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Autism prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902778/toxic-metal-loid-based-pollutants-and-their-possible-role-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Anatoly V Skalny, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Maryam Dadar, Heba A Yassa, Jan Aaseth, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Margarita G Skalnaya, Alexey A Tinkov
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotypic behaviors. Many studies support a significant relationship between many different environmental factors in ASD etiology. These factors include increased daily exposure to various toxic metal-based environmental pollutants, which represent a cause for concern in public health. This article reviews the most relevant toxic metals, commonly found, environmental pollutants, i...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887806/victimization-and-perpetration-experiences-of-adults-with-autism
#2
Jonathan A Weiss, Michelle A Fardella
This study aimed to describe the self-reported experiences of childhood and adult victimization and perpetration in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) compared to a matched sample, and how victimization and perpetration are associated with autism-related difficulties. Forty-five adults with ASC and 42 adults without ASC completed questionnaires regarding violence victimization and perpetration, emotion regulation, and sociocommunicative competence. Participants with ASC reported experiencing, as children, more overall victimization; specifically, more property crime, maltreatment, teasing/emotional bullying, and sexual assault by peers, compared to participants without ASC...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873961/valproate-in-pregnancy-recent-research-and-regulatory-responses
#3
Chittaranjan Andrade
Valproate and formulations thereof are approved for the management of seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, and migraine. Valproate is also used for many off-label indications. Unfortunately, data from observational studies indicate that valproate is perhaps the most teratogenic drug in the neuropsychiatric pharmacopeia. It is significantly more teratogenic than many other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In observational studies, gestational exposure to valproate is also associated with higher risks of cognitive, language, and psychomotor delay during early childhood and possibly with an increased risk of autism, as well...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872390/resveratrol-prevents-cellular-and-behavioral-sensory-alterations-in-the-animal-model-of-autism-induced-by-valproic-acid
#4
Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Júlio Santos-Terra, Iohanna Deckmann, Gustavo Brum Schwingel, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Rudimar S Riesgo, Victorio Bambini-Júnior, Cecília Hedin-Pereira, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in both social communication and interaction and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. Although its etiology remains unknown, genetic and environmental risk factors have been associated with this disorder, including the exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy. Resveratrol (RSV) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant molecule known to prevent social impairments in the VPA animal model of autism. This study aimed to analyze the effects of prenatal exposure to VPA, as well as possible preventive effects of RSV, on sensory behavior, the localization of GABAergic parvalbumin (PV+ ) neurons in sensory brain regions and the expression of proteins of excitatory and inhibitory synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859881/is-post-exposure-prevention-of-teratogenic-damage-possible-studies-on-diabetes-valproic-acid-alcohol-and-anti-folates-in-pregnancy-animal-studies-with-reflection-to-human
#5
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren, Joseph Yanai
We discuss the possibilities to prevent the post-exposure teratogenic effects of several teratogens: valproic acid (VPA), diabetes and alcohol. Co-administration of folic acid with VPA reduced the rate of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) and other anomalies in rodents, but apparently not in pregnant women. Antioxidants or the methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine prevented Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) like behavior in mice and rats. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that antioxidants, arachidonic acid, myoinositol and nutritional agents may prevent diabetes-embryopathy...
May 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847785/early-seizures-prematurely-unsilence-auditory-synapses-to-disrupt-thalamocortical-critical-period-plasticity
#6
Hongyu Sun, Anne E Takesian, Ting Ting Wang, Jocelyn J Lippman-Bell, Takao K Hensch, Frances E Jensen
Heightened neural excitability in infancy and childhood results in increased susceptibility to seizures. Such early-life seizures are associated with language deficits and autism that can result from aberrant development of the auditory cortex. Here, we show that early-life seizures disrupt a critical period (CP) for tonotopic map plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). We show that this CP is characterized by a prevalence of "silent," NMDA-receptor (NMDAR)-only, glutamate receptor synapses in auditory cortex that become "unsilenced" due to activity-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR) insertion...
