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craniofacial growth and development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005824/anthropometrically-based-surgical-technique-for-tessier-3-cleft-reconstruction
#1
Aaron L Morgan, Roger Cason, Christian A El Amm
Craniofacial clefts are rare entities, with an incidence reported as 1.43 to 4.85 per 100,000 births. The Tessier number 3 cleft, the most medial of the oblique clefts, can manifest as clefting of the lip between the canine and lateral incisors, colobomas of the nasal ala and lower eyelid, and inferior displacement of the medial canthus-frequently disrupting the lacrimal system with extreme variability in expressivity (Eppley).Literature on cleft lip repair is extensive and has evolved to incorporate anthropometric techniques, based on identifiable landmarks and anthropometric measurements that are compared with contralateral unaffected anatomy or population means and tracked over time to assess impact on growth...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986804/dwarfism-and-altered-craniofacial-development-in-rabbits-is-caused-by-a-12-1-kb-deletion-at-the-hmga2-locus
#2
Miguel Carneiro, Dou Hu, John Archer, Chungang Feng, Sandra Afonso, Congying Chen, José A Blanco-Aguiar, Hervé Garreau, Samuel Boucher, Paula G Ferreira, Nuno Ferrand, Carl-Johan Rubin, Leif Andersson
The dwarf phenotype characterizes the smallest of rabbit breeds and is governed largely by the effects of a single dwarfing allele with an incompletely dominant effect on growth. Dwarf rabbits typically weigh under 1 kg and have altered craniofacial morphology. The dwarf allele is a recessive lethal and dwarf homozygotes die within a few days of birth. The dwarf phenotype is expressed in heterozygous individuals and rabbits from dwarf breeds homozygous for the wild-type allele are normal, although smaller when compared to other breeds...
December 16, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959899/effects-of-in-utero-thyroxine-exposure-on-murine-cranial-suture-growth
#3
R Nicole Howie, Emily L Durham, Laurel Black, Grace Bennfors, Trish E Parsons, Mohammed E Elsalanty, Jack C Yu, Seth M Weinberg, James J Cray
Large scale surveillance studies, case studies, as well as cohort studies have identified the influence of thyroid hormones on calvarial growth and development. Surveillance data suggests maternal thyroid disorders (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism with pharmacological replacement, and Maternal Graves Disease) are linked to as much as a 2.5 fold increased risk for craniosynostosis. Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of one or more calvarial growth sites (sutures) prior to the completion of brain expansion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958599/association-between-oral-habits-mouth-breathing-and-malocclusion
#4
C Grippaudo, E G Paolantonio, G Antonini, R Saulle, G La Torre, R Deli
The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion...
October 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943041/gestational-di-n-butyl-phthalate-exposure-induced-developmental-and-teratogenic-anomalies-in-rats-a-multigenerational-assessment
#5
P Mahaboob Basha, M J Radha
With the limited but ongoing usage of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as plasticizer, the health effects of both phthalate and its alternatives are far from being understood. Multigenerational effects of phthalates were evaluated in rats upon exposure to DBP, aiming to provide some evidences about its potential in causing developmental teratogenicity. Gestational rats were exposed to DBP (500 mg/kg bw/day) and control groups with olive oil. On the 18th day of gestation, fetuses (F1) isolated from a few dams were subjected to prenatal screening, and the other rats were allowed to litter, and later postnatal screening was made...
December 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930467/ankylosis-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-and-reconstruction-with-a-costochondral-graft-in-a-patient-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#6
Valtuir Barbosa Felix, Dhayanna Rolemberg Gama Cabral, Alana Beatriz Wanderley de Almeida, Elionai Dias Soares, Katharina Jucá de Moraes Fernandes
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the most common inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic disease in children, consists of a heterogeneous group of diseases with 7 distinct subtypes. Involvement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in JIA varies from 17% to 87%, and can alter craniofacial growth due to damage to the condylar growth center. This study was a literature review and clinical report of bilateral ankylosis of the TMJ in a 13-year-old patient with polyarticular JIA. Temporomandibular joint reconstruction with a costochondral graft was carried out...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924807/genetic-and-molecular-analyses-indicate-independent-effects-of-tgifs-on-nodal-and-gli3-in-neural-tube-patterning
#7
Kenichiro Taniguchi, Anoush E Anderson, Tiffany A Melhuish, Anne L Carlton, Arkadi Manukyan, Ann E Sutherland, David Wotton
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a prevalent craniofacial developmental disorder that has both genetic and environmental causes. The gene encoding TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1) is among those that are routinely screened in HPE patients. However, the mechanisms by which TGIF1 variants cause HPE are not fully understood. TGIF1 is a transcriptional repressor that limits the output of the Transforming Growth Factor ß (TGFß)/Nodal signaling pathway, and HPE in patients with TGIF1 variants has been suggested to be due to increased Nodal signaling...
