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Autism prevention

Elisa Terracciano, Ermanno Zorzoli, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Vaccinations and the controversy around them always go in parallel. We identified four categories blending in various amounts of truth and imagination: history, myths, shams and frauds. Over the years, they have alternated and sometimes transformed into one another. This sharp separation into categories is certainly academic and forced. In fact, the line between these aspects is not clear enough to allow a rigid and well-defined division. Our work starts from the category containing the most truthfulness: history, and goes on to analyze two categories that add fantasy to facts: myths and shams (or better, "old wives' tales")...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Giulia Umbrello, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Erika Yeh, Lauren A Weiss
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been long known to have substantial genetic etiology. Much research has attempted to identify specific genes contributing to ASD risk with the goal of tying gene function to a molecular pathological explanation for ASD. A unifying molecular pathology would potentially increase understanding of what is going wrong during development, and could lead to diagnostic biomarkers or targeted preventative or therapeutic directions. We review past and current genetic mapping approaches and discuss major results, leading to the hypothesis that global dysregulation of gene or protein expression may be implicated in ASD rather than disturbance of brain-specific functions...
October 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Jill Locke, Rinad S Beidas, Steven Marcus, Aubyn Stahmer, Gregory A Aarons, Aaron R Lyon, Carolyn Cannuscio, Frances Barg, Shannon Dorsey, David S Mandell
BACKGROUND: The significant lifelong impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), combined with the growing number of children diagnosed with ASD, have created urgency in improving school-based quality of care. Although many interventions have shown efficacy in university-based research, few have been effectively implemented and sustained in schools, the primary setting in which children with ASD receive services. Individual- and organizational-level factors have been shown to predict the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for the prevention and treatment of other mental disorders in schools, and may be potential targets for implementation strategies in the successful use of autism EBIs in schools...
October 10, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Cecilia Magnusson, Michael Lundberg, Brian K Lee, Dheeraj Rai, Håkan Karlsson, Renee Gardner, Kyriaki Kosidou, Stefan Arver, Christina Dalman
BACKGROUND: Maternal vitamin D deficiency may increase risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but direct evidence is lacking. AIMS: To clarify the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and offspring risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability. METHOD: Using a register-based total population study (N=509 639), we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ASD with and without intellectual disability in relation to lifetime diagnoses of maternal vitamin D deficiency...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Rosario Moreno
Elopement exhibited by school-aged children with special health care needs is a relatively low frequency problem behavior with the potential for severe negative consequences for the child and family. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, our results represent one of the first empirical studies of variables that may be associated with children with special health care needs engaging in elopement. Using data from a nationally representative sample of children with special health care needs, our results revealed two variables that were statistically significant predictors of parent-reported elopement in the past year: (1) the child's chronological age, and (2) the presence of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Johan Christiaan Bester
Importance: Measles is a highly communicable viral infection with serious complications. There have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated, such as the United States and the Netherlands, and measles remains endemic in some countries. Health care professionals play an important role in diagnosing and managing acute cases of measles, preventing spread during outbreaks, and vaccination uptake. Objective: To provide an overview of measles and vaccination for health care professionals...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Jessica F Hoffman, Christopher L Wright, Margaret M McCarthy
UNLABELLED: Identifying and understanding critical periods in brain development is essential to decoding the long-term impact of widespread, poorly defined, and frequently occurring insults such as inflammation. Using the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus, we have discovered a narrowly constrained critical period in Purkinje neuron development subject to dysregulation by inflammation. The onset and offset of heightened vulnerability are attributed to a tightly orchestrated gene expression profile present only during the second postnatal week and not the first or third weeks...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marie-Maude Geoffray, Marion Thevenet, Nicolas Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. METHODS: We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Arti B Patel, Irene Tsilioni, Susan E Leeman, Theoharis C Theoharides
We had reported elevated serum levels of the peptide neurotensin (NT) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, we show that NT stimulates primary human microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, and the immortalized cell line of human microglia-SV40. NT (10 nM) increases the gene expression and release (P < 0.001) of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and CCL5 from human microglia. NT also stimulates proliferation (P < 0...
September 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Desai, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoantibodies have been associated with fetal abnormalities and cerebral folate deficiency-related developmental disorders. Over 70% of the children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are positive for these autoantibodies and high-dose folinic acid is beneficial in treating these children. Here we show that antibodies (Abs) to the rat FRα administered during gestation produce communication, learning and cognitive deficits in a rat model that can be prevented by folinic acid and dexamethasone...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Katherine Ledbetter-Cho, Russell Lang, Katy Davenport, Melissa Moore, Allyson Lee, Mark O'Reilly, Laci Watkins, Terry Falcomata
A concurrent multiple baseline across participants design evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on abduction-prevention skills of four children with autism. Across phases, confederates presented four types of abduction lures: (a) simple requests, (b) appeals to authority, (c) assistance requests, and (d) incentives. During baseline, lures resulted in children leaving with confederate strangers. During intervention, BST targeted a three-step response (i.e., refuse, move away, and report) and the abduction-prevention skills of all participants improved...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Carl Bonander, Linda Beckman, Staffan Janson, Carolina Jernbro
INTRODUCTION: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Angie C Jelin, Kirsten Salmeen, Dawn Gano, Irina Burd, Mari-Paule Thiet
Antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal events can result in a spectrum of long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders [1]. Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have led to survival at earlier gestational ages and consequently increasing numbers of periviable infants who are at significant risk for long-term neurological deficits. Therefore, efforts to decrease and prevent cerebral insults attempt not only to decrease preterm delivery but also to improve neurological outcomes in infants delivered preterm...
2016: F1000Research
Jamie K Capal, David Neal Franz
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a relatively rare genetic disorder, affecting one in 6,000 births. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as everolimus, which have been previously used to prevent solid organ transplant rejection, augment anticancer treatment regimens, and prevent neovascularization of artificial cardiac stents, are now approved for treating TSC-related manifestations, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas. The use of everolimus in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytomas is supported by long-term Phase II and III clinical trials...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Zhihui Xie, Kathie L Eagleson, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Pat Levitt
MET, a pleiotropic receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in autism risk, influences multiple neurodevelopmental processes. There is a knowledge gap, however, in the molecular mechanism through which MET mediates developmental events related to disorder risk. In the neocortex, MET is expressed transiently during periods of peak dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis, with expression enriched at developing synapses, consistent with demonstrated roles in dendritic morphogenesis, modulation of spine volume, and excitatory synapse development...
July 2016: ENeuro
Fellon J Gaida, James E Gaida
Drowning is a leading cause of death among infants and toddlers. Unique physiological and behavioural factors contribute to high mortality rates. Drowning incidents predominantly occur during warmer months and holidays. Recent studies link high socio-economic status and drowning, in contrast to earlier studies. Cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy and autism are strong risk factors for drowning incidents. Prevention strategies have substantially lowered drowning rates. While legislation-compliant pool fencing substantially reduces drowning risk, compliance levels are low, and penalties are minor...
October 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Kristien Hens, Hilde Peeters, Kris Dierickx
The search for genes that can explain the development of autism is ongoing. At the same time, genetic counselling and genetic testing can be offered to families with a child diagnosed with autism. However, given the complexity of autism, both with respect to its aetiology as well as with respect to its heterogeneity, such genetic counselling and testing raises specific ethical questions regarding the aim and scope. In order to map these questions and opinions we interviewed 15 Belgian autism professionals. We found that they believed that genetic counselling and genetic testing have certain benefits for families confronted with an autism diagnosis, but also that direct benefit to the child is limited to those cases where a genetic finding offers a certain prognosis and intervention plan...
September 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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