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sympathetic nerve system

Mazher Mohammed, Christopher J Madden, Kim J Burchiel, Shaun F Morrison
Modest cold exposures are likely to activate autonomic thermogenic mechanisms due to activation of cutaneous thermal afferents, whereas central thermosensitive neurons set the background tone on which this afferent input is effective. In addition, more prolonged or severe cold exposures that overwhelm cold defense mechanisms would directly activate thermosensitive neurons within the central nervous system. Here, we examined the involvement of the canonical brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathoexcitatory efferent pathway in the response to direct local cooling of the preoptic area (POA) in urethane-chloralose anesthetized rats...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Bernhard A Sabel, Jiaqi Wang, Lizbeth Cárdenas-Morales, Muneeb Faiq, Christine Heim
The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Cristina Barrena López, Beatriz De la Calle García, Rosario Sarabia Herrero
Ganglioneuroma (GN) is a slow-growing tumor originating from the neural crest-derived cells, which form the sympathetic nervous system. These tumors can affect anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites, being most commonly found in the mediastinum and retroperitoneum. Spinal GNs are extremely rare and, so far, only 1 case arising from a lumbar nerve root has been reported in English literature. GNs are often asymptomatic, and the majority of them, are found incidentally in healthy subjects. Due to its slow growth, symptoms may result from the compressive effect of the tumor...
June 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Evilin Naname Komegae, David George Stephen Farmer, Virginia Leah Brooks, Michael Joseph McKinley, Robin Michael McAllen, Davide Martelli
Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) is a novel strategy used to treat inflammatory conditions. Therapeutic VNS activates both efferent and afferent fibers; however, the effects attributable to vagal afferent stimulation are unclear. Here, we tested if selective activation of afferent fibers in the abdominal vagus suppresses systemic inflammation. In urethane-anesthetized rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 60 µg/kg, i.v.), abdominal afferent VNS (2 Hz for 20 min) reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) levels 90 min later by 88% compared with unmanipulated animals...
June 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Lei Cao, Stuart L Graham, Paul M Pilowsky
BACKGROUND: It is reported that glaucoma may be associated with vascular dysregulation. Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), which feature different intraocular pressure levels, may manifest differential features of systemic autonomic dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated autonomic regulation to carbohydrate ingestion and postural change in 37 glaucoma patients (19 NTG and 18 POAG) and 36 controls. Subjects were age and gender-matched, normotensive, and had normal comparable insulin sensitivity...
2018: PloS One
Xiaohua Huang, Shereen M Hamza, Wenqing Zhuang, William A Cupples, Branko Braam
Increased central venous pressure and renal venous pressure (RVP) is associated with worsening of renal function in acute exacerbation of congestive heart failure. We tested whether an acute, isolated elevation of RVP in one kidney leads to ipsilateral renal vasoconstriction and decreased GFR and whether this depends on dietary salt intake or activation of renal nerves. Male Lewis rats received a normal (1% NaCl, NS) or high salt diet (6% NaCl, HS) for {greater than or equal to}14 days before the acute experiment...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Satoshi Orimo, Estifanos Ghebremedhin, Ellen Gelpi
It is a well-established fact that the sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems are affected at early stages in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not yet clarified whether the earliest pathological events preferentially occur in any of these three divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Significant involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system of the heart and gastrointestinal tract has been documented in PD. Accumulating evidence suggests that the PD pathology spreads centripetally from the peripheral to central nervous system through autonomic nerve fibers, implicating the ANS as a major culprit in PD pathogenesis and a potential target for therapy...
June 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, Allan K Hansen, Michael Sommerauer, Marit Otto, Kristina B Svendsen, Adjmal Nahimi, Morten G Stokholm, Nicola Pavese, Christoph P Beier, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that α-synuclein aggregates-a defining pathology of Parkinson's disease-display cell-to-cell transmission. α-synuclein aggregation is hypothesised to start in autonomic nerve terminals years before the appearance of motor symptoms, and subsequently spread via autonomic nerves to the spinal cord and brainstem. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated sympathetic, parasympathetic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic innervation in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder, a prodromal phenotype of Parkinson's disease...
June 1, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Bader Mohammed Alim, Mohammed Jomah, Majid Al-Thobaiti
Schwannoma (neurilemmoma) is a benign tumour that arises from the Schwann cells which cover the nerve sheaths of the peripheral or autonomic nervous system especially the sympathetic system. Reported cases of schwannoma arising from the sinonasal tract are rare. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery clinic with left cheek swelling and left-sided nasal obstruction for 1-year period. Endoscopic examination and high-resolution CT scan revealed a homogenous expansile mass occupying the left maxillary antrum extending to the left orbit and left ethmoidal air cells...
May 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Toru Kawada, Shuji Shimizu, Yohsuke Hayama, Hiromi Yamamoto, Keita Saku, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
Although diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, changes in open-loop static and dynamic characteristics of the arterial baroreflex in the early phase of DM remain to be clarified. We performed open-loop systems analysis of the carotid sinus baroreflex in type 1 DM rats 4 to 5 weeks after intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (n=9) and compared the results with control rats (n=9). The operating-point baroreflex gain was maintained in the DM rats compared with the control rats (2...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Marat Fudim, W Schuyler Jones, Richard L Boortz-Marx, Arun Ganesh, Cynthia L Green, Adrian F Hernandez, Manesh R Patel
The abdominal vascular compartment is the main storage of intravascular blood volume, and decreased abdominal vascular capacitance has been proposed as a major contributor to the complex pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) in animals and humans.1, 2 In HF, as a result of neurohormonal imbalance, the vascular capacitance ("storage-space") is decreased and acute sympathetic nerve activation can result in acute volume redistribution3 from the abdominal compartment to the thoracic compartment (heart and lungs), which increases intra-cardiac pressures and precipitates HF symptoms (Figure 1A)...
