their clinical use in mental disorders, their neurobiology and their pharmacology...
July 11, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541234/psychiatric-specialty-training-in-greece
#9
EDITORIAL
M Margariti, V Kontaxakis, D Ploumpidis
The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401576/a-new-nomenclature-for-classifying-psychotropic-drugs
#10
Filippo Caraci, Sam J Enna, Joseph Zohar, Giorgio Racagni, Gil Zalsman, Wim van den Brink, Siegfried Kasper, George F Koob, Carmine M Pariante, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Kiyofumi Yamada, Michael Spedding, Filippo Drago
The Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN) for psychotropic drugs was developed as an alternative to the current Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) indication-based classification in order to provide more precise designations for this drug class. The ATC nomenclature for psychotherapeutics is limited in that it fails to specify either pharmacological domains or mechanism of action and also does not describe all the potential uses of a particular agent. The disconnect between the drug classification and its clinical use is not very useful for scientific purposes and is confusing for patients and caregivers, often leading to a misunderstanding of the intended effects of the prescribed medication and, most importantly, to low treatment adherence...
August 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127962/hitchhiker-s-guide-to-voltammetry-acute-and-chronic-electrodes-for-in-vivo-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry
#11
REVIEW
Nathan T Rodeberg, Stefan G Sandberg, Justin A Johnson, Paul E M Phillips, R Mark Wightman
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has been used for over 20 years to study rapid neurotransmission in awake and behaving animals. These experiments were first carried out with carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs) encased in borosilicate glass, which can be inserted into the brain through micromanipulators and guide cannulas. More recently, chronically implantable CFMs constructed with small diameter fused-silica have been introduced. These electrodes can be affixed in the brain with minimal tissue response, which permits longitudinal measurements of neurotransmission in single recording locations during behavior...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095940/neuroscience-based-nomenclature-improving-clinical-and-scientific-terminology-in-research-and-clinical-psychopharmacology
#12
A B Brühl, B J Sahakian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646569/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-3-second-tradition-neuroethics-ethical-issues-in-neuroscience
#13
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216638/challenges-in-developing-drugs-for-pediatric-cns-disorders-a-focus-on-psychopharmacology
#14
REVIEW
Margaret C Grabb, Jogarao V S Gobburu
Many psychiatric and behavioral disorders manifest in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, etc.) and the opportunity for intervening early may attenuate full development of the disorder and lessen long term disability. Yet, pediatric drug approvals for CNS indications are limited, and pediatric testing generally occurs only after establishing adult efficacy, more as an afterthought rather than with the initial goal of developing the medication for a pediatric CNS indication...
May 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200462/combining-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-and-pharmacotherapy
#15
Jack M Gorman
Many patients with depression, anxiety disorders, and other psychiatric disorders are treated with combinations of psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication. Whether this is better than monotherapy is an empirical question that requires much more extensive research than is currently available. When medications were first introduced to treat psychiatric illnesses, some psychopharmacologists insisted that it heralded a new area of "biological psychiatry" that would ultimately render psychotherapy obsolete. Psychodynamic theorists and practitioners, on the other hand, argued that psychopharmacology offered only a superficial approach to treatment...
December 0: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121422/neuroscience-based-nomenclature-nbn-for-clinical-psychopharmacology-and-neuroscience
#16
EDITORIAL
Hiroyuki Uchida, Shigeto Yamawaki, Won-Myong Bahk, Duk-In Jon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098017/neuroscience-based-nomenclature-nbn-for-journal-of-psychopharmacology
#17
EDITORIAL
David J Nutt, Pierre Blier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897168/neuroethics-the-pursuit-of-transforming-medical-ethics-in-scientific-ethics
#18
REVIEW
Gustavo Figueroa
Ethical problems resulting from brain research have given rise to a new discipline termed neuroethics, representing a new kind of knowledge capable of discovering the neural basis for universal ethics. The article (1) tries to evaluate the contributions of neuroethics to medical ethics and its suitability to outline the foundations of universal ethics, (2) critically analyses the process of founding this universal ethic. The potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm...
February 20, 2016: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630604/integrating-neuroscience-knowledge-and-neuropsychiatric-skills-into-psychiatry-the-way-forward
#19
Barbara Schildkrout, Sheldon Benjamin, Margo D Lauterbach
Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry...
May 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26621260/new-treatment-models-for-compulsive-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Jon E Grant, Naomi Fineberg, Michael van Ameringen, Danielle Cath, Henny Visser, Lior Carmi, Stefano Pallanti, Eric Hollander, Anton J L M van Balkom
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as related disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder, tic disorder, and trichotillomania are all common and often debilitating. Although treatments are available, more effective approaches to these problems are needed. Thus this review article presents what is currently known about OCD and related disorders and suggests that understanding OCD more broadly as a compulsive disorder may allow for more effective treatment options. Toward that goal, the review presents new models of psychopharmacology and psychotherapy, as well as new brain stimulation strategies...
May 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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