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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735418/gap-junction-communication-between-chromaffin-cells-the-hidden-face-of-adrenal-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#1
REVIEW
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733450/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-volume-regulating-factors-in-healthy-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-women
#2
Nisha Charkoudian, Charlotte W Usselman, Rachel J Skow, Jeffery S Staab, Colleen Glyde Julian, Michael K Stickland, Radha S Chari, Rshmi Khurana, Sandra T Davidge, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732009/effects-of-local-cardiac-denervation-on-cardiac-innervation-and-ventricular-arrhythmia-after-chronic-myocardial-infarction
#3
Xudong Liu, Lin Sun, Jugang Chen, Yingying Jin, Qing Liu, Zhongnan Xia, Liang Wang, Jingjie Li
BACKGROUND: Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has already been demonstrated to display antiarrhythmic effects in patients and animals with MI. In this study, we investigated whether local cardiac denervation has any beneficial effects on ventricular electrical stability and cardiac function in the chronic phase of MI. METHODS: Twenty-one anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned into the sham-operated, MI and MI-ablation groups, respectively. Four weeks after local cardiac denervation, LSG stimulation was used to induce VPCs and VAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725599/effects-of-metformin-on-endothelial-health-and-erectile-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Jay Pravin Patel, Eric Hweegeun Lee, Carlos Ignacio Mena, Charles N Walker
Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects approximately 18 million American men. ED may be attributed to several etiologies, including arteriogenic, psychogenic, neurogenic, hormonal, drug-induced, and systemic disease or aging related factors. Specific to arteriogenic ED, three major mechanisms have been identified: (I) endothelium-dependent vasodilatory impairment; (II) sympathetic nerve activity elevation; (III) atherosclerotic luminal narrowing. Additionally, these insults have been linked to the insulin resistant state, which in turn is comorbid with obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717053/pure-autonomic-failure
#5
REVIEW
Thomas P Brown
Pure autonomic failure is a degenerative disorder of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Patients experience symptomatic hypotension that requires them to sit, squat or lie down to prevent syncope. It is associated with characteristic histopathological findings, resulting in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the peripheral autonomic nerves. These lesions are responsible for defects in the synthesis and release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals, resulting in significant hypotension. Patients with autonomic failure also have exaggerated blood pressure responses to common stimuli such as food or fluid intake, heat, exercise and medications...
July 17, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716800/relationship-between-vascular-resistance-and-sympathetic-nerve-fiber-density-in-arterial-vessels-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#6
Anna Kontos, Kurt Lushington, James Martin, Quenten Schwarz, Ryan Green, David Wabnitz, Xiangjun Xu, Elke M Sokoya, Scott Willoughby, Mathias Baumert, Antonio Ferrante, Melissa La Forgia, Declan Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Sleep disordered breathing in children is associated with increased blood flow velocity and sympathetic overactivity. Sympathetic overactivity results in peripheral vasoconstriction and reduced systemic vascular compliance, which increases blood flow velocity during systole. Augmented blood flow velocity is recognized to promote vascular remodeling. Importantly, increased vascular sympathetic nerve fiber density and innervation in early life plays a key role in the development of early-onset hypertension in animal models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713844/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-management-of-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension
#7
Jose-Alberto Palma, Horacio Kaufmann
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a sustained fall in blood pressure on standing which can cause symptoms of organ hypoperfusion. OH is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and leads to a significant number of hospital admissions particularly in the elderly (233 per 100,000 patients over 75 years of age in the US). OH can be due to volume depletion, blood loss, large varicose veins, medications, or due to defective activation of sympathetic nerves and reduced norepinephrine release upon standing (i...
