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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631348/updating-of-working-memory-in-ecstasy-polydrug-users-findings-from-fnirs
#1
Catharine Montgomery, John E Fisk, Carl A Roberts
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are now well documented in ecstasy (MDMA) users with type and relative demand of task emerging as important factors. The updating component of executive processes appears to be particularly affected. The study reported here used functional near infrared spectroscopy imaging to investigate changes in cortical haemodynamics during memory updating. METHOD: Twenty ecstasy users and 20 non-users completed verbal and spatial memory updating tasks and brain blood oxygenation and deoxygenation change was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625212/mental-health-service-use-and-need-for-care-of-australians-without-diagnoses-of-mental-disorders-findings-from-a-large-epidemiological-survey
#2
I Bobevski, A Rosen, G Meadows
AIMS: While epidemiological surveys worldwide have found a considerable proportion of people using mental health services not to have a diagnosis of a mental disorder, with possible implications of service overuse, other work has suggested that most people without a current diagnosis who used services exhibited other indicators of need. The aims of the present study were, using somewhat different categorisations than previous work, to investigate whether: (1) Australians without a diagnosis of a mental disorder who used mental health services had other indicators of need; and (2) how rate and frequency of service use in Australia related to level of need, then to discuss the findings in light of recent developments in Australian Mental Health Policy and other epidemiological and services research findings...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621645/patterns-and-factors-of-problematic-marijuana-use-in-the-canadian-population-evidence-from-three-cross-sectional-surveys
#3
W I Andrew Bonner, Mustafa Andkhoie, Charlene Thompson, Marwa Farag, Michael Szafron
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to describe marijuana use in Canada and explore factors associated with problematic use. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2012 circulations of the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey were used to create three logistic regression models for the purposes of identifying and comparing factors associated with the degree of marijuana use, as determined via the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Abuse Involvement Screening Test (non-problematic, problematic) and European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (experiential, recent, current) methods...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614161/multiple-cerebral-infarcts-in-a-young-patient-associated-with-marijuana-use
#4
Leila Costa Volpon, Camila Lacerda Muniz de Melo Sousa, Silvia Keiko Kavaguti Moreira, Sara Reis Teixeira, Ana Paula de Carvalho Panzeri Carlotti
: Cerebrovascular events associated with marijuana use have been reported previously. This association is plausible, but not well-established yet. A 14-year-old girl, long-term heavy cannabis user, presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and decreased level of consciousness a few hours after smoking cannabis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple areas of acute, subacute and chronic ischemic lesions in the left frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum. History of other illicit drug use and other known causes of stroke were ruled out...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601747/road-traffic-crash-risk-associated-with-prescription-of-hydroxyzine-and-other-sedating-h1-antihistamines-a-responsibility-and-case-crossover-study
#5
Ludivine Orriols, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Anne Bénard-Laribière, Antoine Pariente, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde
BACKGROUND: H1 antihistamines differ from each other by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The resulting sedating effect can be sought in therapy but may be a driving hazard. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of sedating H1-antihistamines on the risk of road traffic crash, with a particular focus on hydroxyzine which is also indicated as an anxiolytic in France. METHODS: The study consisted in extracting and matching data from three French nationwide databases: the national healthcare insurance database, police reports and the police national database of injurious crashes...
June 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585473/computer-aided-generation-and-lung-deposition-modeling-of-nano-scale-particle-aggregates
#6
Robert Sturm
The study sets its main focus on the introduction of a random-walk-based model for the generation of variably shaped particle aggregates consisting of a predefined number of spherical components. With the help of a well-defined algorithm, the user is enabled to select between isodimensional, chain-like and platelet-like aggregates, for which related aerodynamic parameters (dynamic shape factors, volume-equivalent diameters, aerodynamic diameters) are determined automatically. The theoretical approach for random aggregate construction is directly connected with the previously developed stochastic particle transport and deposition model...
