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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470537/microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-gene-deletion-impairs-neuro-immune-circuitry-of-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-endotoxaemic-mouse-spleen
#1
Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Utsa Karmakar, Erwan Le Maître, Marina Korotkova, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Jon Lampa
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is an innate neural reflex where parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves work jointly to control inflammation. Activation of CAP by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has paved way for novel therapeutic strategies in treating inflammatory diseases. Recently, we discovered that VNS mediated splenic acetylcholine (ACh) release and subsequent immunosuppression in response to LPS associated inflammation is impaired in mice lacking microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression, a key enzyme responsible for prostaglandin E2 synthesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468816/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-revisited
#2
REVIEW
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462779/effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-heart-rate-variability-in-children-with-epilepsy
#3
Tugba Hirfanoglu, Ayse Serdaroglu, Ilker Cetin, Gokhan Kurt, Irem Y Capraz, Filiz Ekici, Ebru Arhan, Erhan Bilir
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on heart rate variability (HRV) in children with epilepsy. METHODS: The subgroups of HRV, namely time domain (Standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN), SDNN index, Standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals (SDANN), Root mean square of successive differences (RMMSD), Adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms in the entire recording divided by the total number of all NN intervals (PNN50), triangular index) and frequency domain (Low-frequency (LF), High-frequency (HF), LF/HF), were investigated in 20 pediatric patients before and after 6 and 12months of VNS treatment during day and night by comparing their data with those of 20 control subjects...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458965/the-sympathetic-nervous-system-drives-tumor-angiogenesis
#4
Hubert Hondermarck, Phillip Jobling
Neurobiology is increasingly contributing to cancer research. Recent work indicates that noradrenaline released by sympathetic adrenergic nerves in prostate cancer can stimulate β-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells. This leads to the alteration of endothelial cell metabolism toward the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and the induction of an angiogenic switch that fuels cancer progression. These findings suggest that the sympathetic nervous system is a higher-level control of tumor angiogenesis that could be targeted in clinical oncology...
February 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447836/sensory-denervation-of-inguinal-white-fat-modifies-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-in-siberian-hamsters
#5
REVIEW
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) have sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and sensory innervations. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed central neuroanatomical evidence of WAT sensory and BAT SNS crosstalk with double labeling of inguinal WAT (IWAT) sensory and interscapular BAT (IBAT) SNS neurons. We previously demonstrated that WAT lipolysis increases IBAT temperature, but this effect is absent when IWAT afferents are surgically denervated, which severs both sensory and SNS nerves...
February 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432726/co-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-protein-gene-product-9-5-surrounding-the-lumen-of-human-schlemm-s-canal
#6
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428807/the-imprint-of-salivary-secretion-in-autoimmune-disorders-and-related-pathological-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Raghupatil Junjappa, Mallikarjun Handigund, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
Xerostomia is a state of oral dryness associated with salivary gland dysfunction and is induced by stress, radiation and chemical therapy, various systemic and autoimmune diseases, and specific medications. Fluid secretion is interrupted by the stimulation of neurotransmitter-induced increase in cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in salivary gland acinar cells, prompting the mobilization of ion channels and their transporters. Salivary fluid and protein secretion are principally dependent on parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415946/development-of-pain-therapies-targeting-nerve-growth-factor-signal-transduction-and-the-strategies-used-to-resolve-safety-issues
#8
Patrice Bélanger, Christine R West, Mark T Brown
Therapeutic agents commonly used in the management of chronic pain have limited effectiveness and may be associated with issues of dependence and tolerability. Thus, a large unmet medical need exists for the development of safe and effective therapeutics for treatment of chronic pain. A novel approach includes identification of intracellular signals involved in the pain transduction pathway, such as nerve growth factor (NGF). Monoclonal antibodies targeting NGF, such as tanezumab, fulranumab and fasinumab, have been investigated for the treatment of chronic pain conditions...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412776/50-years-of-microneurography-learning-the-language-of-the-peripheral-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-humans
#9
J Kevin Shoemaker, Mark B Badrov, Stephen A Klassen, Paul J Fadel
As a primary component of homeostasis, the sympathetic nervous system enables rapid adjustments to stress through its ability to communicate messages among organs and cause targeted and graded end organ responses. Key in this communication model is the pattern of neural signals emanating from the central to peripheral components of the sympathetic nervous system. But what is the communication strategy employed in peripheral sympathetic nerve activity (SNA)? Can we develop and interpret the system of coding in SNA that improves our understanding of the neural control of the circulation? In 1968, Hagbarth and Vallbo reported the first use of microneurographic methods to record sympathetic discharges in peripheral nerves of conscious humans, allowing quantification of SNA at rest and sympathetic responsiveness to physiological stressors in health and disease...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409672/autonomic-nerve-activity-indexed-using-24-h-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-burns
#10
So Young Joo, A Ram Hong, Boung Chul Lee, Jae Hyuk Choi, Cheong Hoon Seo
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive method used to quantify fluctuations in the time interval between normal heart beats. The purpose of this study was to compare the autonomic nervous system functioning of patients with burns to healthy participants after their burn scars had been re-epithelialized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors prospectively performed 24-h HRV monitoring in 60 patients with electrical burns, those with other major burns, those with other minor burns, and 10 healthy participants...
