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Labor arrest

Reshama Navathe, Vincenzo Berghella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tocolytic agents have been used for over 60 years in the fight against preterm labor, which ultimately can lead to preterm birth. Currently, clinicians can choose from a variety of drug classes to achieve the primary goal of delaying delivery by 48 h, thereby allowing time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity, and if appropriate, starting magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. However, there are currently no known therapies to maintain the tocolytic effect beyond those initial 48 h...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Steven A Sumner, Matthew J Maenner, Christina M Socias, James A Mercy, Paul Silverman, Sandra P Medinilla, Steven S Martin, Likang Xu, Susan D Hillis
INTRODUCTION: Accurately identifying youth at highest risk of firearm violence involvement could permit delivery of focused, comprehensive prevention services. This study explored whether readily available city and state administrative data covering life events before youth firearm violence could elucidate patterns preceding such violence. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-one individuals arrested for homicide, attempted homicide, aggravated assault, or robbery with a firearm committed in Wilmington, Delaware, from January 1, 2009 to May 21, 2014, were matched 1:3 to 1,259 Wilmington resident controls on birth year and sex...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Montse Palacio, Stefania Ronzoni, Luis Sánchez-Ramos, Kellie E Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of maintenance tocolysis with progestogens compared with placebo or no treatment in women with singleton pregnancies and arrested preterm labor. DATA SOURCES: Studies without language restrictions were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and from inception to June 2015. MeSH headings for progestogens were combined with terms regarding labor, tocolysis, or preterm birth...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yayoi Ohashi, Leyla Baghirzada, Hiroyuki Sumikura, Mrinalini Balki
Japan has seen significant developments in obstetric anesthesia in recent years, including the establishment of the Japanese Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. However, labor pain, which is one of the most important issues in obstetric practice, is still not treated aggressively. The rate of epidural administration for labor analgesia is very low in Japan as compared to other developed countries. Remifentanil has been used for labor analgesia, as part of general anesthesia for cesarean delivery, as well as for various fetal procedures around the world...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Sheng-Wen Chang, N Edward Coulson, Ping Wang
The control of drug activity currently favors supply-side policies: drug suppliers in the U.S. face a higher arrest rate and longer sentences than demanders. We construct a simple model of drug activity with search and entry frictions in labor and drug markets. Our calibration analysis suggests a strong "dealer replacement effect." As a result, given a variety of community objectives, it is beneficial to lower supplier arrests and raise the demand arrest rate from current values. A 10% shift from supply-side to demand-side arrests can reduce the population of potential drug dealers by 22-25,000 and raise aggregate local income by $380-400 million, at 2002 prices...
October 2016: J Public Econ Theory
Hiroki Kurosawa, Hiroki Utsunomiya, Naomi Shiga, Aiko Takahashi, Motomasa Ihara, Masumi Ishibashi, Mitsuo Nishimoto, Zen Watanabe, Hiroyuki Abe, Jin Kumagai, Yukihiro Terada, Hideki Igarashi, Toshifumi Takahashi, Atsushi Fukui, Ryota Suganuma, Masahito Tachibana, Nobuo Yaegashi
STUDY QUESTION: Does a new system-the chip-sensing embryo respiration monitoring system (CERMs)-enable evaluation of embryo viability for potential application in a clinical IVF setting? SUMMARY ANSWER: The system enabled the oxygen consumption rate of spheroids, bovine embryos and frozen-thawed human embryos to be measured, and this rate corresponded to the developmental potential of embryos. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: To date, no reliable and clinically suitable objective evaluation methods for embryos are available, which circumvent the differences in inter-observer subjective view...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Yukiko Chinen, Tadatsugu Kinjo, Hayase Nitta, Yui Kinjo, Hitoshi Masamoto, Yoichi Aoki
It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Annika K Weimer, Sascha Biedermann, Hirofumi Harashima, Farshad Roodbarkelari, Naoki Takahashi, Julia Foreman, Yonsheng Guan, Gaëtan Pochon, Maren Heese, Daniël Van Damme, Keiko Sugimoto, Csaba Koncz, Peter Doerner, Masaaki Umeda, Arp Schnittger
Upon DNA damage, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are typically inhibited to block cell division. In many organisms, however, it has been found that CDK activity is required for DNA repair, especially for homology-dependent repair (HR), resulting in the conundrum how mitotic arrest and repair can be reconciled. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana solves this dilemma by a division of labor strategy. We identify the plant-specific B1-type CDKs (CDKB1s) and the class of B1-type cyclins (CYCB1s) as major regulators of HR in plants...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Journal
Ming-Xia Ding, Xin Luo, Xue-Mei Zhang, Bing Bai, Ju-Xiang Sun, Hong-Bo Qi
OBJECTIVE: No treatment is recommended for routine maintenance tocolysis after an arrested preterm birth. Our present study aimed to evaluate the effect of progesterone and nifedipine as maintenance tocolysis therapy after an arrested preterm birth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For relevant studies, we systematically searched the literature in databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included...
June 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jonas G Wilson-Leedy, Alexis J DiSilvestro, John T Repke, Jaimey M Pauli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of primary cesarean delivery after adopting labor management guidelines. METHODS: This is a before-after retrospective cohort study at a single academic center. This center adopted guidelines from the Consensus for the Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery. Nulliparous women attempting vaginal delivery with viable, singleton, vertex fetuses were included. For the primary outcome of cesarean delivery rate among induced or augmented patients, 200 consecutive women managed before guideline adoption were compared with 200 similar patients afterward...