February 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920634/frontonasal-dysplasia-towards-an-understanding-of-molecular-and-developmental-aetiology
#8
REVIEW
Peter G Farlie, Naomi L Baker, Patrick Yap, Tiong Y Tan
The complex anatomy of the skull and face arises from the requirement to support multiple sensory and structural functions. During embryonic development, the diverse component elements of the neuro- and viscerocranium must be generated independently and subsequently united in a manner that sustains and promotes the growth of the brain and sensory organs, while achieving a level of structural integrity necessary for the individual to become a free-living organism. While each of these individual craniofacial components is essential, the cranial and facial midline lies at a structural nexus that unites these disparately derived elements, fusing them into a whole...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890229/maxillofacial-defects-and-the-use-of-growth-factors
#9
REVIEW
Alan S Herford, Meagan Miller, Fabrizio Signorino
The development and increase in knowledge of the benefits and applications of growth factors in craniofacial reconstruction adds a novel tool in the reconstructive surgeon's armamentarium. The use of growth factors varies according to presentation. Growth factors help to promote healing, angiogenesis, and formation of bone of improved quality and quantity. Growth factors used with stem cells and scaffolds provide a solution or alternative to discomfort created by donor autograft sites. The application and results of these growth factors are displayed in various examples of maxillofacial defects in this article, including reconstruction of a premaxillary cleft and of maxillary augmentation...
February 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880803/wdr68-mediates-dorsal-and-ventral-patterning-events-for-craniofacial-development
#10
Estibaliz Alvarado, Mina Yousefelahiyeh, Greg Alvarado, Robin Shang, Taryn Whitman, Andrew Martinez, Yang Yu, Annie Pham, Anish Bhandari, Bingyan Wang, Robert M Nissen
Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856617/pdgfr%C3%AE-regulates-craniofacial-development-through-homodimers-and-functional-heterodimers-with-pdgfr%C3%AE
#11
Katherine A Fantauzzo, Philippe Soriano
Craniofacial development is a complex morphogenetic process, disruptions in which result in highly prevalent human birth defects. While platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor α (PDGFRα) has well-documented functions in this process, the role of PDGFRβ in murine craniofacial development is not well established. We demonstrate that PDGFRα and PDGFRβ are coexpressed in the craniofacial mesenchyme of mid-gestation mouse embryos and that ablation of Pdgfrb in the neural crest lineage results in increased nasal septum width, delayed palatal shelf development, and subepidermal blebbing...
November 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856378/residual-craniofacial-growth-a-cephalometric-study-of-50-cases
#12
Youssef Oualalou, Malik Ahmed Antouri, André Pujol, Fatima Zaoui, Mohamed Faouzi Azaroual
Although orthodontists focus intensively on the diagnosis and treatment of their patients, they pay less attention to post-treatment development and the risk of relapse often caused by the late growth of the arches and bony base. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the growth changes, which can affect craniofacial dimensions in subjects aged between 13 and 17 years. A retrospective longitudinal study including 50 patients (31 girls and 19 boys) whose end of orthodontic treatment coincided with the end of the post-pubertal period (13-14 years) involved a comparison of the cephalometric analyses for each patient between T1 (end of orthodontic treatment) and T2 (end of retention)...
