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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537567/intraoperative-neuromonitoring-of-hypogastric-plexus-branches-during-surgery-for-rectal-cancer-preliminary-report
#1
Piotr Wałęga, Michał Romaniszyn, Maciej Wałęga, Jarosław Szymon Świrta, Wojciech Nowak
AIM: The aim of this study was to present our preliminary experience with intraoperative neuromonitoring during rectal resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We qualified 4 patients (2 women, 2 men; age 42 - 53 years) with rectal cancer for surgery with intraoperative neuromonitoring. In all patients, functional tests of the anorectal area were performed before surgery. Action potentials from the sphincter complex in response to nerve fiber stimulation were recorded with electrodes implanted before surgery...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536140/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-1-in-the-median-preoptic-nucleus-contributes-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-hypertension
#2
Katelynn E Faulk, T Prashant Nedungadi, J Thomas Cunningham
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in sleep apnea patients and is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a sustained diurnal increase in blood pressure. The renin angiotensin system has been associated with hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central nervous system and has been shown to be regulated by AP-1 transcription factors, such as ΔFosB...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534262/inflammatory-changes-in-paravertebral-sympathetic-ganglia-in-two-rat-pain-models
#3
Ai-Ling Li, Jing-Dong Zhang, Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang
Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533325/physiologic-regulation-of-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-involves-connexin-36-containing-gap-junctions
#4
Varinder K Lall, Gareth Bruce, Larysa Voytenko, Mark Drinkhill, Kerstin Wellershaus, Klaus Willecke, Jim Deuchars, Susan A Deuchars
Chronically elevated sympathetic nervous activity underlies many cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms contributing to sympathetic nervous system output may reveal new avenues of treatment. The contribution of the gap junctional protein connexin 36 (Cx36) to the regulation of sympathetic activity and thus blood pressure and heart rate was determined using a mouse with specific genetic deletion of Cx36. Ablation of the Cx36 protein was confirmed in sympathetic preganglionic neurons of Cx36 knockout (KO) mice...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525647/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-tanezumab-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-nerve-growth-factor-on-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-adult-cynomolgus-monkeys-macaca-fascicularis-a-stereologic-histomorphologic-and-cardiofunctional-assessment
#5
Patrice Belanger, Paul Butler, Mark Butt, Siddhartha Bhatt, Stephen Foote, David Shelton, Mark Evans, Rosalinda Arends, Susan Hurst, Carlin Okerberg, Thomas Cummings, David Potter, Jill Steidl-Nichols, Mark Zorbas
Tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against nerve growth factor is in development for treatment of chronic pain. Three nonclinical studies assessed effects of clinically relevant and supratherapeutic doses of tanezumab on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) of adult nonhuman primates. Study 1 evaluated potential effects of subcutaneous (SC) tanezumab (1.2 mg/kg every 8 weeks [Q8W]) on SNS in cynomolgus monkeys for 3 or 6 months and reversibility or persistence of any effects through a non-dosing/recovery period...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513286/azelnidipine-is-a-useful-medication-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-preserved-ejection-fraction
#6
Shunsuke Kiuchi, Shinji Hisatake, Takayuki Kabuki, Takashi Oka, Shintaro Dobashi, Takahiro Fujii, Takanori Ikeda
BACKGROUND: The optimal therapy in patients with heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and hypertension (HT) has not been revealed. The beta blocker (BB) and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitor (RAAS-I) are recommend as class IIa in patients with HFpEF. The calcium channel blocker (CCB), a major anti-hypertensive drugs in Japan, is also recommend as class IIa in patients with HFpEF. However, the difference between azelnidipine, an L type CCB, and cilnidipine, an N type CCB, is unclear...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503726/baroreflex-dysfunction-and-augmented-sympathetic-nerve-responses-during-mental-stress-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#7
Jeanie Park, Paul J Marvar, Peizhou Liao, Melanie L Kankam, Seth D Norrholm, Ryan M Downey, S Ashley McCullough, Ngoc-Anh Le, Barbara O Rothbaum
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients have augmented sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hemodynamic reactivity during mental stress, and impaired arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 14 otherwise healthy Veterans with combat-related PTSD were compared to 14 matched Controls without PTSD.  Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), continuous blood pressure (BP), and electrocardiography were measured at baseline, and during two types of mental stress:  combat-related mental stress using virtual reality combat exposure (VRCE); and noncombat related stress using mental arithmetic (MA)...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499865/implication-of-altered-autonomic-control-for-orthostatic-tolerance-in-sci
#8
REVIEW
Jill Maria Wecht, William A Bauman
Neural output from the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are integrated to appropriately control cardiovascular responses during routine activities of daily living including orthostatic positioning. Sympathetic control of the upper extremity vasculature and the heart arises from the thoracic cord between T1 and T5, whereas splanchnic bed and lower extremity vasculature receive sympathetic neural input from the lower cord between segments T5 and L2. Although the vasculature is not directly innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, the SA node is innervated by post-ganglionic vagal nerve fibers via cranial nerve X...
