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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922669/a-critical-commentary-on-the-2017-agnp-consensus-guidelines-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-neuropsychopharmacology
#1
Jose de Leon
In 2004, 2011, and 2017, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP), a group of German-speaking psychiatric researchers and psychiatrists, published successive versions of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) expert group consensus guidelines. The 2017 version has as a major strength its encyclopedic nature, including 1358 references. The guideline has 3 major sections: 1) theoretical aspects of TDM, 2) drug concentration levels in blood to guide neuropsychopharmacotherapy, and 3) practical aspects of TDM in psychiatry and neurology...
September 18, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919008/immunoadsorption-in-neurological-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Satoru Oji, Kyoichi Nomura
In recent years, immunoadsorption has been increasingly recognized as an alternative to therapeutic plasma exchange and used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and multiple sclerosis, as well as autoimmune encephalitis. Unlike therapeutic plasma exchange, which requires fluid replacement with a blood solution such as fresh frozen plasma or albumin, immunoadsorption is a blood purification technique that enables the selective removal of humoral factors from separated plasma through a high-affinity adsorbent with tryptophan or phenylalanine...
August 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916998/emergency-neurologic-life-support-meningitis-and-encephalitis
#3
David F Gaieski, Nicole F O'Brien, Ricardo Hernandez
Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because of the value of early recognition and treatment, meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment are discussed...
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#4
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914077/decision-algorithms-for-direct-oral-anticoagulant-use-in-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-a-practical-guide-for-neurologists
#5
Isabella Canavero, Giuseppe Micieli, Maurizio Paciaroni
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are valid alternative options to vitamin K antagonists due to their limited interactions with drugs or food and the fact that they do not require regular coagulation monitoring. To this regard, recent practice guidelines recommend that DOACs should be considered as first-line anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This review (1) outlines current international guidelines for the management of DOACs to prevent stroke in patients with NVAF, (2) outlines indications for elderly patients as well as specific settings including acute coronary syndromes and intracranial hemorrhage, and (3) offers a practical guide for the use of DOACs in neurological settings...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913754/emergency-neurological-life-support-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Rachel Garvin, Halinder S Mangat
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and is a leading cause of death in both the developed and developing world. The need for a systematic evidence-based approach to the care of severe TBI patients within the emergency setting has led to its inclusion as an Emergency Neurological Life Support topic. This protocol was designed to enumerate the practice steps that should be considered within the first critical hours of neurological injury from severe TBI.
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913684/-telemedicine-in-stroke-care
#7
REVIEW
L Breuer, S Schwab
Telemedicine is already widely used in many telestroke networks and ensures stroke treatment close to the patient's home in rural and medically underserved areas. This is particularly effective when telemedicine is integrated into a stroke unit concept. While telemedically based thrombolysis therapy has become routine practice for many years, practical implementation of comprehensive mechanical thrombectomy and the related processes remains challenging. The main tasks for the future further include development of a structured stroke aftercare system in neurologically underserved areas and permanent assurance of high-quality stroke care in telemedically connected sites...
