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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903938/atrial-fibrillation-in-acute-obstructive-sleep-apnea-autonomic-nervous-mechanism-and-modulation
#1
Lilei Yu, Xuefei Li, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Menglong Wang, Liping Zhou, Guannan Meng, Yuhong Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not completely understood. This study investigated the roles of the intrinsic and extrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system in OSA-induced AF and provided noninvasive autonomic nervous modulation for the suppression of OSA-induced AF by using low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation (LL-TS) of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve at the tragus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen dogs received tracheostomy under general anesthesia and were randomly divided into 3 groups: the OSA group (OSA was simulated via clamping of the endotracheal tube at end expiration for 1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895408/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-innervation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
L Zhang, L L Wu, H B Huan, X J Chen, X D Wen, D P Yang, F Xia
Autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the development of multiple cancers via regulating cancer cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. However, no detailed studies have been performed to study the role of autonomic nerve fibers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as its correlation with the progression of HCC. Here, we examined the distribution of the autonomic nerve fibers and analyzed the correlation between autonomic nerve fibers and the pathological characteristics of HCC patients...
September 12, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#3
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887775/imaging-cardiac-innervation-in-amyloidosis
#4
Riemer H J A Slart, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Bouke P C Hazenberg, Walter Noordzij
Cardiac amyloidosis is a form of restrictive cardiomyopathy resulting in heart failure and potential risk on arrhythmia, due to amyloid infiltration of the nerve conduction system and the myocardial tissue. The prognosis in this progressive disease is poor, probably due the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Early detection of cardiac sympathetic innervation disturbances has become of major clinical interest, because its occurrence and severity limits the choice of treatment. The use of iodine-123 labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine ([I-123]MIBG), a chemical modified analogue of norepinephrine, is well established in patients with heart failure and plays an important role in evaluation of sympathetic innervation in cardiac amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884416/repeated-stress-exaggerates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-rat-spleen
#5
M Laukova, Peter Vargovic, I Rokytova, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Spleen is an immune organ innervated with sympathetic nerves which together with adrenomedullary system control splenic immune functions. However, the mechanism by which prior stress exposure modulates the immune response induced by immunogenic challenge is not sufficiently clarified. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single (2 h) and repeated (2 h daily for 7 days) immobilization stress (IMO) on the innate immune response in the spleen induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/kg)...
September 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874461/selective-deletion-of-renin-b-in-the-brain-alters-drinking-and-metabolism
#6
Keisuke Shinohara, Pablo Nakagawa, Javier Gomez, Donald A Morgan, Nicole K Littlejohn, Matthew D Folchert, Benjamin J Weidemann, Xuebo Liu, Susan A Walsh, Laura L Ponto, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L Grobe, Curt D Sigmund
The brain-specific isoform of renin (Ren-b) has been proposed as a negative regulator of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We analyzed mice with a selective deletion of Ren-b which preserved expression of the classical renin (Ren-a) isoform. We reported that Ren-b(Null) mice exhibited central RAS activation and hypertension through increased expression of Ren-a, but the dipsogenic and metabolic effects in Ren-b(Null) mice are unknown. Fluid intake was similar in control and Ren-b(Null) mice at baseline and both exhibited an equivalent dipsogenic response to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt...
