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Tara C Jatlaoui, Halley E M Riley, Kathryn M Curtis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by young women and risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Popline and the Cochrane Library for articles from inception of database through December 2015. For outcomes specific to IUD use (IUD expulsion and perforation), we examined effect measures for IUD users generally aged 25 years or younger compared with older IUD users. For outcomes of pregnancy, infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and heavy bleeding or anemia, we examined young IUD users compared with young users of other contraceptive methods or no method...
October 19, 2016: Contraception
Sampriti Kataki, Samarendra Hazarika, D C Baruah
Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk...
October 19, 2016: Waste Management
X Yao, E A Stewart, S K Laughlin-Tommaso, H C Heien, B J Borah
OBJECTIVES: To report patterns and patient characteristics associated with initiation of and persistence with medical therapies for uterine fibroid-related heavy menstrual bleeding. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: US commercial insurance claims database. POPULATION: 41 561 women aged 18-54 years with uterine fibroids and heavy menstrual bleeding who initiated medical therapies from January 2000 through December 2013...
October 21, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Kristin Thomas, Catharina Linderoth, Marcus Bendtsen, Preben Bendtsen, Ulrika Müssener
BACKGROUND: Drinking of alcohol among university students is a global phenomenon; heavy episodic drinking is accepted despite several potential negative consequences. There is emerging evidence that short message service (SMS) text messaging interventions are effective to promote behavior change among students. However, it is still unclear how effectiveness can be optimized through intervention design or how user interest and adherence can be maximized. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop an SMS text message-based intervention targeting alcohol drinking among university students using formative research...
October 20, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Ayca Aktas Sukuroglu, Dilek Battal, Sema Burgaz
BACKGROUND: Henna has a very low allergic potential, and severe allergic contact dermatitis is mainly caused by p-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is added to temporary black 'henna tattoos', and potentially also by some heavy metals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of, and quantify, Lawsone, PPD and heavy metal contaminants (cobalt, nickel, lead, and chromium) in commercial temporary black henna tattoo mixtures (n = 25) sold in Turkey. METHODS: Lawsone and PPD concentrations were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and heavy metal quantification was performed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
October 19, 2016: Contact Dermatitis
J E Dietrich, D L Yee, X M Santos, J L Bercaw-Pratt, J Kurkowski, H Soni, Y J Lee-Kim, M D Shah, D Mahoney, L V Srivaths
BACKGROUND: Bleeding disorders (BD) occur in up to 50% of adolescents with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This presents unique challenges to healthcare providers given the complexity of treating the condition and such complexity can result in difficulty with patients understanding basic information about their condition, limit communication with medical providers, and patient compliance. SPECIFIC AIMS: To use an electronic approach to enhance patient compliance with medications used to treat their HMB...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Marianne Hädener, Marie Martin Fabritius, Stefan König, Christian Giroud, Wolfgang Weinmann
Heavy cannabis consumption is considered incompatible with safe driving. In Swiss traffic policy, drivers suspected of regular cannabis use are therefore required to undergo medical assessment of their long-term fitness to drive. A whole blood concentration of the cannabis metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) of 40 µg/L is currently used by Swiss forensic experts as decision limit for regular cannabis consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of THCCOOH-glucuronide blood levels as an additional and/or better marker for the frequency of cannabis use...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael J Boulton, Louise Boulton, Eleonora Camerone, James Down, Joanna Hughes, Chloe Kirkbride, Rachel Kirkham, Peter Macaulay, Jessica Sanders
Children are heavy users of the Internet and prior studies have shown that many of them lack a good understanding of the risks of doing so and how to avoid them. This study examined if the cross-age teaching zone (CATZ) intervention could help children acquire important knowledge of online risks and safety. It allowed older students to act as CATZ tutors to design and deliver a lesson to younger schoolmates (tutees), using content material about online risks and safety provided by adults. Students in Year 6 (mean age = 11...
October 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Deborah Bateson, Caroline Harvey, Lieu Trinh, Mary Stewart, Kirsten I Black
BACKGROUND: Copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) use in Australia is low despite being a highly effective, cost effective non-hormonal contraceptive with reported 12-month continuation rates of 85% compared to 59% for oral contraception. AIMS: To describe the characteristics of Cu-IUD users in the Australian context, their experiences of side effects, continuation rates and reasons for discontinuation. METHODS: Between August 2009 and January 2012 we undertook a prospective cohort study of consecutive women presenting for Cu-IUD insertion to three family planning clinics in Queensland and New South Wales...