May 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494216/cough-reflex-hypersensitivity-a-role-for-neurotrophins
#9
Ahmed Z El-Hashim, Sahar M Jaffal
Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs)...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490450/sedentary-conditions-and-enhanced-responses-to-gaba-in-the-rvlm-role-of-the-contralateral-rvlm
#10
Maryetta D Dombrowski, Patrick J Mueller
A sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and both conditions are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. Ongoing discharge of sympathetic nerves is regulated by the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which in turn is modulated by the primary excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), respectively. We reported previously that sedentary conditions enhance GABAergic modulation of sympathoexcitation in the RVLM, despite overall increased sympathoexcitation...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476589/in-vivo-stimulus-presentation-to-the-mouse-vomeronasal-system-surgery-experiment-setup-and-software
#11
Michal Yoles-Frenkel, Oksana Cohen, Rohini Bansal, Noa Horesh, Yoram Ben-Shaul
BACKGROUND: Achieving controlled stimulus delivery is a major challenge in the physiological analysis of the vomeronasal system (VNS). NEW METHOD: We provide a comprehensive description of a setup allowing controlled stimulus delivery into the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of anesthetized mice. VNO suction is achieved via electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve trunk (SNT) using cuff electrodes, followed by flushing of the nasal cavity. Successful application of this methodology depends on several aspects including the surgical preparation, fabrication of cuff electrodes, experimental setup modifications, and the stimulus delivery and flushing...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469071/tetrahydrobiopterin-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-regulates-systemic-energy-metabolism
#12
Yasuo Oguri, Yoshihito Fujita, Abulizi Abudukadier, Akiko Ohashi, Tsuyoshi Goto, Futoshi Furuya, Akio Obara, Toru Fukushima, Naomi Matsuo, Minji Kim, Masaya Hosokawa, Teruo Kawada, Hiroyuki Hasegawa, Nobuya Inagaki
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a central organ that acts to increase energy expenditure; its regulatory factors could be clinically useful in the treatment of obesity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Although BH4 regulates the known regulatory factors of BAT, such as noradrenaline (NA) and NO, participation of BH4 in BAT function remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the role of BH4 in the regulation of BAT. Hph-1 mice, a mouse model of BH4 deficiency, exhibit obesity, adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired BAT function...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459715/biphasic-renal-sympathetic-response-to-hemorrhagic-hypotension-in-mice
#13
Tao Zhang, Mamoru Tanida, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yoshiro Suzuki, Wei Yang, Yuhichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Makoto Tominaga, Toshishige Shibamoto
AIM: The inhibitory responses of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and heart rate (HR) to sustained hemorrhagic shock occurred in anesthetized rats, but have not yet been determined in mice. Here, we investigated the responses of RSNA and HR to hemorrhagic hypotension in anesthetized mice, with an emphasis on the molecule-based mechanism for roles of afferent vagal nerves. METHODS: RSNA, HR, and mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP) were continuously measured in male pentobarbital-anesthetized C57BL/6N mice...
