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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717382/neurological-soft-signs-in-tunisian-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-and-relation-with-cannabis-use
#1
Ahmed Mhalla, Bochra Ben Mohamed, Christoph U Correll, Badii Amamou, Anouar Mechri, Lotfi Gaha
BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are minor non-localizing neurological abnormalities that are conceptualized as neurodevelopmental markers that mediate the biological risk for psychosis. We aimed to explore the relationship between NSS and cannabis use, an environmental risk factor of psychosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in consecutively admitted patients hospitalized for first-episode psychosis. NSS were assessed by the NSS scale (23 items exploring motor coordination, motor integrative function, sensory integration, involuntary movements or posture, quality of lateralization)...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715729/consistent-association-between-hypnotics-sedatives-and-non-traffic-injuries-results-from-a-national-household-survey
#2
María Del Mar Martín-Rodríguez, José Pulido, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías, Juan Hoyos, Pablo Lardelli-Claret, Gregorio Barrio
AIM: To quantify the relationship between patterns of psychostimulants, hypnotics/sedatives and alcohol consumption and the frequency of unintentional non-traffic injuries (UNTIs) requiring medical assistant in Spain. METHODS: We carried out a cross sectional study using a randomized pooled sample from two household surveys on psychoactive drugs use (n=51,649 subjects aged 15-64 years). We estimated the magnitude of the association between the use of psychostimulants and hypnotics/sedatives in the last 12 months as well as alcohol consumption in the last 30days with the occurrence of UNTIs in the last 12 months (falls, knocks/bumps and cuts) by building several logistic regression models, which took into account the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and the use of other psychoactive drugs (including cannabis)...
July 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678870/answering-the-missed-call-initial-exploration-of-cognitive-and-electrophysiological-changes-associated-with-smartphone-use-and-abuse
#3
Aviad Hadar, Itay Hadas, Avi Lazarovits, Uri Alyagon, Daniel Eliraz, Abraham Zangen
BACKGROUND: Smartphone usage is now integral to human behavior. Recent studies associate extensive usage with a range of debilitating effects. We sought to determine whether excessive usage is accompanied by measurable neural, cognitive and behavioral changes. METHOD: Subjects lacking previous experience with smartphones (n = 35) were compared to a matched group of heavy smartphone users (n = 16) on numerous behavioral and electrophysiological measures recorded using electroencephalogram (EEG) combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673527/marijuana-use-in-the-context-of-alcohol-interventions-for-mandated-college-students
#4
Ali M Yurasek, Jennifer E Merrill, Jane Metrik, Mary Beth Miller, Anne C Fernandez, Brian Borsari
OBJECTIVE: Concurrent use of marijuana and alcohol among college students is highly prevalent and associated with negative consequences. It remains unclear whether marijuana use is influenced by or lessens the efficacy of alcohol interventions delivered within a stepped-care approach. METHOD: Participants were 530 college students who violated campus alcohol policy and were mandated to an alcohol-focused brief advice (BA) session. Participants who reported continued risky alcohol use (4+ heavy drinking episodes and/or 5+ alcohol-related consequences in the past month) six weeks following the BA session were randomized to a brief motivational intervention (BMI; n=211) or assessment only (AO; n=194) condition...
August 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673016/falcon-a-toolbox-for-the-fast-contextualisation-of-logical-networks
#5
Sébastien De Landtsheer, Panuwat Trairatphisan, Philippe Lucarelli, Thomas Sauter
Motivation: Mathematical modelling of regulatory networks allows for the discovery of knowledge at the system level. However, existing modelling tools are often computation-heavy and do not offer intuitive ways to explore the model, to test hypotheses or to interpret the results biologically. Results: We have developed a computational approach to contextualise logical models of regulatory networks with biological measurements based on a probabilistic description of rule-based interactions between the different molecules...
