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"Central Sensitization"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329901/-pathophysiology-of-headaches
#1
Charly Gaul, Karl Meßlinger, Dagny Holle-Lee, Lars Neeb
Pathophysiological concepts of primary headache diseases have been developed significantly in the last decades. Nevertheless pathophysiology of single diseases is unexplained. Migraine headache arises from activation and sensibilization of trigeminal nociceptors, essential processes are located at the meninges and the meningeal vessels. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) seems to have essential importance concerning migraine and cluster headache. Mechanisms leading to peripheral and central sensitization are relevant in chronification of migraine and tension-type headache...
March 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321335/quantitative-thermal-testing-profiles-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-response-to-topical-capsaicin-in-patients-with-localized-neuropathic-pain
#2
A Serrano, D Torres, M Veciana, C Caro, J Montero, V Mayoral
There are no reliable predictors of response to treatment with capsaicin. Given that capsaicin application causes heat sensation, differences in quantitative thermal testing (QTT) profiles may predict treatment response. The aim of this study was to determine whether different QTT profiles could predict treatment outcomes in patients with localized peripheral neuropathic pain (PeLNP). We obtained from medical records QTT results and treatment outcomes of 55 patients treated between 2010 and 2013. Warm sensation threshold (WST) and heat pain threshold (HPT) values were assessed at baseline at the treatment site and in the asymptomatic, contralateral area...
2017: Pain Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315267/pharmacological-modulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-and-the-treatment-of-pain
#3
Manuel Merlos, Javier Burgueño, Enrique Portillo-Salido, Carlos Ramón Plata-Salamán, José Miguel Vela
There is a critical need for new analgesics acting through new mechanisms of action, which could increase the efficacy with respect to existing therapies and reduce their unwanted effects. Current preclinical evidence supports the modulatory role of sigma-1 receptors (σ1R) in nociception, mainly based on the pain-attenuated phenotype of σ1R knockout mice and on the antinociceptive effect exerted by σ1R antagonists on pains of different etiologies. σ1R is highly expressed in different pain areas of the CNS and the periphery (particularly dorsal root ganglia), and interacts and modulates the functionality of different receptors and ion channels ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301400/the-role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-peripheral-and-central-pain-mechanisms-including-migraine
#4
Smriti Iyengar, Michael H Ossipov, Kirk W Johnson
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide found primarily in the C and Aδ sensory fibers arising from the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as the central nervous system. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was found to play important roles in cardiovascular, digestive, and sensory functions. Although the vasodilatory properties of CGRP are well documented, its somatosensory function regarding modulation of neuronal sensitization and of enhanced pain has received considerable attention recently...
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300697/fibromyalgia-and-central-sensitization-in-chronic-inflammatory-joint-disease
#5
EDITORIAL
Maxime Dougados, Serge Perrot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296177/fibromyalgia-remains-a-significant-burden-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-in-australia
#6
Anthea C Gist, Emma K Guymer, Laura E Eades, Michelle Leech, Geoffrey O Littlejohn
AIM: High rates of fibromyalgia (FM) are reported in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Advances in RA management have occurred, but information regarding current significance of FM in RA is limited. This investigation estimated the prevalence and health effects of concomitant FM in Australian RA patients. METHODS: Participants were recruited from Australian rheumatology clinics. Subjects were assessed using the 1990 and 2011 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) FM criteria and the polysymptomatic distress score (PDS) was calculated...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295825/effectiveness-of-manual-therapy-versus-surgery-in-pain-processing-due-to-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
C Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, J Cleland, M Palacios-Ceña, S Fuensalida-Novo, C Alonso-Blanco, J A Pareja, F Alburquerque-Sendín
BACKGROUND: People with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) exhibit widespread pressure pain and thermal pain hypersensitivity as a manifestation of central sensitization. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery for improving pain and nociceptive gain processing in people with CTS. METHODS: The trial was conducted at a local regional Hospital in Madrid, Spain from August 2014 to February 2015. In this randomized parallel-group, blinded, clinical trial, 100 women with CTS were randomly allocated to either manual therapy (n = 50), who received three sessions (once/week) of manual therapies including desensitization manoeuvres of the central nervous system, or surgical intervention (n = 50) group...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293483/hippocampal-ampars-involve-the-central-sensitization-of-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Aiqin Chen, Yu Chen, Ying Tang, Chengjia Bao, Zizhi Cui, Meng Xiao, Chun Lin