April 28, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452955/peripheral-nerve-fibers-and-their-neurotransmitters-in-osteoarthritis-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Susanne Grässel, Dominique Muschter
The importance of the nociceptive nervous system for maintaining tissue homeostasis has been known for some time, and it has also been suggested that organogenesis and tissue repair are under neuronal control. Changes in peripheral joint innervation are supposed to be partly responsible for degenerative alterations in joint tissues which contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Various resident cell types of the musculoskeletal system express receptors for sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters, allowing response to peripheral neuronal stimuli...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445258/renal-vascular-calcification-and-response-to-renal-nerve-denervation-in-resistant-hypertension
#15
Annemiek F Hoogerwaard, Mark R de Jong, Ahmet Adiyaman, Jaap Jan J Smit, Peter P H M Delnoy, Jan-Evert Heeg, Boudewijn A A M van Hasselt, Anand R Ramdat Misier, Arif Elvan
Renal sympathetic nerve denervation (RDN) is accepted as a treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. However, results on decline in ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurement (ABPM) are conflicting. The high rate of nonresponders may be related to increased systemic vascular stiffness rather than sympathetic overdrive. A single center, prospective registry including 26 patients with treatment resistant hypertension who underwent RDN at the Isala Hospital in the Netherlands. Renal perivascular calcium scores were obtained from noncontrast computed tomography scans...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442640/left-recumbent-position-decreases-heart-rate-without-alterations-in-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-in-healthy-young-adults
#16
Konosuke Sasaki, Mayu Haga, Yoichi Endo, Junko Fujiwara, Ryoko Maruyama
Some studies have reported that recumbent position may have advantages in patients with heart disease and in pregnancy. However, it remains controversial whether recumbent position affects autonomic nervous system activity and hemodynamics in healthy adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and hemodynamics in the supine, left recumbent and right recumbent positions in healthy young adults. A total of 80 participants aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years were enrolled in this observational study...
April 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424627/blood-pressure-increase-during-oxygen-supplementation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-is-mediated-by-vasoconstriction-independent-of-baroreflex-function
#17
René van der Bel, Müşerref Çalişkan, Robert A van Hulst, Johannes J van Lieshout, Erik S G Stroes, C T Paul Krediet
Renal hypoxia is thought to be an important pathophysiological factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the associated hypertension. In a previous study among CKD patients, supplementation with 100% oxygen reduced sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and lowered blood pressure (BP). We aimed to assess the underlying haemodynamic modulation and hypothesized a decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR). To that end, 19 CKD patients were studied during 15-min intervals of increasing partial oxygen pressure (ppO2) from room air (0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420598/1-5-t-augmented-reality-navigated-interventional-mri-paravertebral-sympathetic-plexus-injections
#18
David R Marker, Paweena U Thainual, Tamas Ungi, Aaron J Flammang, Gabor Fichtinger, Iulian I Iordachita, John A Carrino, Jan Fritz
PURPOSE: The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. METHODS: A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1...
May 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406699/early-morphologic-alterations-in-renal-artery-wall-and-renal-nerves-in-response-to-catheter-based-renal-denervation-procedure-in-sheep-difference-between-single-point-and-multiple-point-ablation-catheters
#19
M Táborský, D Richter, Z Tonar, T Kubíková, A Herman, J Peregrin, L Červenková, Z Husková, L Kopkan
Renal sympathetic hyperactivity is critically involved in hypertension pathophysiology; renal denervation (RDN) presents a novel strategy for treatment of resistant hypertension cases. This study assessed effects of two RDN systems to detect acute intravascular, vascular and peri-vascular changes in the renal artery, and renal nerve alterations, in the sheep. The procedures using a single-point or multi-point ablation catheters, Symplicity Flex(TM), Medtronic versus EnligHTN(TM), St. Jude Medical were compared; the intact contralateral kidneys served as controls...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405788/electroneuromyographic-findings-in-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#20
Deniz Turgut Coban, Tuncay Cakir, Muhammet Kazim Erol, Gulsum Dogan, Berna Dogan, Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz, Naciye Fusun Toraman
PURPOSE: To examine peripheral electroneuromyographic findings in patients with ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and to compare them controls without PEX. METHODS: A case-control study design was used to examine 31 patients with PEX and compare the findings with those of 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination that included peripheral electroneuromyography examination. Motor and sensorial nerve conduction of the median, ulnar, tibial, peroneal, and sural nerve and the sympathetic skin response were measured...
April 12, 2017: International Ophthalmology
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