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Central Sensitization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915139/impairment-of-fetal-hematopoietic-stem-cell-function-in-the-absence-of-fancd2
#1
Sakiko Suzuki, Ronny R Racine, Nathan A Manalo, Sharon B Cantor, Glen D Raffel
Fanconi Anemia (FA), results from mutations in genes necessary for DNA damage repair and often leads to progressive bone marrow failure. Although the exhaustion of the bone marrow leads to cytopenias in FA patients as they age, evidence from human FA and mouse model fetal livers suggests hematopoietic defects originate in utero which may lead to deficient seeding of the bone marrow. To address this possibility, we examined the consequences of loss of Fancd2, a central component of the FA pathway. Examination of E14...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914615/poor-performance-of-fine-motor-activity-among-biological-parents-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Ni Chun Hung, Shih-Hsien Lin, Mei Hung Chi, Chien-Ho Lin, Po See Chen, I Hui Lee, Kao Chin Chen, Yen Kuang Yang
It has been proposed that the dopaminergic system and heritability may play roles in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed the performance of healthy parents of children with ADHD in the finger tapping test (FTT) in this study, which is a reliable test and sensitive to central dopamine activity. A total of 16 parents of children with ADHD and 32 controls were enrolled. The FTT was conducted. The 16 healthy parents of children with ADHD exhibited a significantly poorer performance in the FTT, using the nondominant hand, than the 32 healthy controls...
December 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913797/promoting-gait-recovery-and-limiting-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#3
Catherine Mercier, Meyke Roosink, Jason Bouffard, Laurent J Bouyer
Most persons living with a spinal cord injury experience neuropathic pain in the months following their lesion, at the moment where they receive intensive gait rehabilitation. Based on studies using animal models, it has been proposed that central sensitization in nociceptive pathways (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to motor learning (adaptive plasticity) share common neural mechanisms and compete with each other. This article aims to address the discrepancy between the growing body of basic science literature supporting this hypothesis and the general belief in rehabilitation research that pain and gait rehabilitation represent two independent problems...
December 2, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912167/beamstop-based-low-background-ptychography-to-image-weakly-scattering-objects
#4
Juliane Reinhardt, Robert Hoppe, Georg Hofmann, Christian D Damsgaard, Jens Patommel, Christoph Baumbach, Sina Baier, Amélie Rochet, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Gerald Falkenberg, Christian G Schroer
In recent years, X-ray ptychography has been established as a valuable tool for high-resolution imaging. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution and sensitivity in coherent diffraction imaging are limited by the signal that is detected over noise and over background scattering. Especially, coherent imaging of weakly scattering specimens suffers from incoherent background that is generated by the interaction of the central beam with matter along its propagation path in particular close to and inside of the detector...
November 14, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911771/stability-folding-dynamics-and-long-range-conformational-transition-of-the-synaptic-t-snare-complex
#5
Xinming Zhang, Aleksander A Rebane, Lu Ma, Feng Li, Junyi Jiao, Hong Qu, Frederic Pincet, James E Rothman, Yongli Zhang
Synaptic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) couple their stepwise folding to fusion of synaptic vesicles with plasma membranes. In this process, three SNAREs assemble into a stable four-helix bundle. Arguably, the first and rate-limiting step of SNARE assembly is the formation of an activated binary target (t)-SNARE complex on the target plasma membrane, which then zippers with the vesicle (v)-SNARE on the vesicle to drive membrane fusion. However, the t-SNARE complex readily misfolds, and its structure, stability, and dynamics are elusive...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911605/gnrh-neuron-activity-and-pituitary-response-in-estradiol-induced-vs-proestrous-luteinizing-hormone-surges-in-female-mice
#6
Marina Silveira, Laura L Burger, R Anthony DeFazio, Elizabeth R Wagenmaker, Suzanne M Moenter
During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter GnRH release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon coincident with a daily LH surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911598/type-3-deiodinase-role-on-central-thyroid-hormone-action-affects-the-leptin-melanocortin-system-and-circadian-activity
#7
Zhaofei Wu, M Elena Martinez, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez
