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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#1
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652544/acute-effects-of-device-guided-slow-breathing-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Ida Fonkoue, Paul J Marvar, Seth D Norrholm, Melanie L Kankam, Yunxiao Li, Dana DaCosta, Barbara O Rothbaum, Jeanie Park
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients have elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity and impaired sympathetic and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Device-guided slow breathing (DGB) has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic activity in other patient populations. We hypothesized that DGB acutely lowers BP, heart rate (HR), and improves BRS in PTSD. In 23 prehypertensive veterans with PTSD, we measured continuous BP, EKG, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest, and during 15 minutes of device-guided slow breathing at 5 breaths/min (DGB; n=13) or identical sham device breathing at normal rates of 14 breaths/min (SHAM; n=10)...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651418/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-its-modulation-in-renal-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate Denton, Clive N May, Markus P Schlaich
The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645283/sympathoexcitation-following-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rat-is-mediated-by-circulating-angiotensin-ii-acting-at-the-carotid-body-and-subfornical-organ
#4
Seung Jae Kim, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Stephen B G Abbott
Circulating angiotensin II (AngII) is vital for arterial pressure elevation following intermittent hypoxia in rats, but its importance in the induction of sympathetic changes is unclear. We tested the contribution of the RAS to the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) in anaesthetized ventilated adult rats. AIH caused a 33.7 ± 2.9% increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and a one-fold increase in sympathetic peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and central sympathetic-respiratory coupling. The sympathetic effects of AIH were prevented by blocking angiotensin type 1 receptors with systemic losartan and intermittent systemic injections of AngII (Int...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627871/autonomic-regulation-and-ventricular-arrhythmias
#5
REVIEW
Lingjin Meng, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi Ajijola
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) has a crucial role of regulating cardiac function in the physiological state and contributes to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in the diseased state. The cardiac neuraxis consists of multiple feedback loops consisting of efferent and afferent limbs, mediating neurotransmission to and from the heart. Efferent parasympathetic neurotransmission is mediated by the vagus nerve, while paravertebral sympathetic ganglia relay efferent sympathetic neurotransmission to the heart. The association between autonomic activity and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) has been studied extensively in both experimental models and humans...
April 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621768/protective-role-of-the-hepatic-vagus-nerve-against-liver-metastasis-in-mice
#6
Tetsuya Hiramoto, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Yasunari Asano, Nobuyuki Sudo
OBJECTIVE(S): Although accumulating evidence has shown that the autonomic nervous system is involved in liver pathology, its role in regulating cancer development remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate its detailed mechanisms. METHODS: A mouse model of liver metastasis of colorectal cancer was used. To elucidate the potential mechanisms involved, we examined the effect of selective hepatic vagotomy on the survival rate and liver-to-body weight...
April 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615922/sensory-processing-and-integration-at-the-carotid-body-tripartite-synapse-neurotransmitter-functions-and-effects-of-chronic-hypoxia
#7
REVIEW
Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman, Colin A Nurse
Maintenance of homeostasis in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems depends on reflexes that are initiated at specialized peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in the chemical composition of arterial blood. In mammals, the bilaterally-paired carotid bodies (CBs) are the main peripheral chemoreceptor organs that are richly vascularized and are strategically located at the carotid bifurcation. The CBs contribute to the maintenance of O2 , CO2 /H+ , and glucose homeostasis and have attracted much clinical interest because hyperactivity in these organs is associated with several pathophysiological conditions including sleep apnea, obstructive lung disease, heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615872/projections-of-the-diencephalospinal-dopaminergic-system-to-peripheral-sense-organs-in-larval-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Melanie Haehnel-Taguchi, António M Fernandes, Margit Böhler, Ina Schmitt, Lena Tittel, Wolfgang Driever
Dopaminergic neurons of the descending diencephalospinal system are located in the posterior tuberculum (PT) in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), and correspond in mammals to the A11 group in hypothalamus and thalamus. In the larval zebrafish, they are likely the only source of central dopaminergic projections to the periphery. Here, we characterized posterior tubercular dopaminergic fibers projecting to peripheral sense organs, with a focus on the lateral line neuromasts. We labeled and identified catecholaminergic neurons and their projections by combining two immunofluorescence techniques, (i) using an antibody against Tyrosine hydroxylase, and (ii) using an antibody against GFP in transgenic zebrafish expressing in catecholaminergic neurons either membrane-anchored GFP to track fibers, or a Synaptophysin-GFP fusion to visualize putative synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596920/the-involvement-of-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-essence-of-chicken-facilitated-physiological-adaption-and-circadian-resetting
#9
Yinhua Ni, Lingyan Ma, Tao Wu, Ai Lin Lim, Wanjing Zhang, Luna Yang, Yoshihiro Nakao, Zhengwei Fu
AIM: The impact of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) on the regulation of circadian rhythm and physiological functions is still not clear. Previous studies have found that essence of chicken (EC) supplementation facilitated the physiological adaption and circadian resetting in rats subjected to jet lag. Herein, the effects of SNS on the circadian clock and the hypothesis that EC-induced acceleration of circadian resetting is dependent on the SNS are investigated. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats with superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) were used to investigate the role of the SNS in circadian rhythm and physiological functions...
