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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351716/effect-of-metformin-on-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Haiyang Meng, Ailing Zhang, Yan Liang, Jie Hao, Xiaojian Zhang, Jingli Lu
BACKGROUND: For T1D patients, adding metformin to insulin therapies is thought to improve blood glucose levels, but current evidence does not support this clinical benefit. Additional data from large clinical trials are now available; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of metformin. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
January 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351713/-living-with-localized-prostate-cancer-decision-making-and-coping-with-the-illness
#2
Friederike Kendel, Isabella Otto, Jennifer Engler, Mark Schrader, Christine Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer must make a choice between treatment strategies that differ considerably in their side effects and have different long-term requirements for coping with the disease. The aim of this study was to describe how men perceive their treatment decision retrospectively and which coping strategies they use. MATERIAL & METHODS: Fifteen men (age mean=67.13±9.38 years) diagnosed with localized prostate cancer participated in three focus groups, grouped according to the treatment strategies radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and active surveillance...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351705/percutaneous-endoscopic-rendezvous-procedure-for-the-management-of-bile-duct-injuries-after-cholecystectomy-short-and-long-term-outcomes
#3
Anne Marthe Schreuder, Klaske A C Booij, Philip R de Reuver, Otto M van Delden, Krijn P van Lienden, Marc G Besselink, Olivier R Busch, Dirk J Gouma, Erik A J Rauws, Thomas M van Gulik
BACKGROUND:  Bile duct injury (BDI) remains a daunting complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In patients with complex BDI, a percutaneous-endoscopic rendezvous procedure may be required to establish bile duct continuity. The aim of this study was to assess short- and long-term outcomes of the rendezvous procedure. METHODS:  All consecutive patients with BDI referred to our tertiary referral center between 1995 and 2016 were analyzed. A rendezvous procedure was performed when endoscopic or radiologic intervention failed, and when deemed feasible by a dedicated multidisciplinary team including hepatopancreaticobiliary surgeons, gastrointestinal endoscopists, and interventional radiologists...
January 19, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351695/reasons-for-failure-of-systemic-to-pulmonary-artery-shunts-in-neonates
#4
Keti Vitanova, Cornelius Leopold, Jelena Pabst von Ohain, Cordula Wolf, Elisabeth Beran, Rüdiger Lange, Julie Cleuziou
BACKGROUND:  Systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt placement is an established palliative procedure for congenital heart disease. Although it is thought to be a simple operation, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS:  Data for all neonates who underwent surgery for a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt between 2000 and 2016 were reviewed. The study endpoints were shunt failure and shunt-related mortality. Shunt failure was defined as a shunt dysfunction because of thrombosis or stenosis requiring intervention or reoperation; shunt mortality was defined as death because of a shunt dysfunction...
January 19, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351683/novel-bilateral-extracavitary-approach-for-thoracolumbar-decompression
#5
Jeffrey P Mullin, Alvin Y Chan, Emily Bennett, Michael P Steinmetz
BACKGROUND: Bilateral extracavitary approach (BECA) is an option for decompression cases that require a more extended ventral approach. The clear advantage is increased accessibility to the most ventral aspects of the spine from a bilateral perspective. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of thoracic and thoracolumbar decompression and/or reconstruction from BECA. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed reviewing all patients who underwent BECA for thoracolumbar decompression from 2003 to 2012 at our institution...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351678/endoscopic-transcranial-duraplasty-for-rhinoliquorrhea-a-cadaveric-study
#6
Andrea Bartoli, Jean H Fasel, Karl Schaller, Max Jägersberg
BACKGROUND: Repair of the anterior skull base for cerebrospinal fluid leak requires either endoscopic endonasal approach or open transcranial approach. OBJECTIVE: To present a less invasive surgical procedure for sealing of the entire anterior fossa floor for traumatic rhinoliquorrhea. METHODS: Cadaver study in 3 head specimens. Endoscopic placement of a furled bovine pericardial patch bilaterally along the sphenoid ridge and planum in guidewire technique...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351671/a-novel-non-invasive-method-for-evaluating-electroencephalograms-on-laying-hens
#7
Krista N Eberle, Michael P Martin, Sanjay Shah, Ramon D Malheiros, Kimberly A Livingston, Kenneth E Anderson
The use of electroencephalograms (EEG) to study the avian brain relative to behavior was conducted as early as the 1960's. EEG readings, combined with visual cues, provide the ability to elucidate and correlate behaviors to neurological and physiological changes in a chicken. The use of EEG recordings in animal models require access to the brain to implant electrodes. Having the ability to observe EEG activity on sensible birds without surgical implantation could broaden the research in this area and give further insight related to the hen's state of awareness...
