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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456928/behavioural-and-emotional-disorders-in-childhood-a-brief-overview-for-paediatricians
#1
REVIEW
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450838/prevention-and-management-of-obesity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-primary-care-pediatricians
#2
Morgan Walls, Sarabeth Broder-Fingert, Emily Feinberg, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Megan Bair-Merritt
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for being overweight and obese. Little is known about how obesity in children with ASD is being addressed in primary care. This article reports findings from a survey completed by 327 general pediatricians, which included a fictional clinical vignette and Likert-scales assessing attitudes, practices, self-efficacy, and barriers to obesity management. Although the majority of respondents agreed pediatricians should be the main providers to manage obesity in children with ASD, few reported receiving adequate training to do so...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438910/is-there-a-generalized-timing-impairment-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-across-time-scales-and-paradigms
#3
Sofia Isaksson, Susanna Salomäki, Jarno Tuominen, Valtteri Arstila, Christine M Falter-Wagner, Valdas Noreika
Individuals with ASD have abnormal motor and perceptual functions that do not currently form diagnostic criteria of ASD, but nevertheless may affect everyday behaviour. Temporal processing seems to be one of such non-diagnostic yet impaired domains, although the lack of systematic studies testing different aspects of timing in the same sample of participants prevents a conclusive assessment of whether there is a generalized temporal deficit in ASD associated with diagnostic symptoms. 17 children diagnosed with ASD and 18 typically developing age- and IQ-matched controls carried out a set of motor and perceptual timing tasks: free tapping, simultaneity judgment, auditory duration discrimination, and verbal duration estimation...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429116/listening-to-bedouin-mothers-of-children-with-autism
#4
Iris Manor-Binyamini, Avihu Shoshana
This article examines how Bedouin mothers in Israel describe, perceive, and interpret their experiences raising a child with autism. Data were collected using semi-structured ethnographic interviews with 18 Bedouin mothers of children with autism, aged 6-16, living in recognized and unrecognized settlements in the Negev. Analysis of the study findings shows how the subaltern status of Bedouin women, which includes their husbands' constant threats of divorce or taking a second wife, makes it difficult for them to be mobile and interact in the public sphere without the presence of a man and creates an experience unique to these mothers, which we call "Exclusion within Exclusion"...
February 10, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427656/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-probiotics-on-neural-development-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Ceymi Doenyas
Recent evidence implicates immune alterations and gut microbiota dysbiosis in at least some subpopulations of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immune and gut alterations in ASD have mostly been studied separately, and the reviews and theoretical models up to now have mainly considered the immune system as one of the routes for gut-brain communication. We take a different perspective and consider possible common mechanisms of action for the gut microbiota and inflammation on the neural basis of ASD...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411333/a-review-of-childhood-behavioral-problems-and-disorders-in-the-development-of-obesity-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Brittany E Matheson, Dawn M Eichen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the high rates of pediatric and adult obesity, it is imperative to identify early risk factors that might contribute to excess weight gain. This review aims to investigate the relationship between childhood behavioral problems with the development and persistence of obesity. Specifically, this review highlights the association of obesity with (1) neurocognitive constructs, such as executive functioning and inhibition/impulsivity, and (2) disorders commonly diagnosed in childhood, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
February 6, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411255/advanced-maternal-age-and-maternal-education-disparity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
For-Wey Lung, Tung-Liang Chiang, Shio-Jean Lin, Meng-Chih Lee, Bih-Ching Shu
Objective Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with regard to the association between advanced parental age and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sociodemographic status of parents has been found to be associated with children with ASD, however. Therefore, a pathway analysis was undertaken of the roles of maternal age and education in ASD diagnosis and community screening, in a national birth cohort database, using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Method The 6- and 66-month Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset was used (N = 20,095)...
February 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402375/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#8
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398935/vaccination-as-a-cause-of-autism-myths-and-controversies
#9
Michael Davidson
Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368234/childhood-caregiving-roles-perceptions-of-benefits-and-future-caregiving-intentions-among-typically-developing-adult-siblings-of-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Amy K Nuttall, Ben Coberly, Sara J Diesel
Typically developing siblings (TDS) of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently serve as caregivers during childhood, known as parentification, and primary caregivers for siblings in adulthood. In order to evaluate mechanisms linking these roles, we surveyed emerging-adult TDS (N = 108) about childhood parentification roles caring for parents and siblings, current perceptions of benefits associated with ASD and with engaging in parentification, and intention to provide future caregiving...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368117/beyond-v40-31-narrative-phenomenology-of-wandering-in-autism-and-dementia
#11
Olga Solomon, Mary C Lawlor
Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and on Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other types of dementia describes a behaviour called 'wandering', a term that denotes movement through space lacking intention or exact destination, as when a person is disoriented or not self-aware. In the U.S., 'wandering' in both ASD and AD has been examined mostly from a management and prevention perspective. It prioritizes safety while primarily overlooking personal experiences of those who 'wander' and their families, thus limiting the range of potentially effective strategies to address this issue...