May 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706586/influence-of-cardiac-nerve-status-on-cardiovascular-regulation-and-cardioprotection
#8
REVIEW
John G Kingma, Denys Simard, Jacques R Rouleau
Neural elements of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system transduce sensory inputs from the heart, blood vessels and other organs to ensure adequate cardiac function on a beat-to-beat basis. This inter-organ crosstalk is critical for normal function of the heart and other organs; derangements within the nervous system hierarchy contribute to pathogenesis of organ dysfunction. The role of intact cardiac nerves in development of, as well as protection against, ischemic injury is of current interest since it may involve recruitment of intrinsic cardiac ganglia...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704264/extravascular-renal-denervation-ameliorates-juvenile-hypertension-and-renal-damage-resulting-from-experimental-hyperleptinemia-in-rats
#9
Nynke R Oosterhuis, Ramon Fernandes, Nuria Maicas, Sung Eun Bae, Joaquim Pombo, Hendrik Gremmels, Lucilla Poston, Jaap A Joles, Anne-Maj Samuelsson
BACKGROUND: Material obesity in rodents is associated with neonatal hyperleptinemia and hypertension of sympathetic origin in adult offspring. Previously, we reported that experimentally induced hyperleptinemia in rat pups results in adulthood hypertension. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that experimental neonatal hyperleptinemia, through renal nerve activation, adversely affects adult renal function. METHOD: Sprague-Dawley male and female pups were treated with neonatal leptin (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or neonatal saline, twice daily from postnatal day 9-14...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703308/odors-generated-from-the-maillard-reaction-affect-autonomic-nervous-activity-and-decrease-blood-pressure-through-the-olfactory-system
#10
Lanxi Zhou, Motoko Ohata, Chisato Owashi, Katsuya Nagai, Issei Yokoyama, Keizo Arihara
BACKGROUND: Systolic blood pressure of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. In the current study, we identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. RESULTS: Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 5-methylpyrazine-2-methanol decreased systolic blood pressure significantly...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701539/measuring-and-quantifying-skin-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-in-humans
#11
Jody L Greaney, W Larry Kenney
Development of the technique of microneurography has substantially increased our understanding of the function of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in health and in disease. The ability to directly record signals from peripheral autonomic nerves in conscious humans allows for qualitative and quantitative characterization of SNS responses to specific stimuli and over time. Further, distinct neural outflow to muscle (MSNA) and skin (SSNA) can be delineated. However, there are limitations and caveats to the use of microneurography, measurement criteria, and signal analysis and interpretation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699790/safety-of-available-and-emerging-drug-therapies-for-hyperhidrosis
#12
Christine Hosp, Henning Hamm
Hyperhidrosis affects 4.8% of the U.S. population and has been underestimated by physicians for long time despite considerable interference with quality of life. Many patients suffer from primary (idiopathic) hyperhidrosis which results from over-activity of sympathetic nerves and is restricted to specific body areas, mostly the axillae, palms, soles, or head. Secondary hyperhidrosis is caused by an underlying disease or the intake of medications and often involves large parts of the body. Numerous effective therapies with topical or systemic drugs and surgical options are available...
July 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699055/recovery-of-heart-rate-variability-after-treadmill-exercise-analyzed-by-lagged-poincar%C3%A3-plot-and-spectral-characteristics
#13
Ping Shi, Sijung Hu, Hongliu Yu
The aim of this study was to analyze the recovery of heart rate variability (HRV) after treadmill exercise and to investigate the autonomic nervous system response after exercise. Frequency domain indices, i.e., LF(ms(2)), HF(ms(2)), LF(n.u.), HF(n.u.) and LF/HF, and lagged Poincaré plot width (SD1 m ) and length (SD2 m ) were introduced for comparison between the baseline period (Pre-E) before treadmill running and two periods after treadmill running (Post-E1 and Post-E2). The correlations between lagged Poincaré plot indices and frequency domain indices were applied to reveal the long-range correlation between linear and nonlinear indices during the recovery of HRV...
July 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688831/local-chemical-sympathectomy-of-rat-bone-marrow-and-its-effect-on-marrow-cell-composition
#14
P Dubový, I Klusáková, L Kučera, J Osičková, J Chovancová, T Loja, J Mayer, M Doubek, M Joukal
Existing experimental studies of the effect of sympathetic nerve fibers on bone marrow cells are based on the systemic administration of neurotoxic 6-hydroxydopamine. The method of global chemical sympathectomy has some serious disadvantages and could lead to questionable results. We describe a new method of local chemical sympathectomy of rat femoral bone marrow using guanethidine (Ismelin) delivery using an osmotic mini pump. Local guanethidine treatment for 14days led to complete elimination of sympathetic fibers in femoral bone marrow in contrast to bone marrow of contralateral or naïve femurs...