January 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351670/comparison-of-two-methods-for-determination-of-intestinal-villus-to-crypt-ratios-and-documentation-of-early-age-associated-ratio-changes-in-broiler-chickens
#8
F D Wilson, T S Cummings, T M Barbosa, C J Williams, P D Gerard, E D Peebles
The determination of intestinal villus to crypt ratios (VCR) is a common method utilized to evaluate effects of various diet regimens on gut microanatomy and for the histologic quantification of intestinal responses to disease processes. Two methods for the determination of small intestinal VCR were compared in early age chickens. A standard method for VCR determination based on 10 villus and crypt length measurements in the jejunal region of the small intestine was employed for the calculation of villus to crypt length ratio (VCLR)...
January 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351653/calibration-of-gafchromic-ebt3-film-for-dosimetry-of-scanning-proton-pencil-beam-pbs
#9
D Krzempek, G Mianowska, N Bassler, L Stolarczyk, R Kopec, B Sas-Korczynska, P Olko
Gafchromic EBT3 films are applied in proton radiotherapy for 2D dose mapping because they demonstrate spatial resolution well below 1 mm. However, the film response must be corrected in order to reach the accuracy of dose measurements required for the clinical use. The in-house developed AnalyseGafchromic software allows to analyze and correct the measured response using triple channel dose calibration, statistical scan-to-scan fluctuations as well as experimentally determined dose and LET dependence. Finally, the optimized protocol for evaluation of response of Gafchromic EBT3 films was applied to determine 30 × 40 cm2 dose profiles of the scanning therapy unit at the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice, CCB in Krakow, Poland...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351651/radiotherapy-proton-beam-profilometry-with-sccvd-diamond-detector-in-single-particle-mode
#10
Marzena Rydygier, Marcin Jastrzab, Dawid Krzempek, Tomasz Nowak, Leszek Grzanka, Piotr Bednarczyk, Liliana Stolarczyk
Proton radiotherapy requires precise knowledge of the volumetric dose distribution. In proton beam delivery systems, based on narrow pencil beams, a contribution from small doses in low-intensity regions, consisting mainly of scattered protons, may have not negligible influence on total dose delivered to patient. Insufficient information about dose profile can cause underestimation of dose and potential delivery of inflated dose during hadrontherapy treatment. Presented work aims to verify applicability of diamond detectors, produced by Chemical Vapor Deposition method, for therapeutic proton beam profilometry at large fields...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351623/development-of-sugar-chain-binding-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibody-to-adult-t-cell-leukemia-cells-using-glyco-nanotechnology-and-phage-display-method
#11
Kaname Muchima, Taro Todaka, Hiroyuki Shinchi, Ayaka Sato, Arisa Tazoe, Rikiya Aramaki, Yuhei Kakitsubata, Risa Yokoyama, Naomichi Arima, Masanori Baba, Masahiro Wakao, Yuji Ito, Yasuo Suda
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an intractable blood cancer caused by the infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1, and effective medical treatment is required. It is known that the structure and expression levels of cell surface sugar chains vary depending on cell states such as inflammation and cancer. Thus, it is expected that the antibody specific for ATL cell surface sugar chain would be an effective diagnostic tool and a strong candidate for the development of an anti-ATL drug. Here, we developed a stable sugar chain binding single chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) that can bind to ATL cells using a fiber type Sugar Chip and phage display method...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351592/outcome-after-long-segment-tracheal-resection-study-of-52-cases
#12
Tarek Mohsen, Amany Abou Zeid, Ihab Abdelfattah, Mohammed Mosleh, Waleed Adel, Ashraf Helal
OBJECTIVES: Resection of long-segment trachea is challenging, and although 50% of adult trachea can be removed, anastomotic complications arise proportionally. Different release manoeuvres have been described to gain length and reduce tension at the suture line. The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome when different release manoeuvres have been utilized during resection and reconstruction of the trachea. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2015, 52 patients with long segments of trachea ≥40 mm requiring resection and reconstruction were treated at our institute...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351584/the-roles-of-left-versus-right-anterior-temporal-lobes-in-semantic-memory-a-neuropsychological-comparison-of-postsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#13
