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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078487/the-role-of-the-nox4-derived-ros-mediated-rhoa-rho-kinase-pathway-in-rat-hypertension-induced-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#1
Wen Lu, Jing Kang, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Xiufang Zhou, Lifang Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Shuhui Yu
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, which is a risk factor for resistant hypertension, is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and is associated with many cardiovascular diseases. CIH elicits systemic oxidative stress and sympathetic hyperactivity, which lead to hypertension. Rho kinases (ROCKs) are considered to be major effectors of the small GTPase RhoA and have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular field. Upregulation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling cascade is observed in various cardiovascular disorders, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and stroke...
January 11, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059795/evidence-of-a-cardiovascular-function-for-microtubule-associated-protein-tau
#2
Ashenafi H Betrie, Scott Ayton, Ashley I Bush, James A Angus, Peng Lei, Christine E Wright
Aggregation of tau protein into intracellular deposits is a pathognomonic feature of tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and lowering tau is a prominent therapeutic strategy under development. However, the physiological function of tau protein is not well known, particularly in the periphery. Lowering tau protein risks disrupting its physiological role leading to unwanted effects. In this study, the presence of tau protein in cardiac tissue is confirmed and the functional role in the cardiovascular system and the consequences of its loss were explored...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057794/purinergic-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#3
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
There is nervous control of the heart by ATP as a cotransmitter in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory-motor nerves, as well as in intracardiac neurons. Centers in the brain control heart activities and vagal cardiovascular reflexes involve purines. Adenine nucleotides and nucleosides act on purinoceptors on cardiomyocytes, AV and SA nodes, cardiac fibroblasts, and coronary blood vessels. Vascular tone is controlled by a dual mechanism. ATP, released from perivascular sympathetic nerves, causes vasoconstriction largely via P2X1 receptors...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057441/non-invasive-approach-for-the-assessment-of-sympathetic-baroreflex-function-a-feasibility-study
#4
Bartłomiej Paleczny, Agnieszka Siennicka, Piotr Ponikowski, Beata Ponikowska
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of sympathetic baroreflex (sBR) function in humans requires intra-neural recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) by microneurography. AIMS: We proposed noninvasive approach for the evaluation of sBR function by applying the threshold-analysis (traditionally, based on MSNA) to systemic vascular resistance (SVR) measurement by photoplethysmography. METHODS & RESULTS: In nine healthy subjects (5M; age: 25±5y), the threshold-analysis was calculated twice: using MSNA and SVR...
December 29, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054557/kilohertz-frequency-nerve-block-enhances-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#5
Yogi A Patel, Tarun Saxena, Ravi V Bellamkonda, Robert J Butera
Efferent activation of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) dampens systemic inflammatory processes, potentially modulating a wide-range of inflammatory pathological conditions. In contrast, afferent cVN activation amplifies systemic inflammatory processes, leading to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic nervous system through the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN), and elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ideally, to clinically implement anti-inflammatory therapy via cervical vagus nerve stimulation (cVNS) one should selectively activate the efferent pathway...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045306/examining-the-association-between-perceived-discrimination-and-heart-rate-variability-in-african-americans
#6
LaBarron K Hill, Lori S Hoggard, Ashley S Richmond, DeLeon L Gray, Dewayne P Williams, Julian F Thayer
OBJECTIVE: Previous research attempting to delineate the role of discrimination in racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension has focused largely on blood pressure, which is chiefly governed by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Consequently, few studies have considered the role of the parasympathetic branch and particularly its regulation of the heart via the vagus nerve. METHOD: In the present cross-sectional study, we employed hierarchical linear regressions to examine associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and resting heart rate variability (HRV), an important biomarker of parasympathetic cardiac modulation and overall health, in a sample (N = 103) of young, healthy African American participants (58% female, Mage = 19...
January 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043810/renal-sympathetic-nerve-blood-flow-and-epithelial-transport-responses-to-thermal-stress
#7
REVIEW
Thad E Wilson
Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state...
December 24, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039061/primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know
#8
REVIEW
Xinghuai Sun, Yi Dai, Yuhong Chen, Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Junyi Chen, Xiangmei Kong, Xiaolei Wang, Chunhui Jiang
Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a common cause of blindness. Angle closure is a fundamental pathologic process in PAGC. With the development of imaging devices for the anterior segment of the eye, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of angle closure has been reached. Aside from pupillary block and plateau iris, multiple-mechanisms are more common contributors for closure of the angle such as choroidal thickness and uveal expansion, which may be responsible for the presenting features of PACG...