September 14, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912708/remodeling-pearson-s-correlation-for-functional-brain-network-estimation-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-identification
#8
Weikai Li, Zhengxia Wang, Limei Zhang, Lishan Qiao, Dinggang Shen
Functional brain network (FBN) has been becoming an increasingly important way to model the statistical dependence among neural time courses of brain, and provides effective imaging biomarkers for diagnosis of some neurological or psychological disorders. Currently, Pearson's Correlation (PC) is the simplest and most widely-used method in constructing FBNs. Despite its advantages in statistical meaning and calculated performance, the PC tends to result in a FBN with dense connections. Therefore, in practice, the PC-based FBN needs to be sparsified by removing weak (potential noisy) connections...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911050/motor-abnormalities-from-neurodevelopmental-to-neurodegenerative-through-functional-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#9
Victor Peralta, Manuel J Cuesta
Background: Motor abnormalities (MAs) of severe mental disorders have been traditionally neglected both in clinical practice and research, although they are an increasing focus of attention because of their clinical and neurobiological relevance. For historical reasons, most of the literature on MAs has been focused to a great extent on schizophrenia, and as a consequence their prevalence and featural properties in other psychiatric or neuropsychiatric disorders are poorly known. In this article, we evaluated the extent to which catatonic, extrapyramidal and neurological soft signs, and their associated clinical features, are present transdiagnostically...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905504/is-essential-tremor-a-single-entity
#10
Franziska Hopfner, Günther Deuschl
Essential tremor (ET) is a frequent movement disorder. A new tremor classification has subdivided ET, into the classical form with bilateral action tremor of the hands with or without involvement of further tremor locations and without any other explaining signs or symptoms for the tremor and into 'ET plus' which comes additionally with further neurologic signs of unknown origin. This will provide a better foundation for subclassifying the condition. The immediate cause of ET is a preformed oscillating network within the central nervous system as revealed with electrophysiologic methods...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905004/gastroenteritis-aggressive-versus-slow-treatment-for-rehydration-gastro-a-pilot-rehydration-study-for-severe-dehydration-who-plan-c-versus-slower-rehydration
#11
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Ayub Mpoya, Nchafatso Obonyo, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Margeret Nakuya, Jennifer A Evans, Elizabeth C George, Diana M Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) rehydration management guidelines (Plan C) for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration are widely practiced in resource-poor settings, yet have never been formally evaluated in a clinical trial. A recent audit of outcome of AGE at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya noted that 10% of children required high dependency care (20% mortality) and a number developed fluid-related complications. The fluid resuscitation trial, FEAST, conducted in African children with severe febrile illness, demonstrated higher mortality with fluid bolus therapy and raised concerns regarding the safety of rapid intravenous rehydration therapy...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903977/who-mental-health-gap-action-programme-mhgap-intervention-guide-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
REVIEW
Roxanne C Keynejad, Tarun Dua, Corrado Barbui, Graham Thornicroft
QUESTION: Despite mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders being highly prevalent, there is a worldwide gap between service need and provision. WHO launched its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, and the Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in 2010. mhGAP-IG provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority MNS disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), using clinical decision-making protocols. It targets a non-specialised primary healthcare audience, but has also been used by ministries, non-governmental organisations and academics, for mental health service scale-up in 90 countries...
September 13, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902402/safety-net-versus-private-hospital-setting-for-brain-metastasis-patients-treated-with-radiosurgery-alone-disparities-in-follow-up-care-and-outcomes
#13
Kevin Diao, Yanqing Sun, Stella K Yoo, Cheng Yu, Jason C Ye, Nicholas Trakul, Richard L Jennelle, Paul E Kim, Gabriel Zada, John P Gruen, Eric L Chang
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone is an increasingly accepted treatment for brain metastases, but it requires adherence to frequently scheduled follow-up neuroimaging because of the risk of distant brain metastasis. The effect of disparities in access to follow-up care on outcomes after SRS alone is unknown. METHODS: This retrospective study included 153 brain metastasis patients treated consecutively with SRS alone from 2010 through 2016 at an academic medical center and a safety-net hospital (SNH) located in Los Angeles, California...
September 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895098/recurrent-cerebral-attack-caused-by-thrombosis-in-the-pulmonary-vein-stump-in-a-patient-with-left-upper-lobectomy-on-anticoagulant-therapy-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Takahito Nakano, Mayumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Kaneda
BACKGROUND: Thrombus formation in the pulmonary vein stump after pulmonary resection has recently been identified as a cause of systemic thrombosis including brain infarction. However, there is limited research focusing on the clinical course of pulmonary vein stump thrombus, and optimal treatment and prevention strategies of this important complication have not been established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed with lung cancer of the left upper lobe, cT4N2M0, cStage IIIB...
