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craniofacial growth and development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345101/a-pdgf-ccreert2-knock-in-mouse-model-for-tracing-pdgf-c-cell-lineages-during-development
#1
Xiaoli Wu, Wenjun Liu, Hao Ding
PDGF-C, a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family, plays important roles in the development of craniofacial structures, the neural system, the vascular system and tumors. PDGF-C could also be required for the regulation of certain types of stem or progenitor cells as suggested by its expression in the regions where these cells are located. To further characterize the role of PDGF-C in development, we generated a Pdgf-cCreERT2 mouse strain, in which a tamoxifen-inducible Cre (CreERT2) cDNA was specifically targeted into the Pdgf-c genomic locus and controlled by the endogenous Pdgf-c regulatory elements...
January 18, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344807/inhibition-of-bone-resorption-by-bisphosphonates-interferes-with-orthodontically-induced-midpalatal-suture-expansion-in-mice
#2
Till Koehne, Bärbel Kahl-Nieke, Michael Amling, Heike Korbmacher-Steiner
OBJECTIVES: Craniofacial sutures are important growth sites for skull development and are sensitive to mechanical stress. In order to determine the role of bone resorption in stress-mediated sutural bone growth, midpalatal suture expansion was performed in mice receiving alendronate, an anti-resorptive bisphosphonate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The midpalatal sutures of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were expanded by orthodontic wires over the period of 2 weeks. Mice with maxillary expansion without drug treatment as well as untreated animals served as controls...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306033/a-glyphosate-micro-emulsion-formulation-displays-teratogenicity-in-xenopus-laevis
#3
Patrizia Bonfanti, M Saibene, R Bacchetta, P Mantecca, A Colombo
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in broad-spectrum herbicide formulations used in agriculture, domestic area and aquatic weed control worldwide. Its market is growing steadily concurrently with the cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops and emergence of weeds less sensitive to glyphosate. Ephemeral and lentic waters near to agricultural lands, representing favorite habitats for amphibian reproduction and early life-stage development, may thus be contaminated by glyphosate based herbicides (GBHs) residues...
December 24, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274743/ankrd11-associated-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-regulates-dendrite-differentiation-via-the-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway
#4
Minhan Ka, Woo-Yang Kim
Haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11 due to deletion or truncation mutations causes KBG syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and craniofacial abnormalities. However, little is known about the neurobiological role of ANKRD11 during brain development. Here we show that ANKRD11 regulates pyramidal neuron migration and dendritic differentiation in the developing moue cerebral cortex. Using an in utero manipulation approach, we found that Ankrd11 knockdown delayed radial migration of cortical neurons...
December 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243252/predicting-calvarial-growth-in-normal-and-craniosynostotic-mice-using-a-computational-approach
#5
Arsalan Marghoub, Joseph Libby, Christian Babbs, Erwin Pauws, Michael J Fagan, Mehran Moazen
During postnatal calvarial growth the brain grows gradually and the overlying bones and sutures accommodate that growth until the later juvenile stages. The whole process is coordinated through a complex series of biological, chemical and perhaps mechanical signals between various elements of the craniofacial system. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a computational model can accurately predict the calvarial growth in wild-type (WT) and mutant type (MT) Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice displaying bicoronal suture fusion...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216270/generation-and-characterization-of-kctd15-mutations-in-zebrafish
#6
Alison Heffer, Gregory D Marquart, Allisan Aquilina-Beck, Nabil Saleem, Harold A Burgess, Igor B Dawid
Potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (Kctd15) was previously found to have a role in early neural crest (NC) patterning, specifically delimiting the region where NC markers are expressed via repression of transcription factor AP-2a and inhibition of Wnt signaling. We used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to generate null mutations in zebrafish kctd15a and kctd15b paralogs to study the in vivo role of Kctd15. We found that while deletions producing frame-shift mutations in each paralog showed no apparent phenotype, kctd15a/b double mutant zebrafish are smaller in size and show several phenotypes including some affecting the NC, such as expansion of the early NC domain, increased pigmentation, and craniofacial defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190819/the-ectodomain-of-cadherin-11-binds-to-erbb2-and-stimulates-akt-phosphorylation-to-promote-cranial-neural-crest-cell-migration
#7
Ketan Mathavan, Vikram Khedgikar, Vanessa Bartolo, Dominique Alfandari
