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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151229/effects-of-female-sex-steroids-administration-on-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
REVIEW
Mohammad Khaksari, Zahra Soltani, Nader Shahrokhi
Secondary brain damage following initial brain damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of adverse outcomes. There are many gaps in TBI research and a lack of therapy to limit debilitating outcomes in TBI or enhance the neurogenesis, despite pre-clinical and clinical research performed in TBI. Females show harmful outcomes against brain damage including TBI less than males, independent of different TBI occurrence. A significant reduction in secondary brain damage and improvement in neurologic outcome post-TBI has been reported following the use of progesterone and estrogen in many experimental studies...
November 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151092/conversion-factitious-disorder-and-malingering-a-distinct-pattern-or-a-continuum
#2
Silvio Galli, Laurent Tatu, Julien Bogousslavsky, Selma Aybek
This chapter is aimed at highlighting the recent findings concerning physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of conversion, factitious disorder, and malingering. Conversion disorder is the unintentional production of neurological symptom, whereas malingering and factitious disorder represent the voluntary production of symptoms with internal or external incentives. They have a close history and this has been frequently confounded. Practitioners are often confronted to medically unexplained symptoms; they represent almost 30% of neurologist's consultation...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151060/genetics-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Pei-Lan Zhang, Yan Chen, Chen-Hao Zhang, Yu-Xin Wang, Pedro Fernandez-Funez
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex and heterogeneous neurological condition characterised mainly by bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability, symptoms that together comprise the parkinsonian syndrome. Non-motor symptoms preceding and following clinical onset are also helpful diagnostic markers revealing a widespread and progressive pathology. Many other neurological conditions also include parkinsonism as primary or secondary symptom, confounding their diagnosis and treatment. Although overall disease course and end-stage pathological examination single out these conditions, the significant overlaps suggest that they are part of a continuous disease spectrum...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150890/suspended-animation-the-past-present-and-future-of-major-cardiothoracic-trauma
#4
REVIEW
Syed Mohiyaddin, Prakash Nanjaiah, Ahmed O Saad, Metesh N Acharya, Tanveer A Khan, Rhodri H Davies, Saeed Ashraf
About 50% of the trauma victims die at the scene mostly because of exsanguinating haemorrhage. Most trials of resuscitation fail in face of the ongoing bleeding. Ongoing research/studies to save these victims by inducing rapid hypothermia using cardiopulmonary bypass as an emergency initial measure along with delayed resuscitation show improved outcomes. A comprehensive review of this research and analysis of studies showed that rapid induction of hypothermia within 5 min of cardiac arrest is associated with better survival and improved neurological outcome...
November 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150315/surgical-options-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-complicated-with-spinal-deformity-and-neurologic-deficit
#5
Kalliopi Alpantaki, Michael Dohm, Panagiotis Korovessis, Alexander G Hadjipavlou
INTRODUCTION: This paper describes surgical options for Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) with acute flexible or chronic rigid kyphosis, and pseudarthrosis complicated with pain and neurologic deficit. METHODS: This study has two components. a) A prospective clinical study of surgical treatment of 31 patients (age: 69±11 years) with either acute flexible or progressive pseudarthrotic kyphosis manifested with severe pain or neurological deficit between 2010 and 2014...
November 12, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150169/vitamin-d-and-walking-speed-in-older-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Cedric Annweiler, Samir Henni, Stéphane Walrand, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Gustavo Duque, Guillaume T Duval
Vitamin D is involved in musculoskeletal health. There is no consensus on a possible association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations and walking speed, a 'vital sign' in older adults. Our objective was to systematically review and quantitatively assess the association of 25OHD concentration with walking speed. A Medline search was conducted on June 2017, with no limit of date, using the MeSH terms "Vitamin D" OR "Vitamin D Deficiency" combined with "Gait" OR "Gait disorders, Neurologic" OR "Walking speed" OR "Gait velocity"...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149668/parental-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-epilepsy-a-study-from-jordan
#7
Amira Masri, Samah Aburahma, Aisha Khasawneh, Abdelkarim Al Qudah, Omar Nafi, Miral Al Momani, Faisal Khatib
PURPOSE: To explore the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of parents whose children were diagnosed with epilepsy. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study of parents who accompanied their children with epilepsy to the child neurology clinics at three university hospitals in Jordan. RESULTS: Most parents (427, 90.3%) knew that epilepsy is not related to a psychiatric disease. Approximately half of the parents (245, 51.8%) used the internet as their source of knowledge, and most used Arabic websites...
