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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810724/sympathetic-nerve-traffic-and-blood-pressure-changes-after-bilateral-renal-denervation-in-resistant-hypertension-a-time-integrated-analysis
#1
Gino Seravalle, Graziella D'Arrigo, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Gianmaria Brambilla, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Renal denervation reduces blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic drive in experimental animal models, but the effect of this intervention on sympathetic activity in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension is still unclear. Methods: In an incident series of 29 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, we performed serial measurements (n = 123) of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) and standardized BP measurements. Data were analysed by mixed linear modelling (MLM) and by regression analysis of time-integrated changes of both MSNA and synchronous, standardized (in-lab) BP measurements...
August 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808780/non-cns-pathogenic-origin-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Humdoon Choudhry, Lawrence C Perlmuter
The gut with its variety of microbiota may serve as an etiological origin of diseases. Gut microbes may also play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases beyond their simple nutritional maintenance and support. For example, gut protein aggregation, possibly aided by microbes as well as nasal influences, might be linked to disease that may move to the brain through the vagus nerve. To this end, Braak has offered a "dual-hit" hypothesis that proposes a novel etiology for Parkinson's disease (PD). The hypothesis places the initial origin of the disease in the nose and the gastrointestinal tract (GI) after infection by an unknown pathogen that could aggregate in the gut and then eventually spread to the brain via the autonomic plexuses...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807531/absent-cardiac-and-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activities-involvement-in-ross-syndrome-a-follow-up-study
#3
E Fileccia, R Liguori, P Cortelli, V Donadio
PURPOSE: Ross syndrome (RS) is characterized by selective involvement of post-ganglionic skin sympathetic nerve fibres. We report a follow-up study in 4 patients to clarify whether in RS autonomic dysfunction spreads affecting also cardiovascular system. METHODS: The patients underwent cardiovascular reflexes (CVR) and microneurography recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) for a follow-up mean period of 5years. RESULTS: CVR and MSNA were normal at baseline and unchanged over the follow-up...
August 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807373/usefulness-of-cocaine-drops-in-investigating-infant-anisocoria
#4
Gilles C Martin, Pierre-Antoine Aymard, Charlotte Denier, Caroline Seghir, Marc Abitbol, Nathalie Boddaert, Dominique Bremond-Gignac, Matthieu P Robert
INTRODUCTION: Whereas apraclonidine has eclipsed cocaine test in the exploration of unilateral miosis in adults, its use in infants is avoided because of the risk of central nervous system depression. This chart review evaluates the usefulness of cocaine drops in infants. METHODS: Infants under the age of one referred for unilateral miosis between November 1, 2009 and November 1, 2015, were reviewed. Patients underwent the following protocol: (1) in case of isolated miosis, cocaine test was performed...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792445/effects-of-short-forest-bathing-program-on-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-and-mood-states-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-individuals
#6
Chia-Pin Yu, Chia-Min Lin, Ming-Jer Tsai, Yu-Chieh Tsai, Chun-Yu Chen
The present study investigated changes in autonomic nervous system activity and emotions after a short (2 h) forest bathing program in the Xitou Nature Education Area (XNEA), Taiwan. One hundred and twenty-eight (60.0 ± 7.44 years) middle-aged and elderly participants were recruited. Physiological responses, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), and psychological indices were measured before and after the program. We observed that pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower after the program, which indicated physiological benefits from stress recovery...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771848/5-ht-modulates-the-rat-mesenteric-vasopressor-outflow-by-5-ht1d-sympatholytic-receptors
#7
José-Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García-Domingo, Miriam Gómez-Roso, Alicia Rodríguez-Barbero, María-Luisa Martín, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates noradrenergic activity in different cardiovascular territories, but its effect on the mesenteric vasopressor outflow has not yet been clarified. This study investigated the in vivo serotonergic influence, characterizing 5-HT receptors implicated, in sympathetic innervation of mesenteric vasculature. Wistar rats were anaesthetised and prepared for the in situ autoperfused rat mesentery, monitoring systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and mesenteric perfusion pressure (MPP)...