September 5, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872777/orexin-a-increases-sympathetic-nerve-activity-through-promoting-expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#7
Yuanyuan Fan, Enshe Jiang, Taija Hahka, Qinghui Chen, Jianqun Yan, Zhiying Shan
AIM: Accumulating evidence suggests that orexin signaling is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular function. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that upregulated orexin A signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) through stimulating expression of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). METHODS: In vivo sympathetic nerve recordings were performed to test the impact of PVN orexin signaling on sympathetic outflow in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
September 5, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871339/recruitment-strategies-in-efferent-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#8
REVIEW
J Kevin Shoemaker
In 1968, the first reported microneurographic recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans revealed the bursty behavior of efferent sympathetic nerve activity. The timing of bursts could be explained by baroreflex physiology, but the variability in size of each burst was left unexplained. On the basis of shorter latencies of larger bursts, Wallin's group [53] proposed the existence of variable supraspinal synaptic delays and/or options for recruitment of faster-conducting sympathetic neurons when bursts become stronger...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870566/pre-and-postganglionic-vasomotor-dysfunction-causes-distal-limb-coldness-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#9
Kazumasa Shindo, Mai Tsuchiya, Yuta Ichinose, Kishin Koh, Takanori Hata, Nobuo Yamashiro, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Takamura Nagasaka, Yoshihisa Takiyama
BACKGROUND: The detailed pathophysiology of limb coldness in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated cutaneous vasomotor neural function in 18 MSA patients with or without limb coldness, and in 20 healthy volunteers as controls. We measured resting skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and spontaneous changes of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) and skin blood flow (skin vasomotor reflex: SVR), as well as SVR and reflex changes of SSNA after electrical stimulation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867675/resting-sympathetic-activity-is-associated-with-the-sympathetically-mediated-component-of-energy-expenditure-following-a-meal
#10
Jacqueline K Limberg, Katherine R Malterer, Luke J Matzek, James A Levine, Nisha Charkoudian, John M Miles, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
Individuals with high plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels at rest have a smaller reduction in resting energy expenditure (REE) following β-adrenergic blockade. If this finding extends to the response to a meal, it could have important implications for the role of the sympathetic nervous system in energy balance and weight gain. We hypothesized high muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) would be associated with a low sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. Fourteen young, healthy adults completed two visits randomized to continuous saline (control) or intravenous propranolol to achieve systemic β-adrenergic blockade...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865109/effects-of-moxonidine-and-low-calorie-diet-cardiometabolic-benefits-from-combination-of-both-therapies
#11
Elisabeth A Lambert, Carolina I Sari, Nina Eikelis, Sarah E Phillips, Mariee Grima, Nora E Straznicky, John B Dixon, Murray Esler, Markus P Schlaich, Geoffrey A Head, Gavin W Lambert
OBJECTIVE: Because sympathetic nervous system activity plays a detrimental role in metabolic and cardiovascular health, this study compared the effects of a centrally acting sympatholytic agent, the effects of a weight loss (WL) program using a low-calorie diet, and the effects of a combination of both. METHODS: Young (18-30 years) male subjects with overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ) were allocated to a WL program (n = 10), a moxonidine treatment course (M; n = 10, 0...
September 2, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862764/testing-a-linear-time-invariant-model-for-skin-conductance-responses-by-intraneural-recording-and-stimulation
#12
Samuel Gerster, Barbara Namer, Mikael Elam, Dominik R Bach
Skin conductance responses (SCR) are increasingly analyzed with model-based approaches that assume a linear and time-invariant (LTI) mapping from sudomotor nerve (SN) activity to observed SCR. These LTI assumptions have previously been validated indirectly, by quantifying how much variance in SCR elicited by sensory stimulation is explained under an LTI model. This approach, however, collapses sources of variability in the nervous and effector organ systems. Here, we directly focus on the SN/SCR mapping by harnessing two invasive methods...
September 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860964/inter-individual-relationships-between-sympathetic-arterial-baroreflex-function-and-cerebral-perfusion-control-in-healthy-males
#13
Trevor Witter, Yu-Chieh Tzeng, Terry O'Donnell, Jessica Kusel, Bridget Walker, Mary Berry, Chloe E Taylor
Maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion during normal physiological challenges requires integration between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and systemic blood pressure control mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is inversely related to some measures of cerebral autoregulation. However, interactions between the sympathetic arterial baroreflex and cerebral perfusion control mechanisms have not been explored. To determine the nature and magnitude of these interactions we measured R-R interval, blood pressure, CBF velocity, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 healthy young males...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859876/genetics-based-manipulation-of-adipose-tissue-sympathetic-innervation
#14
REVIEW
Marie François, Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Sangho Yu
There is renewed interest in leveraging the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) to improve energy balance and prevent obesity. In addition to these effects on energy expenditure, both BAT and WAT secrete large numbers of hormones and cytokines that play important roles in maintaining metabolic health. Both BAT and WAT are densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and this innervation is crucial for BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning, making it a potentially interesting target for manipulating energy balance and treatment of obesity and metabolic disease...