June 29, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668989/sudden-unexplained-death-in-alcohol-misuse-sudam-patients-have-different-characteristics-to-those-who-died-from-sudden-arrhythmic-death-syndrome-sads
#6
Tracy Sorkin, Mary N Sheppard
There is growing awareness of sudden unexplained death in alcohol misuse (SUDAM) in which there is no obvious cause of death, no evidence of acute alcohol toxicity or alcoholic ketoacidosis, and the heart is morphologically normal. This study describes the characteristics of a cohort with SUDAM from a tertiary cardiovascular referral center and compares the findings with those of individuals who died from sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). Cases in this retrospective cross-sectional study were identified from a database of referrals to our center spanning approximately 40 years...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667825/heavy-alcohol-consumption-increases-the-risk-of-active-tuberculosis-in-taiwanese-adults-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Yung-Feng Yen, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Ya-Ling Lee, Po-Wen Ku, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yun-Ju Lai, Dachen Chu
AIMS: To investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on tuberculosis (TB) development in Taiwanese adults. DESIGN: Participants from the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates...
July 1, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659259/initial-progress-toward-development-of-a-voice-based-computer-delivered-motivational-intervention-for-heavy-drinking-college-students-an-experimental-study
#8
Christopher W Kahler, William J Lechner, James MacGlashan, Tyler B Wray, Michael L Littman
BACKGROUND: Computer-delivered interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption in heavy drinking college students. However, these computer-delivered interventions rely on mouse, keyboard, or touchscreen responses for interactions between the users and the computer-delivered intervention. The principles of motivational interviewing suggest that in-person interventions may be effective, in part, because they encourage individuals to think through and speak aloud their motivations for changing a health behavior, which current computer-delivered interventions do not allow...
June 28, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650208/when-using-facebook-to-avoid-isolation-reduces-perceived-social-support
#9
Eun-Ju Lee, Eugene Cho
A survey (N = 316) examined how other-directed Facebook use driven by fear of social isolation affects users' perception of social support they possess. As predicted, those higher on fear of isolation were more likely to (a) closely monitor others' activities for self-evaluation (i.e., social comparison) and (b) regulate their self-presentation to garner social approval (i.e., other-directed self-presentation), but less likely to (c) express their true inner feelings and thoughts (i.e., inner-directed self-presentation) on Facebook...
June 26, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#10
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641129/moderate-and-vigorous-physical-activity-patterns-among-marijuana-users-results-from-the-2007-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys
#11
Denise C Vidot, Jordan B Bispo, WayWay M Hlaing, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E Messiah
The relationship between marijuana use and recreational physical activity has yet to be explored in the United States. Our aim was to examine this relationship in a population-based sample of 20-to-59-year olds (N=12,618) using 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Marijuana use was categorized as never (reference group), past (previously but not within the last 30-days), and current (>1day in the last 30-days) use. Current users were further categorized based on frequency of use (light, moderate, and heavy users)...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631348/updating-of-working-memory-in-ecstasy-polydrug-users-findings-from-fnirs
#12
Catharine Montgomery, John E Fisk, Carl A Roberts
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are now well documented in ecstasy (MDMA) users with type and relative demand of task emerging as important factors. The updating component of executive processes appears to be particularly affected. The study reported here used functional near infrared spectroscopy imaging to investigate changes in cortical haemodynamics during memory updating. METHOD: Twenty ecstasy users and 20 non-users completed verbal and spatial memory updating tasks and brain blood oxygenation and deoxygenation change was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625212/mental-health-service-use-and-need-for-care-of-australians-without-diagnoses-of-mental-disorders-findings-from-a-large-epidemiological-survey
#13
I Bobevski, A Rosen, G Meadows
AIMS: While epidemiological surveys worldwide have found a considerable proportion of people using mental health services not to have a diagnosis of a mental disorder, with possible implications of service overuse, other work has suggested that most people without a current diagnosis who used services exhibited other indicators of need. The aims of the present study were, using somewhat different categorisations than previous work, to investigate whether: (1) Australians without a diagnosis of a mental disorder who used mental health services had other indicators of need; and (2) how rate and frequency of service use in Australia related to level of need, then to discuss the findings in light of recent developments in Australian Mental Health Policy and other epidemiological and services research findings...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621645/patterns-and-factors-of-problematic-marijuana-use-in-the-canadian-population-evidence-from-three-cross-sectional-surveys