December 2016: International Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775805/craniofacial-morphology-and-airflow-in-children-with-primary-snoring
#13
V Luzzi, G Di Carlo, M Saccucci, G Ierardo, E Guglielmo, M Fabbrizi, A M Zicari, M Duse, F Occasi, G Conti, E Leonardi, A Polimeni
OBJECTIVE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is among the most common diseases and includes a group of pathological conditions that form a severity continuum from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). SDB presents a multifactorial etiology and in children, it is often linked to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, which may lead to an alteration of the breathing pattern. Therefore, several studies hinted at the existence of a correlation between SDB and the alteration of craniofacial growth...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765101/-nasopharyngeal-changes-in-8-13-years-old-healthy-children-in-china-a-longitudinal-study
#14
S S Liu, J R Deng, D S Wang, X Gong, Y H Zhou, X M Gao
Objective: Nasopharynx is an important compartment of the upper airway. It is closely associated with the characteristic craniofacial skeletal pattern related to sleep breathing. The present study aimed to investigate the growth pattern of the nasopharynx during rapid puberty growth period. Methods: Thirty non-snoring children (aged 8 to 11 years old) were selected by means of questionnaires and clinical examination. Periodic yearly follow up using MRI, lateral cephalogram, and polysomnograph (PSG) was done in these children...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761424/teratogenic-effects-of-silymarin-on-mouse-fetuses
#15
Mahbobe Gholami, Seyed Adel Moallem, Mohammad Afshar, Sakineh Amoueian, Leila Etemad, Gholamreza Karimi
OBJECTIVE: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs)...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759410/clarifying-the-mechanism-of-effect-of-the-bionator-for-treatment-of-maxillary-protrusion-a-percentile-growth-study
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
H Oda, M Sandou, C-M Lin, M Kamata, T Kawata
AIM: The reported effects of Bionator treatment in patients with mandibular retrognathism are conflicting. This study evaluated the changes in craniofacial morphology resulting from treatment with a Bionator, based on measurement percentiles previously reported, to clarify the mechanism of the effect of this commonly used functional device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study Design: Retrospective. SETTING: A private orthodontic clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two children (mean age, 10...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755407/anthropometrically-based-surgical-technique-for-tessier-3-cleft-reconstruction
#17
Aaron L Morgan, Roger Cason, Christian A El Amm
Craniofacial clefts are rare entities, with an incidence reported as 1.43 to 4.85 per 100,000 births. The Tessier number 3 cleft, the most medial of the oblique clefts, can manifest as clefting of the lip between the canine and lateral incisors, colobomas of the nasal ala and lower eyelid, and inferior displacement of the medial canthus-frequently disrupting the lacrimal system with extreme variability in expressivity (Eppley).Literature on cleft lip repair is extensive and has evolved to incorporate anthropometric techniques, based on identifiable landmarks and anthropometric measurements that are compared with contralateral unaffected anatomy or population means and tracked over time to assess impact on growth...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726836/-normal-and-pathologic-mandible-development-practical-deductions-in-maxillo-dento-facial-orthopedics
#18
Jean-Michel Salagnac
INTRODUCTION: The mandible consists of different segments, each of which possess its own specific characteristics regarding emergence, ossification during growth and pathologies. Orthodontists need to be very familiar with these developmental anomalies if they are to avoid failure in their orthopedic or orthodontic treatments and in order to understand the reasons for the lack of success of "conventional" treatments. Each segment must develop correctly if the mandible is to achieve optimal development and occupy a normal position within the cranio-facial complex...
September 2016: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722998/craniofacial-features-as-assessed-by-lateral-cephalometric-measurements-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#19
Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Nicholas Ching, Eric A Macklin, Lauren Voelz, Gil Weintraub, Emily Davidson, Lisa Albers Prock, Dennis Rosen, Richard Brunn, Brian G Skotko
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to examine the craniofacial development of patients with Down syndrome (DS) and compare them with a neurotypical population. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs of participants with DS. The study population consisted of children and young adults with DS aged 3-25 years. Cephalometric data were summarized by age and sex. Raw and normalized z-scores were computed. One-sample t tests were used to test whether mean z-scores differed from zero...
December 2016: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716739/the-effect-of-a-functional-appliance-in-the-management-of-temporomandibular-joint-disorders-in-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#20
Gaetano Isola, Luca Ramaglia, Giancarlo Cordasco, Alessandra Lucchese, Luca Fiorillo, Giovanni Matarese
BACKGROUND: Patients affected by Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) may have several craniofacial growth disturbances and involvements at the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of functional therapy used to reduce asymmetry of mandibular growth and TMJ disorder in patients with JIA. METHODS: By a retrospective longitudinal design, a cohort of 54 patients with JIA (mean age, 13.2 ± 3.7 years; range, 5-17...
September 13, 2016: Minerva Stomatologica
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