December 28, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028840/pain-duration-is-associated-with-increased-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-patients-with-achilles-tendinopathy
#9
J L Jewson, E A Lambert, S Docking, M Storr, G W Lambert, J E Gaida
Tendinopathy is a common condition, which has been linked to surrogate measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and insulin resistance. This study aimed to compare in vivo measures of the SNS and insulin resistance between individuals with and without Achilles tendinopathy. This case-control study compared Achilles tendinopathy sufferers to healthy controls. SNS activity was quantified using muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), while metabolic status was assessed via a modified glucose tolerance test and fasting lipid panel...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005704/the-antioxidant-effects-of-green-tea-reduces-blood-pressure-and-sympathoexcitation-in-an-experimental-model-of-hypertension
#10
Michelle L Garcia, Roberto B Pontes, Erika E Nishi, Flávia K Ibuki, Vanessa Oliveira, Alexandra C H Sawaya, Patrícia O Carvalho, Fernando N Nogueira, Maria do Carmo Franco, Ruy R Campos, Lila M Oyama, Cássia T Bergamaschi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a key mediator in the maintenance of sympathoexcitation and hypertension in human and experimental models. Green tea is widely known to be potent antioxidant. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea in a model of hypertension. METHODS: Hypertension was induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor [N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME); 20 mg/kg per day, orally, for 2 weeks] in male Wistar rats...
February 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003214/the-role-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-1-within-the-median-preoptic-nucleus-following-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#11
Katelynn Faulk, Brent Shell, T Prashant Nedungadi, J Thomas Cunningham
Sustained hypertension is an important consequence of obstructive sleep apnea. An animal model of the hypoxemia associated with sleep apnea, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), produces increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and sustained increases in blood pressure. Many mechanisms have been implicated in the hypertension associated with CIH including the role of ΔFosB within the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Also, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been associated with CIH hypertension. We conducted experiments in order to determine the possible association of FosB/ΔFosB with a RAS component, angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), within the MnPO following 7 days of CIH...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982677/pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-calcineurin-inhibitor-induced-nephrotoxicity-and-arterial-hypertension
#12
L Hošková, I Málek, L Kopkan, J Kautzner
Solid organ transplantation is an established treatment modality in patients with end-stage organ damage in cases where other therapeutic options fail. The long-term outcomes of solid organ transplant recipients have improved considerably since the introduction of the first calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) - cyclosporine. In 1984, the potent immunosuppressive properties of another CNI, tacrolimus, were discovered. The immunosuppressive effects of CNIs result from the inhibition of interleukin-2 synthesis and reduced proliferation of T-cells due to calcineurin blockade...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974315/mechanisms-of-blood-pressure-salt-sensitivity-new-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#13
John S Clemmer, William Andrew Pruett, Thomas G Coleman, John E Hall, Robert L Hester
Mathematical modeling is an important tool for understanding quantitative relationships among components of complex physiological systems and for testing competing hypotheses. We used HumMod, a large physiological model, to test hypotheses of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity. Systemic hemodynamics, renal, and neurohormonal responses to chronic changes in salt intake were examined during normal renal function, fixed low or high plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, bilateral renal artery stenosis, increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and decreased nephron numbers...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956575/renal-denervation-reduces-monocyte-activation-and-monocyte-platelet-aggregate-formation-an-anti-inflammatory-effect-relevant-for-cardiovascular-risk
#14
Maria T K Zaldivia, Jennifer Rivera, Dagmara Hering, Petra Marusic, Yusuke Sata, Bock Lim, Nina Eikelis, Rebecca Lee, Gavin W Lambert, Murray D Esler, Nay M Htun, Jacqueline Duval, Louise Hammond, Steffen U Eisenhardt, Ulrike Flierl, Markus P Schlaich, Karlheinz Peter
Overactivation of renal sympathetic nervous system and low-grade systemic inflammation are common features of hypertension. Renal denervation (RDN) reduces sympathetic activity in patients with resistant hypertension. However, its effect on systemic inflammation has not been examined. We prospectively investigated the effect of RDN on monocyte activation and inflammation in patients with uncontrolled hypertension scheduled for RDN. Ambulatory blood pressure, monocyte, and monocyte subset activation and inflammatory markers were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months after procedure in 42 patients...