August 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767097/sympathetic-overactivity-in-chronic-kidney-disease-consequences-and-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Jasdeep Kaur, Benjamin E Young, Paul J Fadel
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765118/effects-of-electroacupuncture-to-the-trigeminal-nerve-area-on-the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-cerebral-blood-flow-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Hideaki Waki, Takuya Suzuki, Yuki Tanaka, Hideaki Tamai, Yoichi Minakawa, Shogo Miyazaki, Naruto Yoshida, Kazuo Uebaba, Kenji Imai, Tatsuya Hisajima
BACKGROUND: The autonomic nervous system and trigeminal nerve are involved in adjusting flow through diverging cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) to the trigeminal nerve area on cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system function. METHOD: This was a randomised crossover study of 16 healthy volunteers who were assigned to an EA or control group. Stimulation (in the EA group) was performed five times, each after 1 min of rest...
August 1, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759961/lumbar-sympathectomy-regulates-vascular-cell-turnover-in-rat-hindfoot-plantar-skin
#10
Zhifang Zheng, Yu Wan, Yishu Liu, Lulu Zhu, Jianbing Tang, Wenhua Huang, Biao Cheng
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic denervation and impaired angiogenesis cause skin diseases. However, the relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and vascular cell turnover in normal skin remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of sympathetic denervation on vascular cell turnover in normal skin. METHODS: Rats underwent bilateral L2-4 sympathetic trunk resection (sympathectomy group) or sham operation (control). Hindfoot plantar skin was analyzed 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753665/quantification-of-sympathetic-hyperinnervation-and-denervation-after-myocardial-infarction-by-three-dimensional-assessment-of-the-cardiac-sympathetic-network-in-cleared-transparent-murine-hearts
#11
Teruki Yokoyama, Jong-Kook Lee, Keiko Miwa, Tobias Opthof, Satoki Tomoyama, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Akira Yoshida, Haruyo Yasui, Tadatsune Iida, Shigeru Miyagawa, Shigeo Okabe, Yoshiki Sawa, Yasushi Sakata, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system is critical in maintaining the normal physiological function of the heart. Its dysfunction in pathological states may exacerbate the substrate for arrhythmias. Obviously, knowledge of its three-dimensional (3D) structure is important, however, it has been revealed by conventional methods only to a limited extent. In this study, a new method of tissue clearance in combination with immunostaining unravels the 3D structure of the sympathetic cardiac network as well as its changes after myocardial infarction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753658/neuroanatomy-of-the-spleen-mapping-the-relationship-between-sympathetic-neurons-and-lymphocytes
#12
Kaitlin Murray, Dayn Romero Godinez, Ingrid Brust-Mascher, Elaine Nicole Miller, Melanie G Gareau, Colin Reardon
The nervous system plays a profound regulatory role in maintaining appropriate immune responses by signaling to immune cells. These immune cells, including B- and T-cells, can further act as intermediary messengers, with subsets of B- and T-cells expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme required for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. Neural control of ACh release from ChAT+ T-cells can have powerful immune implications, regulating lymphocyte trafficking, inflammation, and prevent death due to experimental septic shock...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752043/adipocyte-lipid-synthesis-coupled-to-neuronal-control-of-thermogenic-programming
#13
Adilson Guilherme, David J Pedersen, Elizabeth Henchey, Felipe S Henriques, Laura V Danai, Yuefei Shen, Batuhan Yenilmez, DaeYoung Jung, Jason K Kim, Irfan J Lodhi, Clay F Semenkovich, Michael P Czech
BACKGROUND: The de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids (DNL) through fatty acid synthase (FASN) in adipocytes is exquisitely regulated by nutrients, hormones, fasting, and obesity in mice and humans. However, the functions of DNL in adipocyte biology and in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis are not fully understood. METHODS & RESULTS: Here we show adipocyte DNL controls crosstalk to localized sympathetic neurons that mediate expansion of beige/brite adipocytes within inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745812/neuronal-control-of-experimental-colitis-occurs-via-sympathetic-intestinal-innervation
#14
R A Willemze, O Welting, H P van Hamersveld, S L Meijer, J H A Folgering, H Darwinkel, J Witherington, A Sridhar, M J Vervoordeldonk, J Seppen, W J de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation is currently clinically evaluated as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanism by which this therapeutic intervention can have an immune-regulatory effect in colitis remains unclear. We determined the effect of intestine-specific vagotomy or intestine-specific sympathectomy of the superior mesenteric nerve (SMN) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Furthermore, we tested the efficacy of therapeutic SMN stimulation to treat DSS-induced colitis in rats...
