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Autism prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214796/grey-matter-correlates-of-autistic-traits-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#1
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206686/adverse-childhood-experiences-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Daniel W Hoover, Joan Kaufman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent years have shown an uptick in studies assessing bullying and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article reviews extant findings, and points to gaps in the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with ASD are bullied by peers at a rate three to four times that of nondisabled peers with negative impacts on academic functioning and mental health symptoms, including increased risk for suicidality...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190703/developing-an-eye-tracking-algorithm-as-a-potential-tool-for-early-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#3
Natalia I Vargas-Cuentas, Avid Roman-Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman, Franklin Barrientos, James Ting, Daniela Hidalgo, Kelly Jensen, Mirko Zimic
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169242/lag-schedules-and-functional-communication-training-persistence-of-mands-and-relapse-of-problem-behavior
#4
Terry S Falcomata, Colin S Muething, Bryant C Silbaugh, Summer Adami, Katherine Hoffman, Cayenne Shpall, Joel E Ringdahl
We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement and functional communication training (FCT) on mand variability and problem behavior in two children with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we implemented FCT with increasing lag schedules and compared its effects on problem behavior with baseline conditions. The results showed that both participants exhibited low rates of problem behavior during treatment relative to baseline during and following schedule thinning (up to a Lag 5 schedule arrangement)...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155370/sharing-data-to-solve-the-autism-riddle-an-interview-with-adriana-di-martino-and-michael-milham-of-abide
#5
Leslie Mertz
Worldwide, at least one in 100 people has autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention put the number at one in 68 [1]. Despite this high rate of prevalence and the increased public awareness of autism in recent years, the underlying mechanisms of ASD still remain unclarified.
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146047/maternal-immune-activation-delays-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-switch-in-offspring
#6
Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Marco Rasile, Raffaella Morini, Genni Desiato, Romana Tomasoni, Michela Lizier, Elsa Ghirardini, Riccardo Fesce, Diego Morone, Isabella Barajon, Flavia Antonucci, Davide Pozzi, Michela Matteoli
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental defects in progeny is well established, although the biological mechanisms and the pathogenic trajectories involved have not been defined. METHODS: Pregnant dams were injected intraperitoneally at gestational day 9 with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Neuronal development was assessed by means of electrophysiological, optical, and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid causes an imbalanced expression of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter 1 and the K+-Cl- cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
November 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142569/prevalence-and-predictors-of-non-suicidal-self-injury-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Bushra Akram, Mehak Batool, Zeeshan Rafi, Abrar Akram
Objectives: To find the prevalence as well as to identify the predictors as protective and risk factors of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: In this analytical cross sectional survey 83 children with ASD age range from 8 to 18 years were selected through convenient sampling technique from five special schools of Lahore city. The Urdu form of a standardized tool was used to assess NSSI. Results: Statistical analysis indicated overall point prevalence of NSSI was 33%...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138391/maternal-impulse-control-disability-and-developmental-disorder-traits-are-risk-factors-for-child-maltreatment
#8
Yoshiyuki Tachibana, Kenji Takehara, Naoko Kakee, Masashi Mikami, Eisuke Inoue, Rintaro Mori, Erika Ota, Tomoe Koizumi, Makiko Okuyama, Takahiko Kubo
Previous work has suggested that maternal developmental disorder traits related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are significantly associated with child maltreatment. However, there may be other important maternal characteristics that contribute to child maltreatment. We hypothesized that maternal impulse control disability may also affect child maltreatment in addition to maternal developmental disorder traits. We aimed to test this hypothesis via a cohort study performed in Tokyo (n = 1,260)...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133950/treating-a-novel-plasticity-defect-rescues-episodic-memory-in-fragile-x-model-mice
#9
W Wang, B M Cox, Y Jia, A A Le, C D Cox, K M Jung, B Hou, D Piomelli, C M Gall, Gary Lynch
Episodic memory, a fundamental component of human cognition, is significantly impaired in autism. We believe we report the first evidence for this problem in the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse model of Fragile X syndrome and describe potentially treatable underlying causes. The hippocampus is critical for the formation and use of episodes, with semantic (cue identity) information relayed to the structure via the lateral perforant path (LPP). The unusual form of synaptic plasticity expressed by the LPP (lppLTP) was profoundly impaired in Fmr1-KOs relative to wild-type mice...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125540/is-high-folic-acid-intake-a-risk-factor-for-autism-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Darrell Wiens, M Catherine DeSoto
Folate is required for metabolic processes and neural development. Insuring its adequate levels for pregnant women through supplementation of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA) in order to prevent neural tube defects has been an ongoing public health initiative. However, because women are advised to take multivitamins containing FA before and throughout pregnancy, the supplementation together with natural dietary folates has led to a demographic with high and rising serum levels of unmetabolized FA...