During development, a multi-potent group of cells known as the cranial neural crest (CNC) migrate to form craniofacial structures. Proper migration of these cells requires proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules, such as cadherins. In Xenopus laevis, preventing extracellular cleavage of cadherin-11 impairs CNC migration. However, overexpression of the soluble cleavage product (EC1-3) is capable of rescuing this phenotype. The mechanism by which EC1-3 promotes CNC migration has not been investigated until now...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164113/chemokine-signaling-during-midline-epithelial-seam-disintegration-facilitates-palatal-fusion
#8
Christiaan M Suttorp, Niels A Cremers, René van Rheden, Raymond F Regan, Pia Helmich, Sven van Kempen, Anne M Kuijpers-Jagtman, Frank A D T G Wagener
Disintegration of the midline epithelial seam (MES) is crucial for palatal fusion, and failure results in cleft palate. Palatal fusion and wound repair share many common signaling pathways related to epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk. We postulate that chemokine CXCL11, its receptor CXCR3, and the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), which are crucial during wound repair, also play a decisive role in MES disintegration. Fetal growth restriction and craniofacial abnormalities were present in HO-2 knockout (KO) mice without effects on palatal fusion...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162626/identification-of-isthmin-1-as-a-novel-clefting-and-craniofacial-patterning-gene-in-humans
#9
Lisa A Lansdon, Benjamin W Darbro, Aline L Petrin, Alissa M Hulstrand, Jennifer M Standley, Rachel B Brouillette, Abby Long, M Adela Mansilla, Robert A Cornell, Jeffery C Murray, Douglas W Houston, J Robert Manak
Orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects, affecting 1-2 per 1000 births, and have a complex etiology. High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization has increased the ability to detect copy number variants that can be causative for complex diseases such as cleft lip and/or palate. Utilizing this technique on 97 non-syndromic cleft lip and palate cases and 43 cases with cleft palate only, we identified a heterozygous deletion of Isthmin 1 in one affected case, as well as a deletion in a second case which removes putative 3' regulatory information...
November 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157545/temporomandibular-joint-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Dania Tamimi, Elnaz Jalali, David Hatcher
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an anatomically and biomechanically complex structure. Understanding how this structure grows and functions is essential to accurate radiographic evaluation. This article discusses the anatomy, function, and growth and development of the TMJ and how growth changes can affect the morphology of the craniofacial structures. Accordingly, the radiographic appearance of the entities that may alter the TMJ are discussed, including developmental, degenerative, inflammatory, and traumatic changes...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156629/reconstruction-of-craniomaxillofacial-bone-defects-using-tissue-engineering-strategies-with-injectable-and-non-injectable-scaffolds
#11
REVIEW
Bipin Gaihre, Suren Uswatta, Ambalangodage C Jayasuriya
Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these problems; tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies have been developed as a potential way to reconstruct damaged bone tissue. Different types of new biomaterials; including natural polymers; synthetic polymers and bioceramics; have emerged to treat these damaged craniofacial bone tissues in the form of injectable and non-injectable scaffolds; which are examined in this review...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133259/loss-of-pit-2-results-in-abnormal-bone-development-and-decreased-bone-mineral-density-and-length-in-mice
#12
Shunsuke Yamada, Mary C Wallingford, Suhaib Borgeia, Timothy C Cox, Cecilia M Giachelli
Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127377/bayesian-networks-analysis-of-malocclusion-data
#13
Marco Scutari, Pietro Auconi, Guido Caldarelli, Lorenzo Franchi
In this paper we use Bayesian networks to determine and visualise the interactions among various Class III malocclusion maxillofacial features during growth and treatment. We start from a sample of 143 patients characterised through a series of a maximum of 21 different craniofacial features. We estimate a network model from these data and we test its consistency by verifying some commonly accepted hypotheses on the evolution of these disharmonies by means of Bayesian statistics. We show that untreated subjects develop different Class III craniofacial growth patterns as compared to patients submitted to orthodontic treatment with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103943/from-oral-facial-dysfunction-to-dysmorphism-and-the-onset-of-pediatric-osa
#14
REVIEW
Christian Guilleminault, Yu-Shu Huang
The upper airway is a collapsible tube, and its collapsibility increases during sleep. Extrinsic factors such as atypical craniofacial features may increase the risks of airway collapse. We review early development of oral-facial structures and the anatomical variants that may be present at birth and can impact nasal breathing. After birth, there is a continuous interaction between orofacial functions and growth of anatomic features. We review the dysfunctions identified to date that may impact orofacial development leading to sleep-disordered-breathing through changes in the orofacial growth...