July 26, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740186/carotid-sinus-nerve-electrical-stimulation-in-conscious-rats-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-via-chemoreceptor-activation
#15
Fernanda Machado Santos-Almeida, Gean Domingos-Souza, César A Meschiari, Laura Campos Fávaro, Christiane Becari, Jaci A Castania, Alexandre Lopes, Thiago M Cunha, Davi J A Moraes, Fernando Q Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro, Geisa C S V Tezini, Helio C Salgado
Recent studies demonstrated a critical functional connection between the autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) nervous and the immune systems. The carotid sinus nerve (CSN) conveys electrical signals from the chemoreceptors of the carotid bifurcation to the central nervous system where the stimuli are processed to activate sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent signals. Here, we reported that chemoreflex activation via electrical CSN stimulation, in conscious rats, controls the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide attenuating the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737621/baroreflex-activation-therapy-a-new-approach-to-the-management-of-advanced-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#16
Edoardo Gronda, Darrel Francis, Faiez Zannad, Christian Hamm, Josep Brugada, Emilio Vanoli
: Chronic heart failure is a common clinical condition characterized by persistent excessive sympathetic nervous system activation. The derangement of the sympathetic activity has relevant implications for disease progression and patient survival. Aiming to positively impact patient outcome, autonomic nervous system modulatory therapies have been developed and tested in animal and clinical studies. As a general gross assumption, direct vagal stimulation and baroreflex activation are considered equivalent. This assumption does not take into account the fact that direct cervical vagal nerve stimulation involves activation of both afferent and efferent fibers innervating not only the heart, but the entire visceral system, leading to undesired responses to and from this compartment...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736262/bdnf-a-key-player-in-cardiovascular-system
#17
REVIEW
Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Bogusław Machaliński
Neurotrophins (NTs) were first identified as target-derived survival factors for neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS). They are known to control neural cell fate, development and function. Independently of their neuronal properties, NTs exert unique cardiovascular activity. The heart is innervated by sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which require NTs during early development and in the establishment of mature properties, contributing to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735418/gap-junction-communication-between-chromaffin-cells-the-hidden-face-of-adrenal-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#18
REVIEW
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733450/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-volume-regulating-factors-in-healthy-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-women
#19
Nisha Charkoudian, Charlotte W Usselman, Rachel J Skow, Jeffery S Staab, Colleen Glyde Julian, Michael K Stickland, Radha S Chari, Rshmi Khurana, Sandra T Davidge, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732009/effects-of-local-cardiac-denervation-on-cardiac-innervation-and-ventricular-arrhythmia-after-chronic-myocardial-infarction
#20
Xudong Liu, Lin Sun, Jugang Chen, Yingying Jin, Qing Liu, Zhongnan Xia, Liang Wang, Jingjie Li
BACKGROUND: Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has already been demonstrated to display antiarrhythmic effects in patients and animals with MI. In this study, we investigated whether local cardiac denervation has any beneficial effects on ventricular electrical stability and cardiac function in the chronic phase of MI. METHODS: Twenty-one anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned into the sham-operated, MI and MI-ablation groups, respectively. Four weeks after local cardiac denervation, LSG stimulation was used to induce VPCs and VAs...
2017: PloS One
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