October 5, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
S J Senanayake, N S Gunawardena
BACKGROUND: Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal used in many medical devices in the healthcare sector, making nurses one of the vulnerable occupational groups. OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding handling mercury containing devices and factors associated with knowledge among nurses in a paediatric hospital in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses (n = 538) working in Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Sri Lanka...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Susan I Woodruff, Cameron T McCabe, Melinda Hohman, John D Clapp, Audrey M Shillington, Kimberly Eisenberg, C Beth Sise, Edward M Castillo, Theodore C Chan, Michael J Sise
Emergency department (ED) settings have gained interest as venues for illegal drug misuse prevention and intervention, with researchers and practitioners attempting to capitalize on the intersection of need and opportunity within these settings. This study of 686 adult patients visiting two EDs for various reasons who admitted drug use compared daily cannabis-only users, nondaily cannabis-only users, and other drug users on sociodemographic and drug-related severity outcomes. The three drug use groups did not differ on most sociodemographic factors or medical problem severity scores...
2016: Cannabis Cannabinoid Res
Joanna Jacobus, Norma Castro, Lindsay M Squeglia, M J Meloy, Ty Brumback, Marilyn A Huestis, Susan F Tapert
Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, <3 alcohol use episodes, no marijuana use episodes)...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Bjarke Nielsen
The ADHD epidemic has been the subject of much scrutiny, especially in relation to the medicalization of children, and, to a lesser degree, to the use of Ritalin as a performance enhancer or party drug (e.g. Keane 2008; Whitaker 2010; Bowden 2013). In this article, my focus is on non-investigated side-effects of this epidemic, namely the use of (prescription) Ritalin among heavy drug users. Based on fieldwork conducted in one of the largest cities in Denmark, in this article I trace the spread of intravenous use of Ritalin, and examine how different ways of ingesting Ritalin transform the drug itself, and, with this, transform treatment practices, parts of the drug scene, and the bodies of users...
September 27, 2016: Medical Anthropology
Moazzam Ali, Ayse Akin, Luis Bahamondes, Vivian Brache, Ndema Habib, Sihem Landoulsi, David Hubacher
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to extend the use of the 3-year one-rod etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing subdermal contraceptive implant to 5 years? SUMMARY ANSWER: The extended use of the one-rod ENG-releasing subdermal contraceptive implant showed 100% efficacy in years 4 and 5. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The initial regulated trials on the ENG-releasing subdermal contraceptive implant conducted in the 1990 s were designed to measure cumulative 3-year efficacy...
September 26, 2016: Human Reproduction
Helena Kopp Kallner, Kristina Gemzell Danielsson
Preservation of fertility and optimizing health before pregnancy is becoming increasingly important in societies where childbirth often is postponed. Research shows that as women postpone childbirth they achieve higher levels of education and higher incomes. This leads to advantages for their children and for society. However, as women postpone childbearing they are at risk for contracting conditions which may affect fertility and/or pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, and the newborn child. Preconception counseling is therefore becoming increasingly important...
September 20, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Kornthip Jeephet, Siriporn Kamsa-Ard, Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi, Supot Kamsa-Ard, Varisara Luvira, Vor Luvira
BACKGROUND: Thailand remains a primarily agricultural country and Thai farmers are heavy users of pesticides. Coincidentally the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is high in parts of the country, but no previous study has examined any association between the two. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present matched, case-control study covered patients admitted to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The case group comprised 210 cases diagnosed with CCA and the control group 840 diagnosed with other diseases...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Petra Hopman, Marianne J Heins, Joke C Korevaar, Mieke Rijken, François G Schellevis
PURPOSE: To examine health care utilization of people with multiple chronic diseases in The Netherlands compared to people with a single chronic disease, and to identify subgroups of multimorbid patients according to health care utilization. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with one or more chronic diseases in 2008-2009 (N=54,051) were selected from the nationwide NIVEL Primary Care Database, and data on their GP contacts and medication in 2010 were retrieved. Data on hospital admissions, household size and income were added...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Isabelle L Lange, Lydie Kanhonou, Sourou Goufodji, Carine Ronsmans, Véronique Filippi
As one of many similar policies in the region, in 2009 Benin launched a free c-section policy in publicly funded hospitals intended to decrease the barriers to facility delivery and the heavy financial burdens on women and their families. We conducted a qualitative study for eight months between 2012 and 2014 to understand women's experiences of care in maternity wards. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 30 women who had delivered via c-section at five hospitals. Two of these hospitals became case study sites where in-depth research was undertaken that consisted of participant observation in each maternity ward and 32 further interviews with women who had complicated, vaginal and c-section deliveries...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Monika Wójta-Kempa, Dominik M Krzyżanowski
BACKGROUND: Almost 90% of households in Poland buy medicines on their own initiative. The most popular OTC medicines bought by Polish consumers are painkillers and non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to recognize and describe the most important predictive factors of the abuse and misuse of over-the-counter pain relievers among adults in Wrocław (Poland). The groups of users were selected and described. Some examples of misuse were analyzed...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Jose Orsini, Christa Blaak, Salil Rajayer, Vikash Gurung, Eric Tam, Joaquin Morante, Ben Shamian, Ryan Malik
Recreational substance use and misuse constitute a major public health issue. The annual rate of recreational drug overdose-related deaths is increasing exponentially, making unintentional overdose as the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Marijuana is the most widely used recreational illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Although it is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity, heavy marijuana usage has been associated with life-threatening consequences...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
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