May 29, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807317/palmitoylethanolamide-as-adjunctive-therapy-for-autism-efficacy-and-safety-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mona Khalaj, Amene Saghazadeh, Elham Shirazi, Mohammad-Reza Shalbafan, Kaveh Alavi, Mitera Hakim Shooshtari, Fatemeh Yousefi Laksari, Maryamalsadat Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
Inflammation as well as glutamate excitotoxicity have been proposed to participate in the propagation of autism. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid proven to prevent glutamatergic toxicity and inhibit inflammatory responses simultaneously. The present randomized, parallel group, double-blind placebo-controlled trial is the first study depicted to probe the efficacy of co-treatment with risperidone and PEA over 10 weeks in children with autism. Seventy children (aged 4-12 years) with autism and moderate to severe symptoms of irritability were randomly assigned to two treatment regimens...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778930/measurement-properties-of-tools-used-to-assess-suicidality-in-autistic-and-general-population-adults-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
S A Cassidy, L Bradley, E Bowen, S Wigham, J Rodgers
Adults diagnosed with autism are at significantly increased risk of suicidal thoughts, suicidal behaviours and dying by suicide. However, it is unclear whether any validated tools are currently available to effectively assess suicidality in autistic adults in research and clinical practice. This is crucial for understanding and preventing premature death by suicide in this vulnerable group. This two stage systematic review therefore aimed to identify tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults, evaluate these tools for their appropriateness and measurement properties, and make recommendations for appropriate selection of suicidality assessment tools in research and clinical practice...
June 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773050/the-importance-of-complying-with-vaccination-protocols-in-developed-countries-anti-vax-hysteria-and-the-spread-of-severe-preventable-diseases
#9
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Laura Todi, Valentina Carusi, Michele Centrone, Alessandro Buonomo, Estelle E Newton, Domenico Schiavino, Eleonora Nucera
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are very effective medical tools for disease prevention and life span increase. Controversies have raised concern about their safety, from autism to polio vaccine contamination with simian virus 40 (SV-40). Hysteria surrounding vaccine-associated risks has resulted in a declining number of vaccinations in developed countries. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) have occurred in Europe and North America, causing also some causalities. OBJECTIVES: In this review, data on safety and efficacy of vaccines are discussed, showing that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks and that it is important to comply with vaccination protocols, to avoid spreading of severe, preventable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763350/fluoride-exposure-in-early-life-as-the-possible-root-cause-of-disease-in-later-life
#10
Tetsuo Nakamoto, H Ralph Rawls
Fluoride, one of the most celebrated ingredients for the prevention of dental caries in the 20th century, has also been controversial for its use in dentifrices and other applications. In the current review, we have concentrated primarily on early-life exposure to fluoride and how it may affect the various organs. The most recent controversial aspects of fluoride are related to toxicity of the developing brain and how it may possibly result in the decrease of intelligence quotient (IQ), autism, and calcification of the pineal gland...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761934/assessing-the-heterogeneity-of-autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-school-population
#11
Paula Morales-Hidalgo, Pere J Ferrando, Josefa Canals
The aim of the present study was to assess whether the nature of the main autistic features (i.e., social communication problems and repetitive and restrictive patterns) are better conceptualized as dimensional or categorical in a school population. The study was based on the teacher ratings of two different age groups: 2,585 children between the ages of 10 and 12 (Primary Education; PE) and 2,502 children between the ages of 3 and 5 (Nursery Education; NE) from 60 mainstream schools. The analyses were based on Factor Mixture Analysis, a novel approach that combines dimensional and categorical features and prevents spurious latent classes from appearing...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761836/acceptability-and-caregiver-reported-outcomes-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-whose-parents-attended-a-preventative-population-based-intervention-for-anxiety-a-pilot-study
#12
Natalie L Bischof, Ronald M Rapee, Kristelle Hudry, Jordana K Bayer
This pilot study explored acceptability to parents and outcomes for children of a preventive intervention for anxiety problems in pre-schoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who were an identified sub-group within a population-based randomised trial of the Cool Little Kids parenting group programme. The population trial included 545 temperamentally inhibited pre-schoolers recruited across eight economically diverse areas of Melbourne, Australia. Within this sample, 26 parents reported that their child had received an ASD diagnosis...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761539/-fat-is-really-a-four-letter-word-exploring-weight-related-communication-best-practices-in-children-with-and-without-disabilities-and-their-caregivers
#13
A C McPherson, T J Knibbe, M Oake, J A Swift, N Browne, G D C Ball, J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Health care professionals play a critical role in preventing and managing childhood obesity, but the American Academy of Pediatrics recently stressed the importance of using sensitive and nonstigmatizing language when discussing weight with children and families. Although barriers to weight-related discussions are well known, there are few evidence-based recommendations around communication best practices. Disability populations in particular have previously been excluded from work in this area...