June 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584495/prevalence-pattern-and-correlates-of-alcohol-misuse-among-male-patients-attending-rural-primary-care-in-india
#7
Sanghamitra Pati, Subhashisa Swain, Sandeep Mahapatra, Mohammad Akhtar Hussain, Sandipana Pati
BACKGROUND: There are limited data available on how the problem of alcohol use is detected in primary care setting in India. Particularly in Odisha, it has not been investigated yet. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of drinking, drinking patterns, and quitting behavior among the male patients visiting a primary health-care facility in a district of Odisha. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending community health center (CHC), Buguda in the state of Odisha, India, from December 1, 2014, to February 31, 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570972/bromine-in-plastic-consumer-products-evidence-for-the-widespread-recycling-of-electronic-waste
#8
Andrew Turner, Montserrat Filella
A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg(-1) and 2.6 to 28,500μgg(-1). Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e...
May 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557133/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-catha-edulis-f-khat
#9
REVIEW
Ephrem Engidawork
Khat chewing is deeply rooted in the culture and tradition of communities in khat belt countries, and its consumption is spread to other countries through the suitcase trade. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge on the chemistry, social, pharmacology and toxicology of khat and its use. Khat produces effect invariably in every system, which is harmful or beneficial in some instances. Harmful effects are observed in heavy users, although firm evidence is lacking. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria, which is followed by low mood...
May 30, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552025/social-stigma-legal-and-public-health-barriers-faced-by-the-third-gender-phenomena-in-brazil-india-and-mexico-travestis-hijras-and-muxes
#10
Alessandra Diehl, Denise Leite Vieira, Marina Milograna Zaneti, Ana Fanganiello, Pratap Sharan, Rebecca Robles, Jair de Jesus Mari
AIM AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to provide a narrative literature review of the 'third gender' phenomenon in Brazil ( Travestis), India ( Hijras) and Mexico ( Muxes), considering the social stigma, the legal and health aspects of these identities. RESULTS: These three groups share similar experiences of stigmatisation, marginalisation, sexual abuse, HIV infection, infringement of civil rights and harassment accessing health services. Brazil, India and Mexico public services for the third gender conditions are still very scarce and inadequate for the heavy demand from potential users...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546969/modification-of-infant-hypothyroidism-and-phenylketonuria-screening-program-using-electronic-tools
#11
Behjat Taheri, Asefeh Haddadpoor, Mahmood Mirkhalafzadeh, Fariba Mazroei, Pezhman Aghdak, Mehran Nasri, Gholamreza Bahrami
BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria (PKU) are the most common cause for preventable mental retardation in infants worldwide. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these disorders can have lasting effects on the mental development of newborns. However, there are several problems at different stages of screening programs that along with imposing heavy costs can reduce the precision of the screening, increasing the chance of undiagnosed cases which in turn can have damaging consequences for the society...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544367/the-diverging-trajectories-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-policies-in-the-united-states-reasons-and-possible-implications
#12
Wayne Hall, Lynn T Kozlowski
AIM: To examine briefly the (i) rationales for two policy proposals in the United States to make it mandatory for cigarettes to contain very low levels of nicotine and to legalize cannabis for recreational use by adults; and (ii) possible lessons that participants in each policy debate may learn from each other. METHOD: We briefly describe the diverging policies towards cannabis and tobacco in the United States, explain and critically analyse their rationales and discuss possible policy lessons...
May 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534647/considering-built-environment-and-spatial-correlation-in-modelling-pedestrian-injury-severity
#13
Carlo G Prato, Sigal Kaplan, Alexandre Patrier, Thomas K Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about built environment and exposure at the crash locations...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530429/a-daily-diary-examination-of-caffeine-mixed-with-alcohol-among-college-students
#14
Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Cathy Lau-Barraco
OBJECTIVE: Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use is associated with a range of substance-related problems. The majority of prior research on CABs is based on cross-sectional and retrospective reports, which do not account for intraindividual differences in use and may be subject to recall biases. The current research used a daily diary, within-subjects design to compare days where individuals simultaneously mixed alcohol with caffeine (CAB days) and days where individuals drank other types of alcohol (non-CAB days) on alcohol use outcomes...