OBJECTIVE: The roles of hippocampal AMPARs were investigated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like rats to clarify the central sensitization mechanisms. METHODS: IBS model was induced by neonatal maternal separation. The effects of AMPARs on visceral hypersensitivity were examined by the responses of abdominal muscle to colorectal distension after the bilateral intrahippocampal injections of CNQX (an AMPAR inhibitor). The expressions of hippocampal AMPARs (GluR1 and GluR2) were determined by Western blot...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289513/role-of-%C3%AE-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic-acid-receptor-regulation-in-stress-induced-pain-chronification
#9
EDITORIAL
Sufang Liu, Feng Tao
Persistent postsurgical pain is a serious issue in public health, which has received increased interest in recent years. Previous studies have reported that psychological factors promote the development of chronic postsurgical pain. However, it is unclear how chronification of postsurgical pain occurs. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPA) phosphorylation in the central nervous system plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and contributes to central sensitization and chronic pain development...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285942/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-psd95-nnos-protein-protein-interactions-suppress-formalin-evoked-fos-protein-expression-and-nociceptive-behavior-in-rats
#10
Lawrence M Carey, Wan-Hung Lee, Tannia Gutierrez, Pushkar M Kulkarni, Ganesh A Thakur, Yvonne Y Lai, Andrea G Hohmann
Excessive activation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling within the spinal dorsal horn contributes to central sensitization and the induction and maintenance of pathological pain states. However, direct antagonism of NMDARs produces undesirable side effects which limit their clinical use. NMDAR activation produces central sensitization, in part, by initiating a signaling cascade that activates the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and generates the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). NMDAR-mediated activation of nNOS requires a scaffolding protein, postsynaptic density protein 95 kDa (PSD95), which tethers nNOS to NMDARs...
March 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280911/-physiology-of-the-scalp
#11
REVIEW
R Rukwied
BACKGROUND: Human scalp reveals a remarkable difference to hairy skin of other body regions. The structure of the scalp offers effective protection against water loss and contributes to thermoregulation due to significant vascularization. The scalp is innervated by the trigeminus nerve. OBJECTIVES: The majority of the population complain about "sensitive" scalp. However, sensory, regional, ethnic or pathologic parameters contributing to "sensitive" scalp are largely unknown...
March 9, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272117/altered-functional-connectivity-in-sickle-cell-disease-exists-at-rest-and-during-acute-pain-challenge
#12
William T Zempsky, Michael C Stevens, James P Santanelli, Alexandra M Gaynor, Sabin Khadka
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic pain disorder in which abnormally shaped red blood cells obstruct microcirculation causing ischemia and pain. The lack of SCD responsiveness to analgesics has led many to propose that nociceptive neural systems engaged when detecting pain become sensitized, resulting in an enhancement of pain response. METHODS: SCD patients and healthy controls were exposed to a painful stimuli of varying intensity using a pressure algometer and underwent several neuroimaging tasks...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270689/dna-methyltransferase-dnmt3a-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-by-repressing-kcna2-in-primary-afferent-neurons
#13
Jian-Yuan Zhao, Lingli Liang, Xiyao Gu, Zhisong Li, Shaogen Wu, Linlin Sun, Fidelis E Atianjoh, Jian Feng, Kai Mo, Shushan Jia, Brianna Marie Lutz, Alex Bekker, Eric J Nestler, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Nerve injury induces changes in gene transcription in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. DNA methylation represses gene expression. Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury increases expression of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a in the injured DRG neurons via the activation of the transcription factor octamer transcription factor 1. Blocking this increase prevents nerve injury-induced methylation of the voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channel subunit Kcna2 promoter region and rescues Kcna2 expression in the injured DRG and attenuates neuropathic pain...
March 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267062/allodynia-in-cluster-headache
#14
Leopoldine A Wilbrink, Mark A Louter, Onno Pm Teernstra, Erik W van Zwet, Frank Jpm Huygen, Joost Haan, Michel D Ferrari, Gisela M Terwindt
Cutaneous allodynia is an established marker for central sensitization in migraine. There is debate whether cutaneous allodynia may also occur in cluster headache, another episodic headache disorder. Here we examined the presence and severity of allodynia in a large well-defined nation-wide population of people with cluster headache.Using validated questionnaires we assessed, cross-sectionally, ictal allodynia and comorbid depression and migraine in the nation-wide "Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis" (LUCA) study...
