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heavy users

Khungelwa Patricia Mrwebi, Daniel Ter Goon, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Eunice Seekoe, Anthony Idowu Ajayi
Early discontinuation of implanon, a long-acting, reversible contraceptive among reproductive age women in South Africa is a serious public health concern. The aim of this study was to examine the reasons for discontinuation of implanon among its previous users. This descriptive cross-sectional study involved 188 consecutively selected participants in two large family planning clinics in Buffalo Metropolitan Municipality, East London, South Africa. Descriptive statistics was conducted using SPSS version 22...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mark A Prince, Bradley T Conner, Matthew R Pearson
The assessment of marijuana use quantity poses unique challenges. These challenges have limited research efforts on quantity assessments. However, quantity estimates are critical to detecting associations between marijuana use and outcomes. We examined accuracy of marijuana users' estimations of quantities of marijuana they prepared to ingest and predictors of both how much was prepared for a single dose and the degree of (in)accuracy of participants' estimates. We recruited a sample of 128 regular-to-heavy marijuana users for a field study wherein they prepared and estimated quantities of marijuana flower in a joint or a bowl as well as marijuana concentrate using a dab tool...
May 17, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Adesola C Odole, Nse A Odunaiya, Joshua O Ojo, Aderonke O Akinpelu
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee constitutes a significant proportion of musculoskeletal disorders managed in physiotherapy clinics worldwide. Best practice guidelines in the management of OA ensure the use of outcome measures. AIM: This study explored the factors influencing the use of outcome measures in management of patients with knee OA among physiotherapists in southwestern Nigeria. METHODS: Mixed method design was used that involved a cross-sectional survey of 77 purposively selected physiotherapists and a focus group discussion with another 6 physiotherapists...
May 15, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Robert L DuPont, Beth Han, Corinne L Shea, Bertha K Madras
The prevalence of substance use disorders in adults is higher if substance use is initiated during adolescence, underscoring the importance of youth substance use prevention. We examined whether the use of one substance by adolescents is associated with increased risk for using any other substance, regardless of use sequences. In 2017 we examined data from 17,000 youth aged 12-17 who participated in the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a sample of nationally representative data on substance use among the U...
May 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Irene Pericot-Valverde, Rebecca J Elliott, Mollie E Miller, Jennifer W Tidey, Diann E Gaalema
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and tobacco use are prevalent conditions that co-occur at striking rates in the US. Previous reviews examined prevalence and factors associated with cigarette smoking among individuals with PTSD but have not been summarized since 2007. Moreover, none explored rates and factors associated with the use of other tobacco products. This study aimed to systematically review the most recent literature examining the comorbidity of PTSD and tobacco use to provide prevalence rates, as well as summarize the literature exploring other factors associated with tobacco use among individuals with PTSD...
May 3, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Linda R Stanley, Randall C Swaim
OBJECTIVES: American Indian adolescents who reside on or near reservations report higher levels of substance use than adolescents in other racial/ethnic groups. Little research has addressed patterns of use, which have important implications for prevention and treatment planning. The objective of our study was to describe substance use among a large, population-based sample of American Indian and white students who lived on or near reservations. METHODS: We obtained data from 4964 students in grades 7-12 attending 46 schools on or near reservations throughout the United States during 4 academic years (2009-2013)...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Kathryn R Hefner, Mark J Starr, John J Curtin
Although stressors appear to motivate marijuana use, and marijuana use, in turn, is believed to induce stress system neuroadaptations, relatively little empirical work has explicitly tested for stress neuroadaptations associated with heavy marijuana use. We examined stressor reactivity to threat of unpredictable electric shock via startle potentiation among heavy marijuana users and a control group that reported minimal history of marijuana use. Heavy marijuana users were randomly assigned to 3 days of marijuana deprivation or no deprivation...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Balázs Szigeti, Adam R Winstock, David Erritzoe, Larissa J Maier
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies imply that the regular use of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the major constituent of ecstasy pills, alters the brain's serotonergic system in a dose-dependent manner. However, the relevance of these findings remains unclear due to limited knowledge about the ecstasy/MDMA use pattern of real-life users. AIMS: We examined the representativeness of ecstasy users enrolled in neuroimaging studies by comparing their ecstasy use habits with the use patterns of a large, international sample...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Bahram Samadirad, Nasrin Shahedifar, Mina Golestani
