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high risk drugs medication safety ethnic

Joel G Ray, Simon Hollands, Tara Gomes, Marcelo L Urquia, Erin M Macdonald, Ping Li, Muhammad M Mamdani, David N Juurlink
BACKGROUND: Immigrants may be at a higher risk of adverse drug reactions, in that poor language proficiency reduces individuals understanding of drug label instructions. Additionally, there are reports of severe or fatal toxicity due to CYP2D6 ultrarapid hepatic metabolism of codeine to morphine among some ethnic groups, especially those from Eastern Africa. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012 we conducted a population-based cohort study among residents of Ontario, Canada...
November 2014: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Mohamed Baraka, Stephane Steurbaut, Danny Coomans, Alain G Dupont
OBJECTIVES: To investigate determinants of medication use among multi-ethnic pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 641 pregnant women participated in this cross-sectional study in a Brussels university hospital. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics and medication use. Chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS 19. RESULTS: Medication use during pregnancy (37%) was positively associated with age older than 35 years, Western origin, being born in Belgium, high education and employment status...
April 2014: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
R Lux, S Wärntges, S Bergner, B Kütting
BACKGROUND: Because adverse drug events (ADEs) have a high socio-economic impact there is an urgent need for effective prevention. In addition to process-related avoidable errors personalised approaches for the prevention of ADEs should also focus on genetic polymorphisms as potential causative agents. AIM: Using five case reports as examples therapeutic modalities are described to illustrate the clinical impact of prospective testing aimed at estimating the individual risk of susceptible subjects...
November 2013: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Khaled El Emam, Saeed Samet, Luk Arbuckle, Robyn Tamblyn, Craig Earle, Murat Kantarcioglu
BACKGROUND: There is limited capacity to assess the comparative risks of medications after they enter the market. For rare adverse events, the pooling of data from multiple sources is necessary to have the power and sufficient population heterogeneity to detect differences in safety and effectiveness in genetic, ethnic and clinically defined subpopulations. However, combining datasets from different data custodians or jurisdictions to perform an analysis on the pooled data creates significant privacy concerns that would need to be addressed...
May 1, 2013: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Alicia R Maher, George Theodore
BACKGROUND: Conventional and atypical antipsychotic medications are approved by the FDA for treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Over many decades, the widespread use of conventional antipsychotics produced various side effects requiring additional medications, such as the atypical antipsychotics. Beginning in 2006, 9 atypical antipsychotic drugs have been approved by the FDA for indications that were previously off-label uses: aripiprazole (as augmentation for major depressive disorder [MDD] and for autism spectrum disorders), asenapine, clozapine, iloperidone, olanzapine (in combination with fluoxetine for MDD and bipolar depression), paliperidone, quetiapine (quetiapine and quetiapine XR [extended release] as monotherapy in bipolar depression and quetiapine XR as augmentation for MDD), risperidone (for autism spectrum disorders), and ziprasidone...
June 2012: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy: JMCP
Daniel M Cook, Paula V Moulton, Teresa M Sacks, Wei Yang
BACKGROUND: Medication therapy management (MTM) services provide essential reviews of drug regimens and are increasingly recognized as beneficial to patient safety, improved health outcomes, and cost savings. OBJECTIVE: To assess patient behavioral outcomes from an MTM service, including actions following receipt of a pharmacist report. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of an MTM program at the Sanford Center for Aging (NV, USA) was conducted...
May 2012: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Amy S Baranoski, C Robert Horsburgh, L Adrienne Cupples, Ann Aschengrau, Elizabeth A Stier
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for cervical cancer; thus, adherence with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for inadequate Pap testing in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women at a large urban safety net HIV clinic. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study assessed HIV-infected women aged 18?60 years in care between October 1, 2003, and March 31, 2008, for risk factors for inadequate Pap testing...