November 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149600/repair-of-uv-induced-dna-damage-independent-of-nucleotide-excision-repair-is-masked-by-mutyh
#8
Abdelghani Mazouzi, Federica Battistini, Sarah C Moser, Joana Ferreira da Silva, Marc Wiedner, Michel Owusu, Charles-Hugues Lardeau, Anna Ringler, Beatrix Weil, Jürgen Neesen, Modesto Orozco, Stefan Kubicek, Joanna I Loizou
DNA lesions caused by UV damage are thought to be repaired solely by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in human cells. Patients carrying mutations within genes functioning in this pathway display a range of pathologies, including an increased susceptibility to cancer, premature aging, and neurological defects. There are currently no curative therapies available. Here we performed a high-throughput chemical screen for agents that could alleviate the cellular sensitivity of NER-deficient cells to UV-induced DNA damage...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149593/notch2-hajdu-cheney-mutations-escape-scf-fbw7-dependent-proteolysis-to-promote-osteoporosis
#9
Hidefumi Fukushima, Kouhei Shimizu, Asami Watahiki, Seira Hoshikawa, Tomoki Kosho, Daiju Oba, Seiji Sakano, Makiko Arakaki, Aya Yamada, Katsuyuki Nagashima, Koji Okabe, Satoshi Fukumoto, Eijiro Jimi, Anna Bigas, Keiichi I Nakayama, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Wenyi Wei, Hiroyuki Inuzuka
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS), a rare autosomal disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in NOTCH2, is clinically characterized by acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. Recent studies identified that aberrant NOTCH2 signaling and consequent osteoclast hyperactivity are closely associated with the bone-related disorder pathogenesis, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that sustained osteoclast activity is largely due to accumulation of NOTCH2 carrying a truncated C terminus that escapes FBW7-mediated ubiquitination and degradation...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148391/outbreaks-of-neuroinvasive-astrovirus-associated-with-encephalomyelitis-weakness-and-paralysis-among-weaned-pigs-hungary
#10
Ákos Boros, Mihály Albert, Péter Pankovics, Hunor Bíró, Patricia A Pesavento, Tung Gia Phan, Eric Delwart, Gábor Reuter
A large, highly prolific swine farm in Hungary had a 2-year history of neurologic disease among newly weaned (25- to 35-day-old) pigs, with clinical signs of posterior paraplegia and a high mortality rate. Affected pigs that were necropsied had encephalomyelitis and neural necrosis. Porcine astrovirus type 3 was identified by reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization in brain and spinal cord samples in 6 animals from this farm. Among tissues tested by quantitative RT-PCR, the highest viral loads were detected in brain stem and spinal cord...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148383/porcine-astrovirus-type-3-in-central-nervous-system-of-swine-with-polioencephalomyelitis
#11
Bailey Arruda, Paulo Arruda, Melissa Hensch, Qi Chen, Ying Zheng, Chenghuai Yang, Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Franco Matias Ferreyra, Phil Gauger, Kent Schwartz, Laura Bradner, Karen Harmon, Ben Hause, Ganwu Li
Using next-generation sequencing, we identified and genetically characterized a porcine astrovirus type 3 strain found in tissues from the central nervous system of 1 piglet and 3 sows with neurologic signs and nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis. Further studies are needed to understand the potential for cross-species transmission and clinical impact.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#12
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148035/late-age-onset-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-is-often-not-considered-in-elderly-people
#13
E Broussalis, S Grinzinger, A B Kunz, M Killer-Oberpfalzer, E Haschke-Becher, H-P Hartung, J Kraus
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease causing an upper and lower motor neuron loss. It is neurology textbook knowledge that the mean age of onset is about 60 years. However, recent investigations show an increasing incidence in older persons. We therefore evaluated whether ALS is potentially not considered in elderly people with ALS symptoms, respectively, not recognized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included retrospectively all patients with ALS diagnoses after work-up that were admitted to our neurological and geriatric departments from 2007 to 2010 and collected their clinical data...