March 4, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265898/spinal-ccl2-promotes-central-sensitization-long-term-potentiation-and-inflammatory-pain-via-ccr2-further-insights-into-molecular-synaptic-and-cellular-mechanisms
#15
Rou-Gang Xie, Yong-Jing Gao, Chul-Kyu Park, Ning Lu, Ceng Luo, Wen-Ting Wang, Sheng-Xi Wu, Ru-Rong Ji
Mounting evidence supports an important role of chemokines, produced by spinal cord astrocytes, in promoting central sensitization and chronic pain. In particular, CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) has been shown to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents in spinal outer lamina II (IIo) neurons. However, the exact molecular, synaptic, and cellular mechanisms by which CCL2 modulates central sensitization are still unclear. We found that spinal injection of the CCR2 antagonist RS504393 attenuated CCL2- and inflammation-induced hyperalgesia...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265836/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-involvement-in-the-hesperidin-antihyperalgesic-effects-at-peripheral-and-central-levels-in-a-neuropathic-pain-model
#16
A I Carballo-Villalobos, M E González-Trujano, N Alvarado-Vázquez, F J López-Muñoz
Emerging evidence proposes a link between immune changes and pain, which is consistent with the inflammation theory and the increased incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Flavonoids have long been used because of their anti-inflammatory potential activity and they are considered a promising alternative to alleviate neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihyperalgesic effect of hesperidin and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines evaluated at peripheral and central levels in the chronic constriction injury as model of neuropathic pain in rats...
March 6, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263454/neuroplasticity-of-supraspinal-structures-associated-with-pathological-pain
#17
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Judit Homs, Francisco Reina, Anna Carrera, Enrique Verdú
Peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries, along with other painful syndromes such as fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapeutic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome, cause several neuroplasticity changes in the nervous system along its entire axis affecting the different neuronal nuclei. This paper reviews these changes, focusing on the supraspinal structures that are involved in the modulation and processing of pain, including the periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, locus coeruleus, rostral ventromedial medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, habenula, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, septum, amygdala, cingulated and prefrontal cortex...
March 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257395/stereological-study-on-the-number-of-synapses-in-the-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn-with-painful-diabetic-neuropathy-induced-by-streptozotocin
#18
Jing-Yan Lin, Xiao-Li Huang, Jing Chen, Zheng-Wei Yang, Jing Lin, San Huang, Bin Peng
Our previous studies showed that direct injury to the sciatic nerve (chronic constriction injury or axotomy) is associated with a numerical increase in synaptic number in the rat spinal dorsal horn. The aim of this study was to determine whether painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was also associated with numerical changes in the synaptic or neuronal numbers in the spinal dorsal horn. Overall, 17 adult SD rats were allocated randomly into the control group (n=5) and the streptozotocin (STZ) group (n=12). STZ was injected intraperitoneally to induce diabetes...
March 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251844/overview-of-pathophysiological-features-of-gerd
#19
Paolo Usai Satta, Francesco Oppia, Francesco Cabras
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very prevalent condition and has a high impact on the quality of life. Nevertheless, pathophysiology is complex and multi-factorial. Several mechanisms have been proposed: decreased salivation, decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure resting tone, presence of hiatal hernia, increased number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations, increased acid, and pepsin secretion, duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux of bile acids and trypsin. Other factors contributing to the pathophysiology of GERD include poor esophageal clearance, delayed gastric emptying and impaired mucosal defensive factors...
March 1, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245765/kynurenines-and-pacap-in-migraine-medicinal-chemistry-and-pathogenetic-aspects
#20
János Tajti, Délia Szok, Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Bernadett Tuka, Anna Petrovics-Balog, József Toldi, László Vécsei
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a highly disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder, with its exact pathomechanism being still unrevealed. The current leading hypotheses are based on the sensitization and activation of the trigeminovascular system. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature with focus on the effects of kynurenines (L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the regulation of the trigeminovascular system. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical publications (198 references) by using the keywords 'kynurenines', 'pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide', and 'migraine' in the database of MEDLINE/PubMed up to 10 September 2016for topical review...
February 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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