#14
W I Andrew Bonner, Mustafa Andkhoie, Charlene Thompson, Marwa Farag, Michael Szafron
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to describe marijuana use in Canada and explore factors associated with problematic use. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2012 circulations of the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey were used to create three logistic regression models for the purposes of identifying and comparing factors associated with the degree of marijuana use, as determined via the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Abuse Involvement Screening Test (non-problematic, problematic) and European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (experiential, recent, current) methods...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614161/multiple-cerebral-infarcts-in-a-young-patient-associated-with-marijuana-use
#15
Leila Costa Volpon, Camila Lacerda Muniz de Melo Sousa, Silvia Keiko Kavaguti Moreira, Sara Reis Teixeira, Ana Paula de Carvalho Panzeri Carlotti
: Cerebrovascular events associated with marijuana use have been reported previously. This association is plausible, but not well-established yet. A 14-year-old girl, long-term heavy cannabis user, presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and decreased level of consciousness a few hours after smoking cannabis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple areas of acute, subacute and chronic ischemic lesions in the left frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum. History of other illicit drug use and other known causes of stroke were ruled out...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601747/road-traffic-crash-risk-associated-with-prescription-of-hydroxyzine-and-other-sedating-h1-antihistamines-a-responsibility-and-case-crossover-study
#16
Ludivine Orriols, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Anne Bénard-Laribière, Antoine Pariente, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde
BACKGROUND: H1 antihistamines differ from each other by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The resulting sedating effect can be sought in therapy but may be a driving hazard. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of sedating H1-antihistamines on the risk of road traffic crash, with a particular focus on hydroxyzine which is also indicated as an anxiolytic in France. METHODS: The study consisted in extracting and matching data from three French nationwide databases: the national healthcare insurance database, police reports and the police national database of injurious crashes...
June 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585473/computer-aided-generation-and-lung-deposition-modeling-of-nano-scale-particle-aggregates
#17
Robert Sturm
The study sets its main focus on the introduction of a random-walk-based model for the generation of variably shaped particle aggregates consisting of a predefined number of spherical components. With the help of a well-defined algorithm, the user is enabled to select between isodimensional, chain-like and platelet-like aggregates, for which related aerodynamic parameters (dynamic shape factors, volume-equivalent diameters, aerodynamic diameters) are determined automatically. The theoretical approach for random aggregate construction is directly connected with the previously developed stochastic particle transport and deposition model...
June 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584495/prevalence-pattern-and-correlates-of-alcohol-misuse-among-male-patients-attending-rural-primary-care-in-india
#18
Sanghamitra Pati, Subhashisa Swain, Sandeep Mahapatra, Mohammad Akhtar Hussain, Sandipana Pati
BACKGROUND: There are limited data available on how the problem of alcohol use is detected in primary care setting in India. Particularly in Odisha, it has not been investigated yet. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of drinking, drinking patterns, and quitting behavior among the male patients visiting a primary health-care facility in a district of Odisha. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending community health center (CHC), Buguda in the state of Odisha, India, from December 1, 2014, to February 31, 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570972/bromine-in-plastic-consumer-products-evidence-for-the-widespread-recycling-of-electronic-waste
#19
Andrew Turner, Montserrat Filella
A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg(-1) and 2.6 to 28,500μgg(-1). Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e...
May 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557133/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-catha-edulis-f-khat
#20
REVIEW
Ephrem Engidawork
Khat chewing is deeply rooted in the culture and tradition of communities in khat belt countries, and its consumption is spread to other countries through the suitcase trade. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge on the chemistry, social, pharmacology and toxicology of khat and its use. Khat produces effect invariably in every system, which is harmful or beneficial in some instances. Harmful effects are observed in heavy users, although firm evidence is lacking. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria, which is followed by low mood...
May 30, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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