November 2011: Journal of Women's Health
Jonathan M Meyer
Schizophrenia patients have high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and high CV mortality, with increasing concern over the contribution of antipsychotic medications to cardiometabolic risk. The design of the NIMH-sponsored Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial was driven by a need to understand the efficacy and safety differences between atypical antipsychotics, and between atypical and typical antipsychotics. The CATIE data indicated differences between olanzapine and other antipsychotics in phase 1 on the primary outcome measure, time to drug discontinuation, yet olanzapine was not superior to risperidone in the phase 2 tolerability arm, and was inferior to clozapine in the phase 2 efficacy arm...
2010: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
S Erdine, Y M Ro, H-F Tse, L G Howes, C A Aguilar-Salinas, H Chaves, R Guindy, P Chopra, R A Moller, I M Schou
The Gemini-AALA (Australia, Asia, Latin America, Africa/Middle East) study evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (Caduet) for the treatment of patients of diverse ethnicity with concomitant hypertension and dyslipidaemia. This was a 14-week, open-label study including patients from 27 countries across the Middle East, Asia-Pacific, Africa and Latin America. Eight dosage strengths of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/10, 10/10, 5/20, 10/20, 5/40, 10/40, 5/80 and 10/80 mg) were titrated to improve blood pressure and lipid control...
March 2009: Journal of Human Hypertension
Saibal Kumar Das, Ranjan Chakrabarti
Obesity and its associated morbidities and mortalities are the effects of imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The healthcare burden for the treatment of obesity is significantly high, due to increased risk of secondary chronic diseases such as hypertension and associated co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lack of physical activity, high fat diets and sedentary life styles are major factors contributing to obesity. However, genetic predisposition and ethnicity are increasingly found to cause obesity...
2006: Current Medicinal Chemistry
L Michael Prisant, Michael Weber, Henry R Black
Results of several clinical trials have shown that verapamil is effective in reducing blood pressure (BP) in African Americans, a population at high risk for hypertension and target-organ damage. Nonetheless, adequate control of BP is perceived as difficult to achieve in this population. A post hoc analysis of data from the community-based CHRONO trial (Controlling Hypertension in the moRning with a ChrONO medication) was undertaken to assess racial/ethnic differences in the safety and efficacy of the Chronotherapeutic Oral Drug Absorption System (CODAS) formulation of verapamil in a real-world setting...
March 2005: Journal of the National Medical Association
Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Erhard Haus, Francesco Portaluppi, Alain Reinberg
Biological processes and functions in women are well organized in time, as evidenced by the expression of ultradian (high frequency), circadian ( approximately 24-hour), circamensual ( approximately monthly), and circannual ( approximately yearly) rhythms and by the changes that occur with menarche, reproduction, and menopause. Attributes of women's circamensual structure have been explored in depth, particularly with regard to fertility/infertility and birth control. However, the role of 24-hour and other rhythms in health, disease, and treatment has been little studied...
January 2005: Journal of Women's Health
Gail B Mahady, Julie Parrot, Cathy Lee, Gina S Yun, Alice Dan
OBJECTIVE: To determine use of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) in women between the ages of 40 and 60 years at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) clinics, including information about commonly used BDS, the reason for use, information resources used, and the overall perception of safety and efficacy of BDS. DESIGN: Five hundred female outpatients at UIC clinics were interviewed by healthcare practitioners using a botanical/drug history questionnaire...
January 2003: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Nimit Taechakraichana, Unnop Jaisamrarn, Krasean Panyakhamlerd, Sukanya Chaikittisilpa, Khunying Kobchitt Limpaphayom
Climacteric is the period of life starting from the decline in ovarian activity until after the end of ovarian function. According to the definition, the period includes peri-menopause, menopause and post-menopause. Climacteric is considered to be a natural change of life which may be accompanied by various health consequences i.e., menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, or Alzheimer's disease. The key concept is that women enter menopause with different menopausal status for instances, natural menopause, surgical menopause, early menopause or even premature ovarian failure...
June 2002: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
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