July 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Zvi Livneh, Isadora S Cohen, Tamar Paz-Elizur, Dana Davidovsky, Dalit Carmi, Umakanta Swain, Nataly Mirlas-Neisberg
The multitude of DNA lesions that continuously form in DNA cannot all be detected and removed prior to replication. Thus, encounters of the replication fork with DNA damage become inevitable. Such encounters inhibit fork progression, leading to replication fork arrest or to replication re-priming downstream of the damage site. Either of these events will result in the formation of gap-lesion structures, in which a damaged base is located in a single stranded stretch of DNA, that is vulnerable to subsequent nicking...
August 2016: DNA Repair
Meizhu Bai, Dan Liang, Yinghua Wang, Qing Li, Yuxuan Wu, Jinsong Li
Tissue-specific knockout technology enables the analysis of the gene function in specific tissues in adult mammals. However, conventional strategy for producing tissue-specific knockout mice is a time- and labor-consuming process, restricting rapid study of the gene function in vivo. CRISPR-Cas9 system from bacteria is a simple and efficient gene-editing technique, which has enabled rapid generation of gene knockout lines in mouse by direct injection of CRISPR-Cas9 into zygotes. Here, we demonstrate CRISPR-Cas9-mediated spermatogenic cell-specific disruption of Scp3 gene in testes in one step...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Bijan S Kheirabadi, Irasema B Terrazas, Nahir Miranda, Amber N Voelker, Rose Grimm, John F Kragh, Michael A Dubick
INTRODUCTION: Specialized tourniquets such as Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet (AAJT) have been deployed for control of junctional hemorrhage with limited information concerning their efficacy and safety. We examined physiological effects of a 2-h abdominal application of AAJT to control groin hemorrhage in a swine model. METHODS: Anesthetized pigs were subjected to 25% controlled hemorrhage and a groin arterial injury. Resulting hemorrhage from the groin wound was controlled for 2 h by applying AAJT on each pig's abdomen...
September 2016: Shock
Allison M Faucett, Amanda A Allshouse, Meghan Donnelly, Torri D Metz
Objective We aimed to determine if obese women undergoing trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) were more likely to undergo repeat cesarean for arrest disorders prior to active labor, and whether this was due to decreased use of standard interventions to achieve vaginal birth. Study Design This was a secondary analysis of a prospective registry. Women undergoing TOLAC with one prior cesarean and a singleton, term gestation who had a repeat cesarean for an arrest disorder were included. The primary outcome was repeat cesarean prior to active labor (cervical dilation < 6 cm)...
August 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Y Y Zheng, L Y Zou, L Fan
OBJECTIVE: To study the changes of intrapartum cesarean rate, cesarean indications and pregnancy outcomes after the new partogram applied. METHODS: Totally 3 290 pregnant women trying to vaginal delivery which were managed according to the new partogram in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University from August to October in 2014(new partogram group)were involved; 2 987 pregnancy women trying to vaginal delivery from May to July in 2014 which were managed according to the old partogram(old partogram group)were involved as control...
April 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Tristan D Hunt, Jean Guglielminotti, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: The safety of anesthetic care provided during childbirth has improved during the past 2 decades in the United States, with a marked decrease in the rate of anesthesia-related adverse events (ARAEs). To date, there is little research on the costs of ARAEs in obstetrics. This study aims to assess the excess cost and cost per admission associated with ARAEs during labor and delivery. METHODS: Data came from the New York State Inpatient Database 2010. Discharge records indicating labor and delivery and ARAEs were identified with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes...
June 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lisa R Goshe, Melissa L Snover, Aleta A Hohn, George H Balazs
Somatic growth rate data for wild sea turtles can provide insight into life-stage durations, time to maturation, and total lifespan. When appropriately validated, the technique of skeletochronology allows prior growth rates of sea turtles to be calculated with considerably less time and labor than required by mark--recapture studies. We applied skeletochronology to 10 dead, stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas that had previously been measured, tagged, and injected with OTC (oxytetracycline) during mark-recapture studies in Hawaii for validating skeletochronological analysis...
May 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Kazuaki Nishimura, Kazuaki Yoshimura, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Toru Hachisuga
AIM: Recent developments in transperineal ultrasound imaging of the pelvis have prompted trials to objectively evaluate labor progression for labor management. We evaluated the accuracy of transperineal ultrasound in diagnosing arrest of labor. METHODS: Transperineal ultrasound and digital pelvic examinations were performed simultaneously in 63 term laboring patients (singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation). We analyzed a total of 216 ultrasound images (Sonography Volume Computer Aided Display Labor [Sono VCAD Labor®] installed in Voluson E8 ultrasound)...
July 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Amir Weissman, Rana Swed Tobia, Yechiel Z Burke, Olga Maxymovski, Arie Drugan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate autonomic modulation of heart rate in pregnant women treated with oxytocin to induce labor and with atosiban (an oxytocin antagonist) to arrest preterm labor. METHODS: A prospective study with two cohorts: 14 pregnant women treated with atosiban for premature uterine contractions, and 28 women undergoing induction of labor with oxytocin. Computerized analyses of the electrocardiogram were performed with spectral and nonlinear dynamic analyses...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Luis D Pacheco, George Saade, Gary D V Hankins, Steven L Clark
OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of amniotic fluid embolism. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature review was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The search was restricted to English-language articles published from 1966 through March 2015. Priority was given to articles reporting original research, in particular randomized controlled trials, although review articles and commentaries were consulted...
August 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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