February 3, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408967/effects-of-stellate-ganglion-block-on-analgesia-produced-by-cervical-paravertebral-block-as-established-by-quantitative-sensory-testing-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Luc A Sermeus, Luc E Vanlinthout, Guy H Hans, Tom Schepens, Margaretha B Breebaart, Veerle C Verheyen, Carine J Smitz, Marcel P Vercauteren
Objective: To use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess whether a stellate ganglion block (SGB) modulates the analgesia induced by cervical paravertebral block (CPVB). Design: A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Department of Anesthesia, Antwerp University Hospital, October 2011 to December 2015. Subjects: Twenty-eight adults scheduled for arthroscopy of a nonfractured shoulder were enrolled...
February 2, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399541/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-and-the-liver
#12
REVIEW
Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
The hepatic vagus branches innervate the liver and serve an important role in liver-brain connection. It appears that brain modulates inflammatory responses by activation of vagal efferent fibers. This activation and subsequent acetylcholine releases from vagus nerve terminals leads to inhibition of inflammatory cytokines through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) which located on the surface of different cell types such as liver Kupffer cells. This protective role of vagus-α7nAChR axis in liver diseases has been shown in several experimental studies...
December 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395374/effects-of-weight-changes-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
João Costa, André Moreira, Pedro Moreira, Luís Delgado, Diana Silva
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked to autonomic dysfunction, which is thought to be one of the main contributors for hypertension, cardiac remodelling and death. Exercise and diet-based weight loss are the mainstay therapy for obesity, but there is a paucity of data regarding the effect of weight changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of weight changes in autonomic nervous system. METHODS: A systematic literature search of four biomedical databases was performed evaluating effects of weight changes, thorough diet and/or exercise-based interventions, in the following ANS outcomes: heart rate variability, namely low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio (LF/HF ratio), normalized units of LF (LFnu) and HF (HFnu), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), noradrenaline spillover rate (NA-SR), standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), baroreflex sensitivity and pupillometry...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393857/oscillatory-behavior-of-p-wave-duration-and-pr-interval-in-experimental-congestive-heart-failure-a-preliminary-study
#14
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Damiano Magrì, Gaetana D'Alessandro, Claudia Fiorucci, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Ilaria Parrotta, Masahiro Ogawa, Shien-Fong Lin, Peng-Sheng Chen
The relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of the sinus node and heart rate variability has been extensively investigated. Current study sought to evaluate, in an animal experimental model of pacing-induced tachycardia congestive heart failure (CHF), a possible ANS influence on P wave duration and PR interval oscillations. Short term (5-minutes) time and frequency domain analysis has been obtained in six dogs for the following electrocardiographic intervals: P wave duration (P), from the onset to peak of P wave (Pp), from the onset of P wave to the q onset (PR) and from the end of P wave to the onset of q wave (PeR)...