May 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518070/sample-preparation-for-mass-cytometry-analysis
#15
Ryan L McCarthy, Aundrietta D Duncan, Michelle C Barton
Mass cytometry utilizes antibodies conjugated with heavy metal labels, an approach that has greatly increased the number of parameters and opportunities for deep analysis well beyond what is possible with conventional fluorescence-based flow cytometry. As with any new technology, there are critical steps that help ensure the reliable generation of high-quality data. Presented here is an optimized protocol that incorporates multiple techniques for the processing of cell samples for mass cytometry analysis. The methods described here will help the user avoid common pitfalls and achieve consistent results by minimizing variability, which can lead to inaccurate data...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510803/occupational-and-life-style-factors-acquired-mutagenicity-in-agric-workers-of-northeastern-brazil
#16
Tatiana Vieira Souza Chaves, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Manoel Odoríco de Moraes, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Débora Cássia Vieira Gomes, Rodrigo Mendes de Carvalho, Sharbel Weider Maluf, Fabrício Pires de Moura do Amaral, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Maria Elisabete Amaral de Moraes
Pesticides are a complex mixture of chemicals used to protect crops from a number of pests and diseases. They have been considered as potential mutagenic agents. This study aims at evaluation of the mutagenic effect of pesticide exposure to agricultural workers through chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosal cells, respectively. The exposed group was consisted with 97 farmers, while the control (un-exposed) group consisted of 55. The results showed a significant (p < 0...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510780/design-and-testing-of-a-new-diatom-based-index-for-heavy-metal-pollution
#17
M R Fernández, G Martín, J Corzo, A de la Linde, E García, M López, M Sousa
The Tinto and Odiel river basins (SW Spain) are known worldwide for their unique water characteristics. Such uniqueness is a consequence of their flow through the Iberian Pyrite Belt (an area rich in metal sulphides) and the mining activities in the basins. A process of sulphide oxidation occurs in this region, which acidifies the water and increases the amount of heavy metals in it. As a result, the rivers suffer the so-called "acid mine drainage" (AMD). Traditional biotic diatom-based indexes (IPS, IBD, EPI-D, etc...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509863/a-fairness-oriented-neighbor-channel-aware-mac-protocol-for-airborne-sensor-networks
#18
Xiaolin Gao, Jian Yan, Jianhua Lu
In airborne sensor networks (ASNs), the media access control (MAC) protocol faces a serious unfairness problem due to the traditional protection mechanism of air-to-air communications among aircraft. Actually, by using the binary exponential back-off algorithm at high traffic loads to minimize collisions among users, the latest successful node can always benefit from this kind of MAC to obtain channel resources. Moreover, when taking the existence of the hidden nodes in ASNs into account, the inaccurate traffic load information will further aggravate the system's unfairness...
May 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499790/self-monitoring-blood-glucose-test-strip-utilization-in-saskatchewan-a-retrospective-study
#19
Lynette Kosar, Wasem Alsabbagh, Xinya Lu, Lisa M Lix, Yvonne Shevchuk, Gary F Teare, Anne Champagne, David F Blackburn
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in blood glucose test strip (TS) utilization and cost in Saskatchewan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of TS use between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2013, was conducted using population-based health administrative databases in Saskatchewan. The prescription drug database was used to describe the annual number of TS dispensations, the number of strips dispensed, the number of unique beneficiaries and the total costs. A patient-level analysis was also carried out to describe the patterns of TS use (i...
May 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498718/effects-of-regular-cannabis-use-on-neurocognition-brain-structure-and-function-a-systematic-review-of-findings-in-adults
#20
Danilo A Nader, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide. The long-standing consequences for the central nervous system associated with frequent cannabis use have not been well delineated and should be determined. OBJECTIVE: To review recent studies on the effects of regular cannabis use regarding its effects on cognition, brain structure, and function in adults. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted by performing electronic searches in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases (2010-2016)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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