Grace E Rice, Helen Caswell, Perry Moore, Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The presence and degree of specialization between the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) is a key issue in debates about the neural architecture of semantic memory. Here, we comprehensively assessed multiple aspects of semantic cognition in a large group of postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with left versus right anterior temporal lobectomy (n = 40). Both subgroups showed deficits in expressive and receptive verbal semantic tasks, word and object recognition, naming and recognition of famous faces and perception of faces and emotions...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351570/joint-adolescent-adult-early-phase-clinical-trials-to-improve-access-to-new-drugs-for-adolescents-with-cancer-proposals-from-the-multi-stakeholder-platform-accelerate
#14
N Gaspar, L V Marshall, D Binner, R Herold, R Rousseau, P Blanc, R Capdeville, J Carleer, C Copland, Y Kerloeguen, K Norga, L Pacaud, M-A Sevaux, C Spadoni, J Sterba, F Ligas, T Taube, M Uttenreuther-Fischer, S Chioato, M A O'Connell, B Geoerger, J-Y Blay, J C Soria, S Kaye, B Wulff, L Brugières, G Vassal, A D J Pearson
The impressive progress recently observed in adult cancers through the introduction of new drugs has not yet been translated to adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Currently adolescents are grouped with children, so their access to new, effective drugs already available for adults is delayed because paediatric drug development starts late relative to adult programmes. Moreover, specific early phase trials designed exclusively for adolescents in rare diseases recruit poorly, even if conducted internationally...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351566/patterns-in-reef-fish-assemblages-insights-from-the-chagos-archipelago
#15
Melita Samoilys, Ronan Roche, Heather Koldewey, John Turner
Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351520/beyond-clinical-complexity-non-medical-barriers-to-nursing-home-care-for-rural-residents
#16
Carrie Henning-Smith, Katy B Kozhimannil, Michelle M Casey, Shailendra Prasad
We conducted a qualitative content analysis of barriers to nursing home admission for rural residents. Data came from semi-structured interviews with 23 rural hospital discharge planners across five states (Georgia, Idaho, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin). From those, we identified four themes around non-medical barriers to rural nursing home placement with particular salience in rural areas: financial issues; transportation; nursing home availability and infrastructure; and timeliness. We also identified policy and programmatic interventions across four themes: loosen bureaucratic requirements; improve communication between facilities; increase rural long-term care capacity; and address underlying social determinants of health...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351515/understanding-key-mechanisms-of-exercise-induced-cardiac-protection-to-mitigate-disease-current-knowledge-and-emerging-concepts
#17
Bianca C Bernardo, Jenny Y Y Ooi, Kate L Weeks, Natalie L Patterson, Julie R McMullen
The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte growth and proliferation. We discuss in detail the effects of exercise on other cardiac cells, organelles, and systems that have received less or little attention and require further investigation...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351504/a-systematic-literature-review-of-physiotherapy-and-rehabilitation-approaches-to-lower-limb-amputation
#18
Özlem Ülger, Tezel Yıldırım Şahan, Seher Erol Çelik
BACKGROUND: Successful use of prostheses after lower-limb amputation (LLA) depends on undergoing physiotherapy and rehabilitation both physically and psychologically. The aim of this systematic literature review is to systematically review the scientific evidence regarding prosthetic rehabilitation and physiotherapy after LLA. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and EMB Reviews databases on December 31, 2015...
January 19, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351501/pediatric-anaphylaxis-in-the-prehospital-setting-incidence-characteristics-and-management
#19
Emily Andrew, Ziad Nehme, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
OBJECTIVE: Although hospital presentations for pediatric anaphylaxis have been described in the literature, a minimal amount is known regarding the incidence, characteristics, and management of pediatric anaphylaxis presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of pediatrics (≤16 years) presenting to EMS in Victoria, Australia. Patients with suspected anaphylaxis were included if they were treated with epinephrine before or after EMS arrival...
January 19, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351496/implementation-of-a-prehospital-protocol-change-for-asthmatic-children
#20
Anriada Nassif, Daniel G Ostermayer, Kim B Hoang, Mary K Claiborne, Elizabeth A Camp, Manish I Shah
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress due to asthma is a common reason for pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) transports. Timely initiation of asthma treatment, including glucocorticoids, improves hospital outcomes. The impact of EMS-administered glucocorticoids on hospital-based outcomes for pediatric asthma patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an evidence-based pediatric EMS asthma protocol update, inclusive of oral glucocorticoid administration, on time to hospital discharge...
January 19, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
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