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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928316/integrated-brief-tobacco-and-alcohol-cessation-intervention-in-a-primary-health-care-setting-in-karnataka
#1
O T Sabari Sridhar, Pratima Murthy, K V Kishore Kumar
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol use are important preventable risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and need to be addressed in primary health care. OBJECTIVES: To find the effectiveness of Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)-based brief intervention for alcohol and tobacco in a primary health-care setting in Karnataka. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2012 where one primary health center (PHC) in Karnataka was an intervention site and other the control site...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923052/accessing-physical-activity-among-young-adults-attending-a-university-the-role-of-sex-race-ethnicity-technology-use-and-sleep
#2
Samuel D Towne, Marcia G Ory, Matthew Lee Smith, S Camille Peres, Adam W Pickens, Ranjana K Mehta, Mark Benden
BACKGROUND: Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA) levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490) enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904918/evaluation-of-genetic-polymorphisms-in-glutathione-s-transferase-theta1-glutathione-s-transferase-mu1-and-glutathione-s-transferase-mu3-in-oral-leukoplakia-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-with-deleterious-habits-using-polymerase-chain-reaction
#3
Ayyagari Kameswara Rao, Peela Parameswar, Sumit Majumdar, Divya Uppala, Sreekanth Kotina, Naga Himabindu Vennamaneni
CONTEXT: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world. As per previous studies, most patients who develop oral cancer are elderly males who are heavy users of tobacco and alcohol; however, the incidence is increasing in younger individuals and in those who neither smoke nor drink. Many of the genes that code for the detoxification enzymes are polymorphic with abnormal activity profiles. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of development of oral leukoplakia (OLP) and OSCC in glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms genes in the east coast of Andhra Pradesh population with tobacco consumption habit and habit-free controls using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism)...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887180/gray-matter-volume-showed-dynamic-alterations-in-methamphetamine-users-at-6-and-12months-abstinence-a-longitudinal-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#4
Ruan Xiaolu, Zhong Na, Yang Zhi, Fan Xiaoduo, Zhuang Wenxu, Du Jiang, Jiang Haifeng, Zhao Min
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated brain gray matter reduction in methamphetamine (MA) users; however, little is known about longitudinal brain structural alternations during abstinence. METHOD: Brain volumes were compared among 30 MA-dependent patients (average 6.3years of drug use) at 6months' abstinence and 27 drug-naïve controls by voxel-based morphometry. A longitudinal analysis of MA subjects was performed from 6 to 12months' abstinence, and multiple regression analyses were performed between drug use patterns and gray matter volumes (GMV) at 6months' abstinence...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886575/changing-social-norms-the-impact-of-normative-feedback-included-in-motivational-enhancement-therapy-on-cannabis-outcomes-among-heavy-using-adolescents
#5
Claire E Blevins, Denise D Walker, Robert S Stephens, Kelsey E Banes, Roger A Roffman
INTRODUCTION: Heavy cannabis use is a problematic behavior, particularly among some adolescents. Adolescents are particularly prone to social influence. As such, injunctive norms (perceptions of others' approval of cannabis use) and descriptive norms (perception of frequency of others' cannabis use) influence cannabis behavior. Given that norms are not always accurate, motivational enhancement therapy aims to reduce cannabis use through normative feedback and correction of normative misconceptions...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884869/the-future-of-the-international-drug-control-system-and-national-drug-prohibitions
#6
Wayne Hall
A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non-medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a personal view on policies that nation states could adopt to minimize the harms from the use of cannabis, party drugs and hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants and new psychoactive substances...
September 8, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865992/looking-forward-to-safer-hgvs-the-impact-of-mirrors-on-driver-reaction-times
#7
Callum David Mole, Richard McGilchrist Wilkie
Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) collisions are responsible for a disproportionate number of urban vulnerable road user casualties (VRU - cyclists and pedestrians). Blind-spots to the front and side of HGVs can make it difficult (sometimes impossible) to detect close proximity VRUs and may be the cause of some collisions. The current solution to this problem is to provide additional mirrors that can allow the driver to see into the blind-spots. However, keeping track of many mirrors requires frequent off-road glances which can be difficult to execute during demanding driving situations...
August 31, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843183/automated-approaches-for-band-gap-mapping-in-stem-eels
#8
Cecilie S Granerød, Wei Zhan, Øystein Prytz
Band gap variations in thin film structures, across grain boundaries, and in embedded nanoparticles are of increasing interest in the materials science community. As many common experimental techniques for measuring band gaps do not have the spatial resolution needed to observe these variations directly, probe-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) with monochromated Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) is a promising method for studying band gaps of such features. However, extraction of band gaps from EELS data sets usually requires heavy user involvement, and makes the analysis of large data sets challenging...
August 17, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829522/opioid-pain-medication-prescriptions-obtained-through-emergency-medical-visits-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#9
Michael A Grasso, Zachary D W Dezman, Clare T Grasso, David A Jerrard
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to characterize national patterns for opioid pain medication (OPM) prescriptions received during emergency medical encounters in the Veterans Health Administration (VA). DESIGN: The authors conducted a retrospective study of all emergency department (ED) visits by adults in the VA between January 2009 and June 2015. We examined demographics, comorbidities, utilization measures, diagnoses, and prescriptions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The percentage of ED visits that culminated in the receipt of a prescription for an OPM...