May 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735556/usp8-deubiquitinates-shank3-to-control-synapse-density-and-shank3-activity-dependent-protein-levels
#14
Meghan Kerrisk Campbell, Morgan Sheng
Mutations or altered protein levels of SHANK3 are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia (Guilmatre et al., 2014). Loss of SHANK3 in mouse models results in decreased synapse density and reduction in the levels of multiple synaptic proteins (Jiang and Ehlers, 2013). The family of SHANK scaffolding molecules are among the most heavily ubiquitinated proteins at the postsynaptic density. The ubiquitin-dependent proteasome degradation of SHANK is regulated by synaptic activity and may contribute to activity-dependent synaptic remodeling (Ehlers, 2003; Shin et al...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734508/using-machine-learning-to-identify-patterns-of-lifetime-health-problems-in-decedents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Lauren Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Arezoo Movaghar, Jan S Greenberg, David Page, Leann S DaWalt, Murray H Brilliant, Marsha R Mailick
Very little is known about the health problems experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) throughout their life course. We retrospectively analyzed diagnostic codes associated with de-identified electronic health records using a machine learning algorithm to characterize diagnostic patterns in decedents with ASD and matched decedent community controls. Participants were 91 decedents with ASD and 6,186 sex and birth year matched decedent community controls who had died since 1979, the majority of whom were middle aged or older adults at the time of their death...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728258/ambient-ozone-exposure-and-mental-health-a-systematic-review-of-epidemiological-studies
#16
REVIEW
Tianyu Zhao, Iana Markevych, Marcel Romanos, Dennis Nowak, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have suggested adverse effects of air pollution on mental health. Given the potentially negative impacts of ozone exposure on the immune and nervous system driven from animal experiments, ozone might also affect mental health. However, no systematic synthesis of the relevant literature has been conducted yet. This paper reviews the studies that assessed the link between ozone exposure and mental health thus far. METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA)...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706160/autistic-traits-and-suicidal-thoughts-plans-and-self-harm-in-late-adolescence-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Iryna Culpin, Becky Mars, Rebecca M Pearson, Jean Golding, Jon Heron, Isidora Bubak, Peter Carpenter, Cecilia Magnusson, David Gunnell, Dheeraj Rai
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnosis and traits in childhood are associated with suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm at 16 years, and that any observed associations are explained by depression at 12 years. METHOD: We examined associations between ASD diagnosis and 4 dichotomized ASD traits (social communication, pragmatic language, repetitive behavior, and sociability) with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal plans at age 16 years in 5,031 members of the United Kingdom-based birth cohort study the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696048/a-comparison-of-emotional-behavioral-problems-of-siblings-at-the-age-range-of-3-9-year-old-children-with-autism-and-down-syndrome
#18
Nahid Pourbagheri, Navid Mirzakhani, Alireza Akbarzadehbaghban
Objective: Children's emotional-behavioral problems will have a huge impact on their future. Such problems are more seen in the siblings of children with special needs. The present study aimed to compare emotional-behavioral problems in the healthy siblings of autistic children with the healthy siblings of children with Down syndrome in order to identify such children in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2016 on 174 healthy children aged between 3 and 9 yr old among whom 58 cases had autistic siblings, 58 cases had siblings with Down syndrome, and 58 cases had typically development siblings...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688876/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#19
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681085/two-novel-cases-expanding-the-phenotype-of-setd2-related-overgrowth-syndrome
#20
Maartje C van Rij, Iris H I M Hollink, Paulien Anna Terhal, Sarina G Kant, Claudia Ruivenkamp, Arie van Haeringen, J Anneke Kievit, Martine J van Belzen
The SETD2-related overgrowth syndrome is also called "Luscan-Lumish syndrome" (OMIM 616831) with the clinical characteristics of intellectual disability, speech delay, macrocephaly, facial dysmorphism, and autism spectrum disorders. We report on two novel patients a 4.5-year-old boy and a 23-year-old female adolescent with a speech and language developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder and macrocephaly, who were both diagnosed with SETD2-related overgrowth syndrome due to de novo frameshift mutations in the SETD2 gene...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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