February 2, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384857/heart-rate-variability-in-normal-tension-glaucoma-a-case-control-study
#15
Natalia Ivanovna Kurysheva, Vitaliy Nikiforovich Shlapak, Tamara Yakovlevna Ryabova
Primary vascular dysregulation (PVD) is believed to be a main cause of local vasospasm and impaired autoregulation as a possible contributing factor in the pathogenesis of normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Subjects with PVD respond stronger to psychological stress. Autonomic dysfunction is another reason of instable ocular blood flow and may be studied by means of assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) especially during a hand-cold provocation test (CPT).To compare the shift of HRV parameters in NTG and healthy subjects after a cold provocation test and to assess the relation between structural damage, circulatory parameters and autonomic dysfunction in NTG...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381137/multivesicular-bodies-mediate-long-range-retrograde-ngf-trka-signaling
#16
Mengchen Ye, Kathryn M Lehigh, David D Ginty
The development of neurons in the peripheral nervous system is dependent on target-derived, long-range retrograde neurotrophic factor signals. The prevailing view is that target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical neurotrophin, and its receptor TrkA are carried retrogradely by early endosomes, which serve as TrkA signaling platforms in cell bodies. Here, we report that the majority of retrograde TrkA signaling endosomes in mouse sympathetic neurons are ultrastructurally- and molecularly-defined multivesicular bodies (MVBs)...
January 30, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380702/biological-and-genetic-features-of-neuroblastoma-and-their-clinical-importance
#17
Nevim Aygun
Neuroblastoma derived from primitive cells of the sympathetic nervous system typically develops in the adrenal medulla or paraspinal ganglia. Neuroblastoma usually occurs sporadically, but familial cases are also observed. ALK and PHOX2B germline mutations can cause hereditary neuroblastoma, while a common genetic variation in chromosome 6p22 is associated to sporadic neuroblastoma. However, the aetiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is not exactly known. This embryonic malignancy generally represents the second most common solid tumour after central nervous system tumours throughout the world in childhood...
January 28, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378730/evidence-for-pressure-independent-sympathetic-modulation-of-central-pulse-wave-velocity
#18
Massimo Nardone, Anthony V Incognito, Philip J Millar
BACKGROUND: Whether the sympathetic nervous system can directly alter central aortic stiffness remains controversial, mainly because of the difficulty in experimentally augmenting peripheral vasoconstrictor activity without changing blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address this limitation, we utilized low-level cardiopulmonary baroreflex loading and unloading shown previously to alter sympathetic outflow without evoking parallel hemodynamic modulation. Blood pressure and carotid-femoral aortic pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) were measured in 32 healthy participants (24±2 years; women: n=15) before and during 12-minute applications of low-level lower body negative pressure; -7 mm Hg) and lower body positive pressure; +7 mm Hg), applied in a random order...
January 29, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374092/mycn-amplified-neuroblastoma-maintains-an-aggressive-and-undifferentiated-phenotype-by-deregulation-of-estrogen-and-ngf-signaling
#19
Johanna Dzieran, Aida Rodriguez Garcia, Ulrica Kristina Westermark, Aine Brigette Henley, Elena Eyre Sánchez, Catarina Träger, Henrik Johan Johansson, Janne Lehtiö, Marie Arsenian-Henriksson
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a remarkably heterogenic childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system with clinical behavior ranging from spontaneous regression to poorly differentiated tumors and metastasis. MYCN is amplified in 20% of cases and correlates with an undifferentiated, aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TrkA and p75NTR are involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. We have previously shown that MYCN, via miR-18a, targets ERα in NB cells...
January 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370733/food-derived-regulatory-factors-against-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Teruo Kawada
Obesity is a key factor in metabolic syndrome. The study of metabolic syndrome focuses on the anti-weight gain properties of physiological mechanisms and food components. Abnormal energy metabolism is a major risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity; cytokines from hypertrophied adipocytes cause inflammation in both adipose tissue and blood vessels, resulting in symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Tumor necrosis factor-α causes insulin resistance in adipocytes and regression of brown adipocytes, resulting in abnormal energy metabolism...
January 26, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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