March 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818639/addictive-behaviors-and-healthcare-renunciation-for-economic-reasons-in-a-french-population-based-sample
#10
Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, Jean-Baptiste Richard, François Beck
BACKGROUND: Healthcare renunciation for economic reasons is a major health concern, but it has been scarcely investigated among drug users, even if drug users constitute a vulnerable population in need of medical care. This study investigated associations of healthcare renunciation for economic reasons and addictive behaviors (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, illicit drug use, and gambling) in a population-based sample of adults living in France, a country with universal health coverage. METHODS: Data were collected using the 2014 Health Barometer, a French cross-sectional survey conducted among a random representative sample of the general population aged 18-64 (n=12,852)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810999/case-report-on-the-use-of-a-custom-myoelectric-elbow-wrist-hand-orthosis-for-the-remediation-of-upper-extremity-paresis-and-loss-of-function-in-chronic-stroke
#11
Stefanie Dunaway, D Brianna Dezsi, Jessica Perkins, Daniel Tran, Jonathan Naft
INTRODUCTION: This case study describes the application of a commercially available, custom myoelectric elbow-wrist-hand orthosis (MEWHO), on a veteran diagnosed with chronic stroke with residual left hemiparesis. The MEWHO provides powered active assistance for elbow flexion/extension and 3 jaw chuck grip. It is a noninvasive orthosis that is driven by the user's electromyographic signal. Experience with the MEWHO and associated outcomes are reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participant completed 21 outpatient occupational therapy sessions that incorporated the use of a custom MEWHO without grasp capability into traditional occupational therapy interventions...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806817/the-effects-of-cannabis-among-adults-with-chronic-pain-and-an-overview-of-general-harms-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Shannon M Nugent, Benjamin J Morasco, Maya E O'Neil, Michele Freeman, Allison Low, Karli Kondo, Camille Elven, Bernadette Zakher, Makalapua Motu'apuaka, Robin Paynter, Devan Kansagara
Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain. Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and several other sources from database inception to March 2017. Study Selection: Intervention trials and observational studies, published in English, involving adults using plant-based cannabis preparations that reported pain, quality of life, or adverse effect outcomes...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806104/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-administration-to-heavy-cannabis-users
#13
Gregory L Sahlem, Nathaniel L Baker, Mark S George, Robert J Malcolm, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is a common condition with few treatments. Several studies in other substance use disorders have found that applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreases cue-elicited craving and possibly decreases use. To date, there have been no studies attempting to use rTMS in CUD. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine if rTMS could be feasibly delivered to a group of non-treatment seeking CUD participants...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#14
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792900/dynamic-video-stitching-via-shakiness-removing
#15
Yongwei Nie, Tan Su, Zhensong Zhang, Hanqiu Sun, Guiqing Li
Stitching videos captured by hand-held mobile cameras can essentially enhance entertainment experience of ordinary users. However, such videos usually contain heavy shakiness and large parallax, which are challenging to stitch. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of video stitching and stabilization for videos captured by mobile devices. The main component of our method is a unified video stitching and stabilization optimization that computes stitching and stabilization simultaneously rather than does each one individually...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791734/drinking-status-but-not-acute-alcohol-consumption-influences-delay-discounting
#16
Sally Adams, Angela S Attwood, Marcus R Munafò
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). METHODS: Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting...
August 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782982/sleep-continuity-architecture-and-quality-among-treatment-seeking-cannabis-users-an-in-home-unattended-polysomnographic-study
#17
Lauren R Pacek, Evan S Herrmann, Michael T Smith, Ryan Vandrey
The objective of the study was to describe self-report and objectively measured sleep characteristics of adult treatment-seeking cannabis users. Study participants (n = 87) were adults who were screened for a 12-week outpatient cannabis treatment research program in Baltimore, MD. Participants completed objective and self-report measures of sleep quality. Data were analyzed for the sample overall and after stratifying by sex (54 men, 33 women). Participants were primarily urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged African Americans...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768639/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-the-exposure-of-pregnant-women-to-military-attacks-in-2014-in-gaza-and-the-load-of-heavy-metal-contaminants-in-the-hair-of-mothers-and-newborns
#18
Paola Manduca, Safwat Y Diab, Samir R Qouta, Nabil Ma Albarqouni, Raiija-Leena Punamaki
OBJECTIVE: Metal contamination of humans in war areas has rarely been investigated. Weaponry's heavy metals become environmentally stable war remnants and accumulate in living things. They also pose health risks in terms of prenatal intake, with potential long term risks for reproductive and children's health. We studied the contribution of military attacks to the load of 23 metals in the hair of Palestinian women in the Gaza Strip, who were pregnant at the time of the military attacks in 2014, and their newborns...
August 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761084/single-vector-non-leaky-gene-expression-system-for-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Arslan Akmammedov, Marco Geigges, Renato Paro
An ideal transgenic gene expression system is inducible, non-leaky, and well tolerated by the target organism. While the former has been satisfactorily realized, leakiness and heavy physiological burden imposed by the existing systems are still prominent hurdles in their successful implementation. Here we describe a new system for non-leaky expression of transgenes in Drosophila. PRExpress is based on a single transgenic construct built from endogenous components, the inducible hsp70 promoter and a multimerized copy of a Polycomb response element (PRE) controlled by epigenetic chromatin regulators of the Polycomb group...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756354/a-latent-class-analysis-of-poly-marijuana-use-among-young-adults
#20
Melissa J Krauss, Biva Rajbhandari, Shaina J Sowles, Edward L Spitznagel, Patricia Cavazos-Rehg
INTRODUCTION: With more states legalizing marijuana use, the marijuana industry has grown, introducing a variety of marijuana products. Our study explores the use of multiple marijuana products (poly-marijuana use) and the characteristics associated with this behavior. METHODS: Past-month marijuana users aged 18-34years were surveyed online via an existing online panel (n=2444). Participants answered questions about past-month use of three types of marijuana (plant-based, concentrates, edibles), marijuana use patterns, and driving after use...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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