August 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843854/neuromedin-u-precursor-related-peptide-nurp-exerts-neuromedin-u-like-sympathetic-nerve-action-in-the-rat
#15
Takuya Ensho, Keisuke Maruyama, Kenji Mori, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa, Keiko Nakahara, Noboru Murakami
It has been suggested that novel peptide that is produced from the neuromedin U (NMU) precursor may exist, as this precursor contains multiple consensus sequences for proteolytic processing. Recently, we identified two mature novel peptides comprising 33 and 36 residues in the rat brain, which were designated neuromedin U precursor-related peptide (NURP) 33 and 36. In the present study, we compared the roles of NURP33 and 36 with that of NMU, as neither activates the NMU receptors. Immunoreactivity for NMU and NURPs was widely present in the central nervous system and showed a similar distribution...
August 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830730/identification-and-distribution-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-neurochemical-markers-in-the-neuroepithelial-cells-of-the-gill-and-the-skin-in-the-giant-mudskipper-periophthalmodon-schlosseri
#16
Giacomo Zaccone, Eugenia Rita Lauriano, Michał Kuciel, Gioele Capillo, Simona Pergolizzi, Alessio Alesci, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Yuen Kwong Ip, Jose M Icardo
Mudskippers are amphibious fishes living in mudflats and mangroves. These fishes hold air in their large buccopharyngeal-opercular cavities where respiratory gas exchange takes place via the gills and higher vascularized epithelium lining the cavities and also the skin epidermis. Although aerial ventilation response to changes in ambient gas concentration has been studied in mudskippers, the localization and distribution of respiratory chemoreceptors, their neurochemical coding and function as well as physiological evidence for the gill or skin as site for O2 and CO2 sensing are currently not known...
August 5, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815595/sigma-1-receptor-ligands-inhibit-catecholamine-secretion-from-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-due-to-block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#17
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810724/sympathetic-nerve-traffic-and-blood-pressure-changes-after-bilateral-renal-denervation-in-resistant-hypertension-a-time-integrated-analysis
#18
Gino Seravalle, Graziella D'Arrigo, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Gianmaria Brambilla, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Renal denervation reduces blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic drive in experimental animal models, but the effect of this intervention on sympathetic activity in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension is still unclear. Methods: In an incident series of 29 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, we performed serial measurements (n = 123) of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) and standardized BP measurements. Data were analysed by mixed linear modelling (MLM) and by regression analysis of time-integrated changes of both MSNA and synchronous, standardized (in-lab) BP measurements...
August 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808780/non-cns-pathogenic-origin-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Humdoon Choudhry, Lawrence C Perlmuter
The gut with its variety of microbiota may serve as an etiological origin of diseases. Gut microbes may also play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases beyond their simple nutritional maintenance and support. For example, gut protein aggregation, possibly aided by microbes as well as nasal influences, might be linked to disease that may move to the brain through the vagus nerve. To this end, Braak has offered a "dual-hit" hypothesis that proposes a novel etiology for Parkinson's disease (PD). The hypothesis places the initial origin of the disease in the nose and the gastrointestinal tract (GI) after infection by an unknown pathogen that could aggregate in the gut and then eventually spread to the brain via the autonomic plexuses...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807531/absent-cardiac-and-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activities-involvement-in-ross-syndrome-a-follow-up-study
#20
E Fileccia, R Liguori, P Cortelli, V Donadio
PURPOSE: Ross syndrome (RS) is characterized by selective involvement of post-ganglionic skin sympathetic nerve fibres. We report a follow-up study in 4 patients to clarify whether in RS autonomic dysfunction spreads affecting also cardiovascular system. METHODS: The patients underwent cardiovascular reflexes (CVR) and microneurography recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) for a follow-up mean period of 5years. RESULTS: CVR and MSNA were normal at baseline and unchanged over the follow-up...
August 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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