July 6, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073101/utx-guided-neural-crest-function-underlies-craniofacial-features-of-kabuki-syndrome
#15
Karl B Shpargel, Joshua Starmer, Chaochen Wang, Kai Ge, Terry Magnuson
Kabuki syndrome, a congenital craniofacial disorder, manifests from mutations in an X-linked histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase (UTX/KDM6A) or a H3 lysine 4 methylase (KMT2D). However, the cellular and molecular etiology of histone-modifying enzymes in craniofacial disorders is unknown. We now establish Kabuki syndrome as a neurocristopathy, whereby the majority of clinical features are modeled in mice carrying neural crest (NC) deletion of UTX, including craniofacial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, and postnatal growth retardation...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069552/-i-xenopus-i-embryos-to-study-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-a-model-for-environmental-teratogenesis
#16
Abraham Fainsod, Hadas Kot-Leibovich
Vertebrate model systems are central to characterize the outcomes of ethanol exposure and the etiology of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), taking advantage of their genetic and morphological closeness and similarity to humans. We discuss the contribution of amphibian embryos to FASD research, focusing on <i>Xenopus</i> embryos. The <i>Xenopus</i> experimental system is characterized by external development and accessibility throughout embryogenesis, large clutch sizes, gene and protein activity manipulation, transgenesis and genome editing, convenient chemical treatment, explants and conjugates and many other experimental approaches...
October 25, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058096/craniofacial-height-in-relation-to-cross-sectional-maxillary-and-mandibular-morphology
#17
Anna Klinge, Karin Becktor, Christina Lindh, Jonas P Becktor
BACKGROUND: In order to gain a better understanding of how growth of the alveolar bone is linked to the vertical development of the face, the purpose of this study was to investigate if there is an association between the cross-sectional morphology of the maxillary and mandibular bodies with the craniofacial height, using images from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: From 450 pre-treatment CBCT scans, 180 were selected to be included in the study. Lateral head images were generated from the CBCT scans and were used to categorise subjects into three groups based on their vertical craniofacial height...
October 23, 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056355/three-dimensional-macroporous-materials-for-tissue-engineering-of-craniofacial-bone
#18
REVIEW
Akhilesh Kumar Shakya, Umadevi Kandalam
Repair of critical-size defects caused by trauma, removal of a tumour, or congenital abnormalities is a challenge in the craniomaxillofacial region because of the limitations associated with treatment. We have reviewed research papers and updated information relevant to the various types of macroporous scaffolds. We have included papers on several biomaterials and their use in various craniofacial defects such as mandibular, calvarial, and others, as well as the latest technological developments such as 3-dimensional printed scaffolds...
November 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019756/imaging-of-skeletal-disorders-caused-by-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-gene-mutations
#19
Kiran M Sargar, Achint K Singh, Simon C Kao
Fibroblast growth factors and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play important roles in human axial and craniofacial skeletal development. FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 are crucial for both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Mutations in the genes encoding FGFRs, types 1-3, are responsible for various skeletal dysplasias and craniosynostosis syndromes. Many of these disorders are relatively common in the pediatric population, and diagnosis is often challenging. These skeletal disorders can be classified based on which FGFR is affected...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977337/ankyloglossia-and-its-influence-on-growth-and-development-of-the-stomatognathic-system
#20
Livia Eisler Pompéia, Roberta Simoni Ilinsky, Cristina Lúcia Feijó Ortolani, Kurt Faltin
OBJECTIVE: To critically examine the existing Brazilian and International scientific literature regarding the influence of short lingual frenulum over growth and development of the stomatognathic system, as well as how it impacts the achievement of the shape-function balance. DATA SOURCES: An electronic literature search was conducted in databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, LILACS, SciELO, and ScienceDirect, using the key words "lingual frenum" and "development", as well as their equivalents in Brazilian Portuguese...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
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