September 11, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894988/how-tandem-gait-stumbled-into-the-neurological-exam-a-review
#15
Jason Margolesky, Carlos Singer
Tandem gait testing is an integral part of the neurological exam. It is informative in a wide variety of disorders ranging from cerebellar disease to vestibular and peripheral neuropathies, parkinsonism, and other neurodegenerative conditions. We discuss the history and development of tandem gait testing as well as its technique, utility, and limitations in the assessment of neurological conditions. Tandem gait has emerged as a tool in the assessment of cerebellar disease, Huntington disease, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathies, and vestibulopathies...
September 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894045/neopterin-as-a-marker-of-cellular-immunological-response
#16
Łukasz Michalak, Magdalena Bulska, Karolina Strząbała, Piotr Szcześniak
Neopterin is a pyrazino-pyrimidine compound that belongs to the pteridine group. It is known to be a biochemical marker associated with cell-mediated immunity. It is produced by human monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) upon stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ), which is released by activated limphocytes Th. Neopterin is a very important clinic parameter, though the physiological role has not been exactly definited thus far. The level of neopterin reflects the stage of activation of the cellular immune system, which is important in the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893311/evaluation-of-pre-symptomatic-nitisinone-treatment-on-long-term-outcomes-in-tyrosinemia-type-1-patients-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Julia Geppert, Chris Stinton, Karoline Freeman, Hannah Fraser, Aileen Clarke, Samantha Johnson, Paul Sutcliffe, Sian Taylor-Phillips
BACKGROUND: Tyrosinemia type 1 (TYR1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism that is fatal without treatment. With medication (nitisinone) and dietary restrictions outcomes are improved. We conducted a systematic review to investigate if treatment with nitisinone following screening provides better long-term outcomes than treatment with nitisinone following symptomatic detection. METHODS: We searched Web of Science, Medline, Pre-Medline, and Embase up to 23rd September 2016 for journal articles comparing clinical outcomes of TYR1 patients receiving earlier versus later nitisinone treatment...
September 11, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892534/utility-of-combining-a-simulation-based-method-with-a-lecture-based-method-for-fundoscopy-training-in-neurology-residency
#18
Deepak K Gupta, Namir Khandker, Kristin Stacy, Curtis M Tatsuoka, David C Preston
Importance: Fundoscopic examination is an essential component of the neurologic examination. Competence in its performance is mandated as a required clinical skill for neurology residents by the American Council of Graduate Medical Education. Government and private insurance agencies require its performance and documentation for moderate- and high-level neurologic evaluations. Traditionally, assessment and teaching of this key clinical examination technique have been difficult in neurology residency training...
September 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890044/recursive-partitioning-analysis-for-disease-progression-in-adult-intracranial-ependymoma-patients
#19
Sang Woo Song, Yun-Sik Dho, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Dong Gyu Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Sung-Hye Park, Seung Hong Choi, Tae Min Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Il Han Kim, Sang Hyung Lee, Chul-Kee Park
Intracranial ependymomas are rare tumors in adults. Although recent advancements from demographic, clinical, and biological studies provide new perspectives on this rare tumor, they are not yet widely applied in clinical practice. Currently, most ependymoma patients are treated in the same way: via surgical resection with adjuvant radiation therapy. However, it is reasonable to apply more aggressive treatment for high-risk patients. From this point of view, we performed a study to investigate risk grouping for disease progression of intracranial ependymomas in adults...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889266/occupational-metal-exposure-and-parkinsonism
#20
W Michael Caudle
Parkinsonism is comprised of a host of neurological disorders with an underlying clinical feature of movement disorder, which includes many shared features of bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. These clinical outcomes occur subsequent to pathological deficits focused on degeneration or dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopamine system and accompanying pathological inclusions of alpha-synuclein and tau. The heterogeneity of parkinsonism is equally matched with the complex etiology of this syndrome. While a small percentage can be attributed to genetic alterations, the majority arise from an environmental exposure, generally composed of pesticides, industrial compounds, as well as metals...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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