December 12, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956200/anatomic-relationships-of-the-pelvic-autonomic-nervous-system-in-female-cadavers-clinical-applications-to-pelvic%C3%A2-surgery
#15
Christopher M Ripperda, Lindsey A Jackson, John N Phelan, Kelley S Carrick, Marlene M Corton
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the pelvic autonomic nervous system is essential for proper bowel, bladder, and sexual function. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anatomic path of the pelvic autonomic system and to examine relationships to clinically useful landmarks. STUDY DESIGN: Detailed dissections were performed in 17 female cadavers. Relationships of the superior hypogastric plexus to aortic bifurcation and midpoint of sacral promontory were examined; the length and width of plexus was documented...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956062/interaction-between-novel-oscillation-within-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-and-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#16
Kamon Iigaya, Shuntaro Okazaki, Yoshino Minoura, Hiroshi Onimaru
The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is known to play an important role in feeding behavior and the control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We report the identification of novel neuron groups that showed oscillations on both sides of the VMH in hypothalamus slice preparations from juvenile rats of postnatal days 5-14. We detected spontaneous rhythmic burst activity with a frequency of around 0.06Hz typically in the dorsolateral region of the VMH (i.e., VMH oscillation) using optical recordings (voltage and calcium imaging), field potential recordings and intracellular membrane potential recordings...
December 10, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941180/sympathectomized-tumor-bearing-mice-survive-longer-but-develop-bigger-melanomas
#17
L Horvathova, A Tillinger, A Padova, B Mravec
OBJECTIVES: Previously we have shown that 20 days after the tumor cells injection smaller melanomas have been developed in chemically sympathectomized mice in comparison with animals having intact sympathetic nervous system. However, it is known that chemical sympathectomy reduces the sympathetic neurotransmission only temporarily. In the present study, we monitored the survival of the sympathectomized mice with melanoma with an attempt to find out how long the suppressing effect of sympathectomy on the melanoma growth may endure...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941177/effect-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-on-cancer-progression-depends-on-the-type-of-tumor-solid-are-more-affected-then-ascitic-tumors
#18
L Horvathova, B Mravec
OBJECTIVES: A number of recently published studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system may influence cancer progression. There are, however, some ambiguities about the role of the parasympathetic nerves in the modulation of growth of different tumor types. Moreover, tumor models used for investigation of the autonomic neurotransmission role in the processes related to the cancer growth and progression are mainly of the solid nature. The knowledge about the nervous system involvement in the modulation of the development and progression of malignant ascites is only fragmental...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919794/diagnostic-utility-of-contrast-enhanced-3d-t1-weighted-imaging-in-acute-cerebral-infarction-associated-with-graves-disease
#19
Yasufumi Gon, Manabu Sakaguchi, Naoki Oyama, Hideki Mochizuki
Graves disease is rarely complicated with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive diseases. Previous studies have suggested several hypotheses for this occurrence, including excess thyroid hormone, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn causes an abnormal hemodynamic response with consequent atherosclerotic changes, and antithyroid antibodies cause local vascular inflammation in patients with Graves disease. However, radiological findings of vasculitis in patients with Graves disease and cerebral infarction remain less known...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917928/renal-denervation-improves-the-baroreflex-and-gaba-system-in-chronic-kidney-disease-induced-hypertension
#20
Hsin-Hung Chen, Pei-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yu Ho, Pei-Jung Lu, Chi-Cheng Lai, Yang-Ming Tseng, Hua-Chang Fang, Gwo-Ching Sun, Michael Hsiao, Chun-Peng Liu, Ching-Jiunn Tseng
Hypertensive rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit enhanced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor function and regulation within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). For CKD with hypertension, renal denervation (RD) interrupts the afferent renal sympathetic nerves, which are connecting to the NTS. The objective of the present study was to investigate how RD improves CKD-induced hypertension. Rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy for 8 weeks, which induced CKD and hypertension. RD was induced by applying phenol to surround the renal artery in CKD...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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