The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the central regulation of energy balance is increasingly appreciated. Mice lacking the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which inactivates TH, have decreased circulating TH levels relative to control mice due to defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, we have shown that the TH status of the adult Dio3(-/-) brain is opposite that of the serum, exhibiting enhanced levels of TH action. Since the brain, specially the hypothalamus, harbors important circuitries that regulate metabolism, we aimed to examine the energy balance phenotype of Dio3(-/-) mice and determine whether it is associated with hypothalamic abnormalities...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911522/projections-for-measuring-the-size-of-the-solar-core-with-neutrino-electron-scattering
#8
Jonathan H Davis
We quantify the amount of data needed in order to measure the size and position of the ^{8}B neutrino production region within the solar core, for experiments looking at elastic scattering between electrons and solar neutrinos. The directions of the electrons immediately after scattering are strongly correlated with the incident directions of the neutrinos; however, this is degraded significantly by the subsequent scattering of these electrons in the detector medium. We generate distributions of such electrons for different neutrino production profiles, and use a maximum likelihood analysis to make projections for future experimental sensitivity...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911427/-modern-approach-to-early-diagnosis-and-pathogenetic-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#9
I V Vorob'eva
AIM: To improve the approach to pathogenetic treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) through early diagnosis and a new method for predicting disease progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 330 type 2 diabetes patients with DR (660 eyes), of whom women constituted 64.6%, men - 35.4%. The mean patient age was 62.3±2.3 years. Three groups were formed: the controls - 30 healthy volunteers (60 eyes) and 30 type 2 diabetes patients without ocular involvement (DR 0, 60 eyes); group 1 - 30 type 2 diabetes patients with DR I but no diabetic macular edema (DR I without DME, 60 eyes) that were treated with calcium dobesilate; group 2 - 240 type 2 diabetes patients, who had diabetic retinopathy of different stages (DR I, II, or III with DME, 480 eyes) and received laser retinal photocoagulation (LRP)...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911148/effects-of-chronic-estrogen-administration-in-the-ventromedial-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-vmh-on-fat-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#10
Z Zhang, J Liu, A G Veldhuis-Vlug, Y Su, E Foppen, B C J van der Eerden, M Koedam, N Bravenboer, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, E Fliers, P H Bisschop
Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus regulates fat distribution and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that the protective effect of systemic E2 on fat and bone metabolism in the OVX model is partly mediated through the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910865/auditory-evoked-potential-could-reflect-emotional-sensitivity-and-impulsivity
#11
Ji Sun Kim, Sungkean Kim, Wookyoung Jung, Chang-Hwan Im, Seung-Hwan Lee
Emotional sensitivity and impulsivity could cause interpersonal conflicts and neuropsychiatric problems. Serotonin is correlated with behavioral inhibition and impulsivity. This study evaluated whether the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP), a potential biological marker of central serotonergic activity, could reflect emotional sensitivity and impulsivity. A total of 157 healthy individuals were recruited, who performed LDAEP and Go/Nogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910802/near-infrared-spectroscopy-evaluated-cerebral-oxygenation-during-anesthesia
#12
Henrik Sørensen
Likely, maintained organ and notably cerebral perfusion, secures rapid recovery following anesthesia. To secure cerebral blood flow (CBF) at least mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) need to be considered. CBF is "autoregulated", i.e. stays more or less stable within a MAP of 50-150 mmHg, but the lower limit appears to depend on the central blood volume and/or cardiac output, illustrated by a decrease in CBF at a MAP of 80 mmHg with a compromised central blood volume, while CBF remains constant with a MAP < 40 mmHg, if the central blood volume is maintained...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910725/an-over-the-counter-central-sensitization-therapy-a-chronic-back-pain-registry-study-of-pain-relief-medication-use-and-their-adverse-effects
#13
Richard Staelin, Sree N Koneru, Ian M Rawe
AIM: Back pain, the most prevalent musculoskeletal chronic pain condition, is usually treated with analgesic medications of questionable efficacy and frequent occurrence of adverse side effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the ActiPatch medical devices in reducing chronic back pain, document medication related adverse side effects and establish their impact on quality of life. METHODS: Upon completing a 7-day trial, subjects were contacted via email with an assessment form using the Constant Contact email program...