March 26, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593847/the-crosstalk-between-autonomic-nervous-system-and-blood-vessels
#10
REVIEW
Yulan Sheng, Li Zhu
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), comprised of two primary branches, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular wall contractility and tension. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together to balance the functions of autonomic effector organs. The neurotransmitters released from the varicosities in the ANS can regulate the vascular tone. Norepinephrine (NE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) function as vasoconstrictors, whereas acetylcholine (Ach) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can mediate vasodilation...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590555/activation-of-trpv1-in-nucleus-tractus-solitarius-reduces-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-arterial-pressure-and-heart-rate
#11
Mazher Mohammed, Christopher J Madden, Michael C Andresen, Shaun F Morrison
The sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates BAT thermogenesis to defend body temperature in cold environments or to produce fever during immune responses. The vagus nerve contains afferents that inhibit the BAT SNA and BAT thermogenesis evoked by skin cooling. We sought to determine whether activation of TRPV1 channels in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which are prominently expressed in unmyelinated vagal afferents, would affect cold-evoked BAT thermogenesis, cardiovascular parameters, or their vagal afferent-evoked responses...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580957/alamandine-injected-into-the-paraventricular-nucleus-increases-blood-pressure-and-sympathetic-activation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Yi-Hui Shen, Xi-Ru Chen, Chun-Xi Yang, Bo-Xun Liu, Peng Li
Alamandine is a newly discovered new component of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system (RAS) that has been shown to exert vasoactive effects in some areas of the nervous system. The present study investigated whether administration of alamandine to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) modulates blood pressure and sympathetic activity. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded in anaesthetized rats. PVN microinjection of alamandine increased MAP and RSNA both in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), but to a greater extent in SHRs...
March 23, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577192/microscopic-study-of-nervous-system-plasticity-interactions-of-sympathetic-nerves-with-neurons-of-intraocular-hippocampal-transplants
#13
Z N Zhuravleva, E A Mugantseva, G I Zhuravlev
Functional interactions of sympathetic fibers innervating the iris with the neurons of central origin in intraocular transplants of the rat hippocampus were studied by optic, confocal, and electron microscopy. After formaldehyde fixation, fluorescent dye Dil was applied to the upper cervical ganglion; the dye migrated to the transplant by lateral diffusion via axons. Sympathetic nerves labeled with fluorescent dye grew into the neurotransplants along perivascular membranes of blood vessels. In addition, some fluorescent axons were identified in the transplant parenchyma...
