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Neuroscience Psychopharmacology

Filippo Caraci, S J Enna, Joseph Zohar, Giorgio Racagni, Gil Zalsman, Wim van den Brink, Siegfried Kasper, George F Koob, Carmine M Pariante, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Kiyofumi Yamada, Michael Spedding, Filippo Drago
The Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN) for psychotropic drugs was developed as an alternative to the current Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) indication-based classification in order to provide more precise designations for this drug class. The ATC nomenclature for psychotherapeutics is limited in that it fails to specify neither pharmacological domains nor mechanism of action and also does not describe all the potential uses of a particular agent. The disconnect between the drug classification and its clinical use is not very useful for scientific purposes and is confusing for patients and caregivers, often leading to a misunderstanding of the intended effects of the prescribed medication and, most importantly, to low treatment adherence...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Nathan T Rodeberg, Stefan G Sandberg, Justin A Johnson, Paul E M Phillips, R Mark Wightman
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has been used for over 20 years to study rapid neurotransmission in awake and behaving animals. These experiments were first carried out with carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs) encased in borosilicate glass, which can be inserted into the brain through micromanipulators and guide cannulas. More recently, chronically implantable CFMs constructed with small diameter fused-silica have been introduced. These electrodes can be affixed in the brain with minimal tissue response, which permits longitudinal measurements of neurotransmission in single recording locations during behavior...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
A B Brühl, B J Sahakian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Margaret C Grabb, Jogarao V S Gobburu
Many psychiatric and behavioral disorders manifest in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, etc.) and the opportunity for intervening early may attenuate full development of the disorder and lessen long term disability. Yet, pediatric drug approvals for CNS indications are limited, and pediatric testing generally occurs only after establishing adult efficacy, more as an afterthought rather than with the initial goal of developing the medication for a pediatric CNS indication...
May 20, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Jack M Gorman
Many patients with depression, anxiety disorders, and other psychiatric disorders are treated with combinations of psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication. Whether this is better than monotherapy is an empirical question that requires much more extensive research than is currently available. When medications were first introduced to treat psychiatric illnesses, some psychopharmacologists insisted that it heralded a new area of "biological psychiatry" that would ultimately render psychotherapy obsolete. Psychodynamic theorists and practitioners, on the other hand, argued that psychopharmacology offered only a superficial approach to treatment...
December 0: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Hiroyuki Uchida, Shigeto Yamawaki, Won-Myong Bahk, Duk-In Jon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
David J Nutt, Pierre Blier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Gustavo Figueroa
Ethical problems resulting from brain research have given rise to a new discipline termed neuroethics, representing a new kind of knowledge capable of discovering the neural basis for universal ethics. The article (1) tries to evaluate the contributions of neuroethics to medical ethics and its suitability to outline the foundations of universal ethics, (2) critically analyses the process of founding this universal ethic. The potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm...
February 20, 2016: Biological Research
Barbara Schildkrout, Sheldon Benjamin, Margo D Lauterbach
Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry...
May 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jon E Grant, Naomi Fineberg, Michael van Ameringen, Danielle Cath, Henny Visser, Lior Carmi, Stefano Pallanti, Eric Hollander, Anton J L M van Balkom
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as related disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder, tic disorder, and trichotillomania are all common and often debilitating. Although treatments are available, more effective approaches to these problems are needed. Thus this review article presents what is currently known about OCD and related disorders and suggests that understanding OCD more broadly as a compulsive disorder may allow for more effective treatment options. Toward that goal, the review presents new models of psychopharmacology and psychotherapy, as well as new brain stimulation strategies...