June 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683511/-extracranial-schwannomas-of-the-head-and-neck-clinical-approach-based-on-20-cases
#15
Benedikt Höing, Boris A Stuck, Benjamin Kansy, Timon Hussain, Anke Schlüter, Laura Holtmann, Adrian Ringelstein, Stefan Mattheis, Stephan Lang, Nina Dominas
Background Schwannomas are rare benign tumors originating from the perineural cells forming the myelin layer in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). While well established therapeutic concepts exist for intracranial schwannomas, there is a lack of consistent clinical standards for extracranial schwannomas. Method This retrospective study describes the clinical pathway of 20 patients with histologically proven extracranial schwannomas of the head and neck. The diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for schwannomas are discussed with special emphasis on localization and functional outcome...
July 6, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683287/the-sense-of-smell-impacts-metabolic-health-and-obesity
#16
Celine E Riera, Eva Tsaousidou, Jonathan Halloran, Patricia Follett, Oliver Hahn, Mafalda M A Pereira, Linda Engström Ruud, Jens Alber, Kevin Tharp, Courtney M Anderson, Hella Brönneke, Brigitte Hampel, Carlos Daniel de Magalhaes Filho, Andreas Stahl, Jens C Brüning, Andrew Dillin
Olfactory inputs help coordinate food appreciation and selection, but their role in systemic physiology and energy balance is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that mice upon conditional ablation of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are resistant to diet-induced obesity accompanied by increased thermogenesis in brown and inguinal fat depots. Acute loss of smell perception after obesity onset not only abrogated further weight gain but also improved fat mass and insulin resistance. Reduced olfactory input stimulates sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in activation of β-adrenergic receptors on white and brown adipocytes to promote lipolysis...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681708/influence-of-autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunction-in-the-genesis-of-sleep-disorders-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#17
Maurizio Rizzi, Dejan Radovanovic, Pierachille Santus, Andrea Airoldi, Francesca Frassanito, Silvia Vanni, Andrea Cristiano, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by chronic musculoskeletal pain, autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, and disturbed sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ANS dysfunction on the genesis of sleep disorders. METHODS: Fifty female FM patients and 45 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and body mass index underwent a clinical, polysomnographic and autonomic profile evaluation at rest and during a tilt test in order to determine muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), plasma catecholamine levels, and the spectral indices of cardiac sympathetic (LFRR) and vagal (HFRR) modulation computed by means of the spectrum analysis of RR during sleep...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680318/clinical-electrophysiological-and-serological-evaluation-of-patients-with-cramp-fasciculation-syndrome
#18
Mürüvvet Poyraz, Zeliha Matur, Fikret Aysal, Erdem Tüzün, Lütfü Hanoğlu, A Emre Öge
INTRODUCTION: Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome. There are only a few reports on clinical and serological profile of a CFS cohort that was followed up by a single outpatient clinic. METHODS: Clinical, electrophysiological, and serological features of 6 CFS patients (5 men, 1 woman; 27-65 years old) were investigated. RESULTS: All patients presented with cramps, fasciculations, muscle pain, and autonomic symptoms, and 2 also reported numbness and burning sensation in limbs, suggestive of neuropathic pain...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678348/nacl-and-osmolarity-produce-different-responses-in-organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-neurons-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#19
Brian J Kinsman, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673269/regulating-autonomic-nervous-system-homeostasis-improves-pulmonary-function-in-rabbits-with-acute-lung-injury
#20
Yan Liu, Tao Tao, Wenzhi Li, Yulong Bo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulating autonomic nervous system (ANS) homeostasis by inhibiting sympathetic hyperactivity and/or enhancing parasympathetic activity on pulmonary inflammation and functional disturbance. METHODS: An animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) was established in rabbits by an intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in rabbits. Animals in control groups were received saline or HCl only, and the others received both HCl and followed treatments: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), intravenous injection of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA), or stellate ganglion block (SGB)...
July 3, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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