November 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124056/microbial-therapeutics-designed-for-infant-health
#11
REVIEW
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073339/autism-and-primary-care-dentistry-parents-experiences-of-taking-children-with-autism-or-working-diagnosis-of-autism-for-dental-examinations
#12
Nicole Thomas, Sharon Blake, Christopher Morris, David R Moles
BACKGROUND: Accessing and receiving preventative dental treatment can be difficult for children with autism due to sensory processing disorders and/or challenging behaviours coupled with a reported reluctance by dentists to treat these children. AIM: To gather dental experiences of UK parents of children with autism or working diagnosis of autism and explore how they feel primary care dental services can be improved. DESIGN: A total of 17 parents of children with a diagnosis or working diagnosis of autism took part in semi-structured interviews...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#13
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023380/the-gut-microbiome-feelings-of-the-brain-a-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#14
REVIEW
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021932/an-evaluation-of-lag-schedules-of-reinforcement-during-functional-communication-training-effects-on-varied-mand-responding-and-challenging-behavior
#15
Summer Adami, Terry S Falcomata, Colin S Muething, Katherine Hoffman
We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT) on the varied use of mands and challenging behavior by two individuals diagnosed with autism. Specifically, we compared the effects of Lag 0 and Lag 1 schedules of reinforcement during FCT. The results showed that each participant exhibited increases in varied mand responding during FCT with the Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement relative to Lag 0; challenging behavior remained low during both FCT lag conditions relative to baseline...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021833/what-california-sea-lions-exposed-to-domoic-acid-might-teach-us-about-autism-lessons-for-predictive-and-preventive-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Garet Paul Lahvis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia. Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994903/antidepressant-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-in-the-offspring-1-meta-review-of-meta-analyses
#17
Chittaranjan Andrade
There are no randomized controlled trials of antidepressant drugs to treat depression, or to prevent relapse into depression, during pregnancy; therefore, the safety of antidepressant drug exposure during pregnancy is based on evidence from case-control or cohort studies. Many of these observational studies, during the past decade, examined the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in exposed offspring. Different studies using different methods and examining different periods of antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy obtained different results...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985203/cell-therapy-for-diverse-central-nervous-system-disorders-inherited-metabolic-diseases-and-autism
#18
REVIEW
Jessica M Sun, Joanne Kurtzberg
The concept of utilizing human cells for the treatment of medical conditions is not new. In its simplest form, blood product transfusion as treatment of severe hemorrhage has been practiced since the 1800s. The advent of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) began with the development of bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies in the mid-1900s and is now standard of care for many hematologic disorders. In the past few decades, HSCT has expanded to additional sources of donor cells, a wider range of indications, and the development of novel cell products...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980151/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-ctx
#19
REVIEW
Gerald Salen, Robert D Steiner
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of bile acid synthesis caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 gene that result in production of a defective sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme. CTX is associated with abnormally high levels of cholestanol in the blood and accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in the brain, tendon xanthomas, and bile. Hallmark clinical manifestations of CTX include chronic diarrhea, bilateral cataracts, tendon xanthomas, and neurologic dysfunction...
November 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972157/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-determinant-stages-controlling-human-embryonic-stem-cell-commitment-to-neuronal-cells
#20
Yuanyuan Li, Ran Wang, Nan Qiao, Guangdun Peng, Ke Zhang, Ke Tang, Jing-Dong J Han, Naihe Jing
Proper neural commitment is essential for ensuring the appropriate development of the human brain and for preventing neurodevelopmental diseases such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and intellectual disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neural commitment in humans remain elusive. Here, we report the establishment of a neural differentiation system based on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and on comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of transcriptome dynamics during early hESC differentiation...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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