January 24, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351108/neuroimaging-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-focus-on-resting-state-fmri-analysis-of-intrinsic-functional-brain-connectivity
#12
Allison Jack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resting-state fMRI assessment of instrinsic functional brain connectivity (rs-fcMRI) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) allows assessment of participants with a wide range of functioning levels, and collection of multisite databases that facilitate large-scale analysis. These heterogeneous multisite data present both promise and methodological challenge. Herein, we provide an overview of recent (1 October 2016-1 November 2017) empirical research on ASD rs-fcMRI, focusing on work that helps clarify how best to leverage the power of these data...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317608/epigenetics-and-cerebral-organoids-promising-directions-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sheena Louise Forsberg, Mirolyuba Ilieva, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 68 children in the US according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, and interests. Owing to disease complexity, only a limited number of treatment options are available mainly for children that alleviate but do not cure the debilitating symptoms. Studies confirm a genetic link, but environmental factors, such as medications, toxins, and maternal infection during pregnancy, as well as birth complications also play a role...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314180/what-s-new-in-atopic-eczema-an-analysis-of-systematic-reviews-published-in-2015-part-1-epidemiology-and-methodology
#14
REVIEW
E Davies, N K Rogers, A Lloyd-Lavery, D J C Grindlay, K S Thomas
This review forms part of a series of annual updates that summarize the evidence base for atopic eczema (AE), providing a succinct guide for clinicians and patients. It provides a summary of key findings from 15 systematic reviews that were published during 2015, and focuses on the epidemiology and methodology issues of AE. For systematic reviews on the prevention and treatment of AE, see Part 2 of this update. The worldwide prevalence of AE during childhood has been calculated to be 7.89% (95% CI 7.88-7.89), based on studies of 1 430 329 children from 102 countries...
January 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291476/neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-prison-inmates-comorbidity-and-combined-associations-with-psychiatric-symptoms-and-behavioural-disturbance
#15
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Hannah Mullens, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
The identification and management of inmates with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) has been insufficiently addressed in the literature. We estimated the proportion of cases with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Intellectual disability (ID) in prison, their comorbidity, and associations with disruptive behaviours and with psychiatric symptoms. Further, we examined the role of coexisting ND on psychiatric symptoms and attitudes toward violence. All 390 male inmates underwent an assessment that included the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults 2...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280230/high-prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus-hypertension-and-obesity-among-persons-with-a-recorded-diagnosis-of-intellectual-disability-or-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
E Flygare Wallén, G Ljunggren, A C Carlsson, D Pettersson, P Wändell
BACKGROUND: Obesity and lack of physical activity are frequently reported in persons with intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesised a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in this population. METHOD: We used administrative data for all primary and specialist outpatient and inpatient healthcare consultations for people with at least one recorded diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, hypertension or obesity from 1998 to 2015...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279889/association-of-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-with-the-risk-of-autistic-traits-in-children-exposed-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-utero
#17
Marte Bjørk, Bettina Riedel, Olav Spigset, Gyri Veiby, Eivind Kolstad, Anne Kjersti Daltveit, Nils Erik Gilhus
Importance: Strategies to prevent autism in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy are important. Objective: To explore whether folic acid supplementation and folate status in pregnancy are associated with reduced risk of autistic traits owing to in utero AED exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study approached Norwegian-speaking women attending routine ultrasonographic examinations from June 1999 through December 31, 2008 (163 844 of 277 702 women refused)...
December 26, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262498/-advances-on-the-research-of-the-environmental-risk-factors-of-children-autism
#18
D N Huang, Y T Jin
Autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social interaction and communication impairments, accompanied by repetitive behaviors. Little is known about the causes and contributing factors for autism. It is difficult to prevent and cure, and has become a globe public health problem. With the development in the prevalence of autism, the idea how the environmental factors cause the autism, gains all attentions. Summarizing latest epidemiological studies and experimental evidence, this review is focused on the effect of environmental factors, including air pollutant, heavy metal and pesticides, and discussed the relation between environmental risk factors and autism...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262466/-consensus-on-early-identification-screening-and-early-intervention-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249827/schizophrenia-risk-and-urban-birth-are-associated-with-proteomic-changes-in-neonatal-dried-blood-spots
#20
Jason D Cooper, Sureyya Ozcan, Renee M Gardner, Nitin Rustogi, Susanne Wicks, Geertje F van Rees, F Markus Leweke, Christina Dalman, Håkan Karlsson, Sabine Bahn
In the present study, we tested whether there were proteomic differences in blood between schizophrenia patients after the initial onset of the disorder and controls; and whether those differences were also present at birth among neonates who later developed schizophrenia compared to those without a psychiatric admission. We used multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to quantify 77 proteins (147 peptides) in serum samples from 60 first-onset drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 77 controls, and 96 proteins (152 peptides) in 892 newborn blood-spot (NBS) samples collected between 1975 and 1985...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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