May 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Intrauterine methamphetamine exposure adversely affects the neurofunctional profile of exposed children, leading to a variety of higher order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments (Kiblawi et al. in J Dev Behav Pediatr 34:31-37, 2013; Piper et al. in Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:432-439 2011; Roussotte et al. in Neuroimage 54:3067-3075, 2011; Twomey et al. in Am J Orthopsychiatry 83:64-72, 2013). In animal models of developmental methamphetamine, both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes critically depend on the timing of methamphetamine administration...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Trehani M Fonseka, Xiao-Yan Wen, Jane A Foster, Sidney H Kennedy
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a model species for translational research in various neuroscience areas, including depressive disorders. Because of their physiological (neuroanatomical, neuroendocrine, neurochemical) and genetic homology to mammals, robust phenotypes, and value in high-throughput genetic and chemical genetic screens, zebrafish are ideal for developing valid experimental models of major depression and discovering novel therapeutics. Behavioral testing approaches, such as approach-avoidance, cognitive, and social paradigms, are available in zebrafish and have utility in identifying depression-like indices in zebrafish in response to physiological, genetic, environmental, and/or psychopharmacological alterations...
January 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Laura E Hughes, Timothy Rittman, Ralf Regenthal, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Disinhibition is a cardinal feature of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia, presenting as impulsive and impetuous behaviours that are often difficult to manage. The options for symptomatic treatments are limited, but a potential target for therapy is the restoration of serotonergic function, which is both deficient in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and closely associated with inhibitory control. Based on preclinical studies and psychopharmacological interventions in other disorders, we predicted that inhibition would be associated with the right inferior frontal gyrus and dependent on serotonin...
July 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Janiece E DeSocio
PURPOSE: The aims of this paper are to synthesize and report research findings from neuroscience and epigenetics that contribute to an emerging explanatory framework for advanced practice psychiatric nursing. CONCLUSIONS: Discoveries in neuroscience and epigenetics reveal synergistic mechanisms that support the integration of psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, and psychoeducation in practice. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Advanced practice psychiatric nurses will benefit from an expanded knowledge base in neuroscience and epigenetics that informs and explains the scientific rationale for our integrated practice...
July 2016: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Jacques Besson, Yasser Khazaal, Alexander Tomei, Jeremy Grivel, Daniele Zullino
This year, the actuality about addiction is on psychopharmacology, in the controversy about the prescription of baclofene to reduce the craving for alcohol. More results from controlled studies are expected. The development of smartphones to access toe-Health skills is questionable, especially in matterofevaluation of these programs. Despite of encouraging results, open questions are remaining for clinicians, to be compared with clinical practice. Finally, it is necessary to keep in touch with translational neurosciences; in fact, research is showing that populations of addicts present a deficit in matter of empathy...
January 14, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Saman Tavakoli
Psychotherapy has long been an essential component of clinical psychiatry and many young physicians choose to train in psychiatry residency programs in order to acquire necessary knowledge and skills, and become competent psychotherapists. Recent advances in psychopharmacology and neuroscience, and growing dominance of managed care and evidence-based medicine have had dramatic impacts on health care delivery systems and clinical psychiatry practice. Despite these changes in the field of mental health, psychotherapy still remains a crucial part of clinical psychiatry and comprises a great proportion of psychiatrists' clinical practice...
2014: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Koen Hogenelst, Robert A Schoevers, Marije aan het Rot
With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior...
2015: Social Neuroscience
Arnaud Arabo, Claire Potier, Gaëlle Ollivier, Thomas Lorivel, Vincent Roy
The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is a very common rodent test of anxiety. It is based on an approach-avoidance conflict between secure closed arms and aversive open arms. However, discrepancies remain on the interpretation of animals' behavior in this assay. The purpose of our study was to get a better understanding of the mouse behavior in the EPM. We applied a minute-by-minute analysis to compare the behavior of mice forcibly exposed to the maze or set free to explore the maze from a familiar box. Three strains of mice (CD1, BALB/c, and C57Bl/6) were tested...
October 2014: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Georg Juckel
Depression is a common and hazardous mental disorder, which has been pathophysiologically associated with alterations of neurocircuitries involving medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Recent progress in computational neuroscience, particularly in the field of in silico psychopharmacology suggests the increasing potential of mathematical modeling in providing insights on the dynamics of these neuronal networks, which in turn may lead to further develop and clarify the present models of the pathophysiology of depression...
2013: In Silico Pharmacology
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