March 26, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575690/clarification-of-the-innervation-of-the-bladder-external-urethral-sphincter-and-clitoris-a-neuronal-tracing-study-in-female-mongrel-hound-dogs
#14
Mary F Barbe, Sandra M Gomez-Amaya, Danielle M Salvadeo, Neil S Lamarre, Ekta Tiwari, Shalonda Cook, Connor P Glair, Daniel H Jang, Rachel M Ragheb, Akaash Sheth, Alan S Braverman, Michael R Ruggieri
Many studies examining the innervation of genitourinary structures focus on either afferent or efferent inputs, or on only one structure of the system. We aimed to clarify innervation of the bladder, external urethral sphincter (EUS) and clitoris. Retrograde dyes were injected into each end organ in female dogs. Spinal cord, mid-bladder, and spinal, caudal mesenteric, sympathetic trunk and pelvic plexus ganglia were examined for retrograde dye-labeled neurons. Neurons retrogradely labeled from the bladder were found primarily in L7-S2 spinal ganglia, spinal cord lateral zona intermedia at S1-S3 levels, caudal mesenteric ganglia, T11-L2 and L6-S2 sympathetic trunk ganglia, and pelvic plexus ganglia...
March 25, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558039/analysis-of-peripheral-nerve-and-autonomic-nervous-system-function-and-the-stage-of-microangiopathy-in-patients-with-secondary-raynaud-s-phenomenon-in-the-course-of-connective-tissue-diseases
#15
Izabela Gosk-Bierska, Maria Misterska-Skóra, Marta Wasilewska, Małgorzata Bilińska, Jerzy Gosk, Rajmund Adamiec, Magdalena Koszewicz
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (SRP) associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) is not entirely understood. Nervous system dysfunction and microangiopathy are considered to be causes of this pathology. OBJECTIVES: Peripheral and autonomic nervous system function, the stage of microangiopathy, and the relationships between these in patients with SRP were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, 20 patients with CTD-related SRP and 30 healthy controls were subject to capillaroscopy, standard conduction velocity tests and conduction velocity distribution (CVD) tests in ulnar and peroneal nerves, heart rate variability (HRV), and sympathetic skin response (SSR) tests...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553542/novel-approach-for-simultaneous-recording-of-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure-with-intravenous-infusion-in-conscious-unrestrained-mice
#16
Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551928/effect-on-hrv-of-archer-athletes-one-day-before-competition-after-three-different-abdominal-respiratory-frequency
#17
Kai Zhang, Jun Wei, Lin Wang
Purpose: To study the effect on HRV of archer athletes one day before competition after three different abdominal respiratory frequencies. Methods: Eight elite archers performed three different respiratory frequency tests, HRV were recorded in pre-, during, and post-frequency control in frequency 16 (F16 group, n = 8), 8 (F8 group, n = 8), and 5 (F5 group, n = 8) times per minute, and hoped to find a respiratory adjust way to reduce stress. RMSSD, RR_triangular index, TP, VLF, LF, HF and LF/HF were analyzed to describe the effect of respiratory frequency...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549340/transcytosis-of-trka-leads-to-diversification-of-dendritic-signaling-endosomes
#18
Kelly Barford, Austin Keeler, Lloyd McMahon, Kathryn McDaniel, Chan Choo Yap, Christopher D Deppmann, Bettina Winckler
The development of the peripheral nervous system relies on long-distance signaling from target organs back to the soma. In sympathetic neurons, this long-distance signaling is mediated by target derived Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) interacting with its axonal receptor, TrkA. This ligand receptor complex internalizes into what is commonly referred to as the signaling endosome which is transported retrogradely to the soma and dendrites to mediate survival signaling and synapse formation, respectively. The molecular identity of signaling endosomes in dendrites has not yet been determined...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542131/identification-of-vanilloid-compounds-in-the-grains-of-paradise-and-their-effects-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#19
Hiroyuki Hattori, Kosei Yamauchi, Siaw Onwona-Agyeman, Thoru Mitsunaga
BACKGROUND: Grains of Paradise (GP) is the seed of Aframomum melegueta, which is widely distributed throughout West Africa and has been used as a spice and a folk remedy for a long time. The anti-obesity effect by GP intake was demonstrated in our previous report. In this present study, we tried to isolate some compounds in GP and clarify the anti-obesity mechanism. RESULTS: Ten vanilloid compounds were determined. Among ten vanilloids, 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-octen-5-one were determined as novel compounds and 6-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 6-shogaol were identified as the major constituents in GP extract...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541878/neural-pathways-involved-in-infection-induced-inflammation-recent-insights-and-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
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