Objective: To study the epidemiology of car user road traffic fatalities (CURTFs) during eight years, in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: A total of 3051 CURTFs registered in East Azerbaijan forensic medicine organization database, Iran, during 2006-2014, were analyzed using Stata 13 statistical software package. Descriptive statistics ( p <0.05) and inferential statistical methods such as Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression with p <0.1 were applied...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Isabella Reinhold, Maria Sandsten, Josefin Starkhammar
An automatic component detection method for overlapping transient pulses in multi-component signals is presented and evaluated. The recently proposed scaled reassignment technique is shown to have the best achievable resolution for closely located Gaussian shaped transient pulses, even in heavy disruptive noise. As a result, the method automatically detects and counts the number of transients, giving the center times and center frequencies of all components with considerable accuracy. The presented method shows great potential for applications in several acoustic research fields, where coinciding Gaussian shaped transients are analyzed...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Ivo Straka, Jaromír Mika, Miroslav Ježek
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a device for generating light with arbitrary classical photon-number distribution. We use programmable acousto-optical modulation to control the intensity of light within the dynamic range of more than 30 dB and inter-level transitions faster than 500 ns. We propose a universal method that allows the high-fidelity generation of user-defined photon statistics. Extremely high precision <0.001 can be reached for lower photon numbers, and faithful tail behavior can be reached for very high photon numbers...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
Guillaume Airagnes, Cédric Lemogne, Marcel Goldberg, Nicolas Hoertel, Yves Roquelaure, Frédéric Limosin, Marie Zins
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. METHODS: From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely)...
2018: PloS One
J Cobb Scott, Samantha T Slomiak, Jason D Jones, Adon F G Rosen, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur
Importance: Substantial shifts in perception and policy regarding cannabis have recently occurred, with use of cannabis increasing while its perceived harm decreases. One possible risk of increased cannabis use is poorer cognitive functioning, especially in youth. Objective: To provide the first quantitative synthesis of the literature examining cannabis and cognitive functioning in adolescents and young adults (with a mean age of 26 years and younger). Data Sources: PubMed, PsycInfo, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, and bibliographies of relevant reviews were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language studies from the date the databases began through May 2017...
April 18, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Baojun Chen, Lorenzo Grazi, Francesco Lanotte, Nicola Vitiello, Simona Crea
Repetitive lifting of heavy loads increases the risk of back pain and even lumbar vertebral injuries to workers. Active exoskeletons can help workers lift loads by providing power assistance, and therefore reduce the moment and force applied on L5/S1 joint of human body when performing lifting tasks. However, most existing active exoskeletons for lifting assistance are unable to automatically detect user's lift movement, which limits the wide application of active exoskeletons in factories. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective lift detection strategy for exoskeleton control...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Kara Thompson, Bonnie Leadbeater, Megan Ames, Gabriel J Merrin
Adolescence and young adulthood is a critical stage when the economic foundations for life-long health are established. To date, there is little consensus as to whether marijuana use is associated with poor educational and occupational success in adulthood. We investigated associations between trajectories of marijuana use from ages 15 to 28 and multiple indicators of economic well-being in young adulthood including achievement levels (i.e., educational attainment and occupational prestige), work characteristics (i...
April 28, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Seungho Kuk, Junha Kim, Yongtae Park, Hyogon Kim
The high linear correlation between the smartphone magnetometer readings in close proximity can be exploited for physical human contact detection, which could be useful for such applications as infectious disease contact tracing or social behavior monitoring. Alternative approaches using other capabilities in smartphones have aspects that do not fit well with the human contact detection. Using Wi-Fi or cellular fingerprints have larger localization errors than close human contact distances. Bluetooth beacons could reveal the identity of the transmitter, threatening the privacy of the user...
April 27, 2018: Sensors
Hongying Dai, Delwyn Catley, Kimber P Richter, Kathy Goggin, Edward F Ellerbeck
BACKGROUND: Cigarettes have been strongly associated with subsequent marijuana use among adolescents, but electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now rapidly replacing traditional cigarettes among youth. This study examines associations between youth e-cigarette use and subsequent marijuana use in a national sample. METHODS: Youth (aged 12-17 years) never marijuana users at wave 1 ( n = 10 364; 2013-2014) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study were followed-up in 1 year (wave 2, 2014-2015)...
April 23, 2018: Pediatrics
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