December 2, 2016: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910697/sensitivity-of-magnetic-field-line-pitch-angle-measurements-to-sawtooth-events-in-tokamaks
#14
J Ko
The sensitivity of the pitch angle profiles measured by the motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic to the evolution of the safety factor, q, profiles during the tokamak sawtooth events has been investigated for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). An analytic relation between the tokamak pitch angle, γ, and q estimates that Δγ ∼ 0.1° is required for detecting Δq ∼ 0.05 near the magnetic axis (not at the magnetic axis, though). The pitch angle becomes less sensitive to the same Δq for the middle and outer regions of the plasma (Δγ ∼ 0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910126/gradient-echo-epi-using-a-high-degree-shim-insert-coil-at-7%C3%A2-t-implications-for-bold-fmri
#15
Tae Kim, Yoojin Lee, Tiejun Zhao, Hoby P Hetherington, Jullie W Pan
PURPOSE: To quantitatively assess the effects of high degree and order (1(st) -4(th+) ) relative to 1(st) -2(nd) degree B0 shimming at 7 Tesla (T) on gradient-echo echo planar imaging (GE-EPI) and blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation. METHODS: Simulations and GE-EPI were performed at (2mm)(3) and (3mm)(3) resolution, evaluating the temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR), transverse relaxivity ( R2*), BOLD % signal change and activated pixel counts in a breath-hold task...
December 1, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#16
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909235/a-simple-and-sensitive-high-content-assay-for-the-characterization-of-antiproliferative-therapeutic-antibodies
#17
Andreas Stengl, David Hörl, Heinrich Leonhardt, Jonas Helma
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a central class of therapeutic agents in particular as antiproliferative compounds. Their often complex modes of action require sensitive assays during early, functional characterization. Current cell-based proliferation assays often detect metabolites that are indicative of metabolic activity but do not directly account for cell proliferation. Measuring DNA replication by incorporation of base analogues such as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) fills this analytical gap but was previously restricted to bulk effect characterization in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay formats...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909097/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#18
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. While migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the central nervous system, we used CGRP-induced light aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) injection of CGRP resulted in light aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion previously seen following central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) injection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908286/cost-analysis-of-large-scale-implementation-of-the-helping-babies-breathe-newborn-resuscitation-training-program-in-tanzania
#19
Sumona Chaudhury, Lauren Arlington, Shelby Brenan, Allan Kaijunga Kairuki, Amunga Robson Meda, Kahabi G Isangula, Victor Mponzi, Dunstan Bishanga, Erica Thomas, Georgina Msemo, Mary Azayo, Alice Molinier, Brett D Nelson
BACKGROUND: Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) has become the gold standard globally for training birth-attendants in neonatal resuscitation in low-resource settings in efforts to reduce early newborn asphyxia and mortality. The purpose of this study was to do a first-ever activity-based cost-analysis of at-scale HBB program implementation and initial follow-up in a large region of Tanzania and evaluate costs of national scale-up as one component of a multi-method external evaluation of the implementation of HBB at scale in Tanzania...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907034/budget-impact-of-long-acting-insulin-analogues-the-case-in-brazil
#20
Fernanda O Laranjeira, Everton Nunes da Silva, Maurício G Pereira
BACKGROUND: Long-acting insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment have been available on the Brazilian market since 2002. However, the population cannot access the analogues through the public health system. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues coverage for T1D patients in the Brazilian public health system compared to NPH insulin. METHODS: We performed a budget impact analysis of a five-year period...
2016: PloS One
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