November 17, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147637/subtotal-resection-of-a-thalamic-glioblastoma-multiforme-through-transsylvian-approach
#14
Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Homa Sadeghian, Alireza M Mohammadi
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor with an ominous prognosis. The standard treatment includes maximal safe resection plus adjuvant therapy. Thalamic GBMs, however, are unfavorable for microsurgical removal because of deep location and proximity to critical structures. We present a patient presenting with progressive hemiparesis and decreased consciousness with a large thalamic GBM who underwent subtotal resection through a transsylvian approach. His clinical and neurologic condition improved after surgery and he survived nine months after surgery...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147631/automated-whole-brain-tractography-affects-preoperative-surgical-decision-making
#15
Hesham Zakaria, Sameah Haider, Ian Lee
Surgery in and around eloquent brain structures poses a technical challenge when the goal of surgery is maximal safe resection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders, but tractography still remains limited in terms of utility because of the requisite manual labor and time required combined with the high risk of bias and inaccuracy. Automated whole brain tractography (AWBT) has simplified this workflow, overcoming historical barriers, and allowing for integration into modern neuronavigation...
September 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147475/an-extensive-chronic-aortic-dissection-presenting-with-acute-embolic-stroke
#16
Sijan Basnet, Naba Raj Mainali, Biswaraj Tharu, Rashmi Dhital, Dilli Ram Poudel
Herein, we present a rare case of extensive chronic aortic dissection with extension to bilateral subclavian arteries, bilateral common carotid arteries, right internal carotid artery, bilateral proximal external iliac arteries and simultaneous presentation of acute embolic stroke and seizure. The rarity of this case presentation and the presence of neurological features necessitated a high index of clinical suspicion to reach the definitive diagnosis. This study also demonstrates a unique situation requiring correlation between chronic aortic dissection and multi-organ system dysfunction from chronic ischemia...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146718/deep-brain-nuclei-t1-shortening-after-gadobenate-dimeglumine-in-children-influence-of-radiation-and-chemotherapy
#17
S Kinner, T B Schubert, R J Bruce, S L Rebsamen, C A Diamond, S B Reeder, H A Rowley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intrinsic T1-hyperintense signal has recently been reported in the deep gray nuclei on brain MR imaging after multiple doses of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Most reports have included adult patients and excluded those undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. We investigated whether T1 shortening is also observed in children and tried to determine whether radiochemotherapy is a risk factor for this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, we reviewed clinical charts and images of all patients 18 years of age or younger with ≥4 gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRIs for 6 years...
November 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146700/phenotypic-spectrum-of-children-with-nephronophthisis-and-related-ciliopathies
#18
Jens König, Birgitta Kranz, Sabine König, Karl Peter Schlingmann, Andrea Titieni, Burkhard Tönshoff, Sandra Habbig, Lars Pape, Karsten Häffner, Matthias Hansen, Anja Büscher, Martin Bald, Heiko Billing, Raphael Schild, Ulrike Walden, Tobias Hampel, Hagen Staude, Magdalena Riedl, Norbert Gretz, Martin Lablans, Carsten Bergmann, Friedhelm Hildebrandt, Heymut Omran, Martin Konrad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic variability are major challenges in familial nephronophthisis and related ciliopathies. To date, mutations in 20 different genes (NPHP1 to -20) have been identified causing either isolated kidney disease or complex multiorgan disorders. In this study, we provide a comprehensive and detailed characterization of 152 children with a special focus on extrarenal organ involvement and the long-term development of ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We established an online-based registry (www...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146435/epidemiology-and-management-of-spinal-trauma-in-children-and-adolescents-under-18-years-old
#19
Asdrubal Falavigna, Orlando Righesso, Pedro Guarise da Silva, Felix Adolfo Sanchez Chavez, Ericson Sfreddo, Leandro Pelegrini de Almeida, Manuel Jose Valencia Carrasco, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: Report the epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of spinal trauma in children and adolescents. METHODS: Multicenter study of 215 cases of spinal trauma in individuals younger than 18 years of age. All patients were submitted to preoperative and postoperative radiological and clinical evaluation. The fractures were classified according to the AOSpine fracture classification. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Frankel Scale at admission to hospital and at the last follow-up...
November 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146434/cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-endovascular-reperfusion-therapy-in-a-patient-with-acute-internal-carotid-artery-and-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusions
#20
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Shoji Matsumoto, Mitsushige Ando, Hideo Chihara, Atsushi Tsujimoto, Taketo Hatano
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is known to be a rare but devastating complication of carotid artery revascularization. Because patients with acute ischemic stroke due to acute major cerebral and/or cervical artery occlusion treated with endovascular reperfusion therapy may have impaired autoregulation in the cerebral vasculature, these patients may also develop CHS. Despite the growing number of endovascular reperfusion procedures for acute ischemic stroke, this complication has only rarely been reported...
November 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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