May 25, 2018: Circulation
Eva V L Roloff, Dawid Walas, Davi J A Moraes, Sergey Kasparov, Julian F R Paton
KEY POINTS: Essential hypertension is associated with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypoperfusion of the brainstem area controlling arterial pressure. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of vertebrobasilar arteries may regulate blood perfusion to the brainstem. Thus, we examined the autonomic innervation of these arteries in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats relative to age-matched Wistar rats. Our main findings were: An unexpected decrease in noradrenergic sympathetic innervation in PHSH and SH compared to Wistar rats despite elevated sympathetic drive in PHSH rats A dramatic deficit in cholinergic and peptidergic parasympathetic innervation in PHSH and SH compared to Wistar rats Denervation of sympathetic fibres did not alter vertebrobasilar artery morphology or arterial pressure Our results support a compromised vasodilatory capacity in PHSH and SH rat compared to Wistars, which may explain their hypo-perfused brainstem...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
F Edward Hickman, Emily M Stanley, Bruce D Carter
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an integral role in patterning the sympathetic nervous system during development. Initially, p75NTR is expressed at low levels as sympathetic axons project toward their targets, which enables neurotrophin-3 (NT3) to activate TrkA receptors and promote growth. Upon reaching nerve growth factor (NGF) producing tissues, p75NTR is up regulated resulting in formation of TrkA-p75 complexes, which are high affinity binding sites selective for NGF, thereby blunting NT3 signaling...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Brad Bolon, Georg Krinke, Mark T Butt, Deepa B Rao, Ingrid D Pardo, Bernard S Jortner, Robert H Garman, Karl Jensen, Lydia Andrews-Jones, James P Morrison, Alok K Sharma, Michael S Thibodeau
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) toxicity is surveyed inconsistently in nonclinical general toxicity studies. These Society of Toxicologic Pathology "best practice" recommendations are designed to ensure consistent, efficient, and effective sampling, processing, and evaluation of PNS tissues for four different situations encountered during nonclinical general toxicity (screening) and dedicated neurotoxicity studies. For toxicity studies where neurotoxicity is unknown or not anticipated (situation 1), PNS evaluation may be limited to one sensorimotor spinal nerve...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Jianling Li, Qiaoling He, Qingjie Li, Rongjie Huang, Xiaoyan Wei, Xiaofeng Pan, Weifeng Wu
To determine whether the sympathetic nerve plays a role in the regulation of Na+ -H+ exchange (NHE) in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we investigated the expression of NHE and NHE regulatory protein family (NHERF) in the denervated kidneys compared with intact kidneys. Twelve-week-old male SHR and age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used. SHR were randomly assigned to the renal denervated (RDNX, n = 8) or Sham (n = 8) groups. The protein and mRNA expression of NHE1, NHE3, NHERF1 and NHERF2 were assessed in the kidney of the groups...
May 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Eunbi Ye, Jinhwan Baik, Seunghyun Lee, Seon Young Ryu, Sunchoel Yang, Eue-Keun Choi, Won Hoon Song, Hyeong Dong Yuk, Chang Wook Jeong, Sung-Min Park
PURPOSE: In this study, we propose a novel laparoscopy-based renal denervation (RDN) system for treating patients with resistant hypertension. In this feasibility study, we investigated whether our proposed surgical instrument can ablate renal nerves from outside of the renal artery safely and effectively and can overcome the depth-related limitations of the previous catheter-based system with less damage to the arterial walls. METHOD: We designed a looped bipolar electrosurgical instrument to be used with laparoscopy-based RDN system...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Ionut Tudorancea, Thomas E Lohmeier, Barbara T Alexander, Dragos Pieptu, Dragomir N Serban, Radu Iliescu
Aim: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is common in resistant hypertension (RHT) and also in chronic kidney disease (CKD), a prevalent condition among resistant hypertensives. However, renal nerve ablation lowers blood pressure (BP) only in some patients with RHT. The influence of loss of nephrons per se on the antihypertensive response to renal denervation (RDNx) is unclear and was the focus of this study. Methods: Systemic hemodynamics and sympathetically mediated low frequency oscillations of systolic BP were determined continuously from telemetrically acquired BP recordings in rats before and after surgical excision of ∼80% of renal mass and subsequent RDNx...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Y Wang, F Huo
BACKGROUND: Early hyperexcitability activity of injured nerve/neuron is critical for developing sympathetic nerve sprouting within dorsal root ganglia (DRG) since lacosamide (LCM), an anticonvulsant, inhibits Na+ channel. The present study tried to test the potential effect of LCM on inhibiting sympathetic sprouting in vivo. METHODS: Lacosamide (50 mg/kg) was daily injected intraperitoneally into rats subjected to chronic compression DRG (CCD), an animal model of neuropathic pain that exhibits sympathetic nerve sprouting, for the 1st 7 days after injury...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
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