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Opium poppy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830833/noscapine-targets-egfr-p-tyr1068-to-suppress-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-mg63-cells
#1
Ming He, Linlin Jiang, Zhaozhou Ren, Guangbin Wang, Jiashi Wang
Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arises in the metaphysis of long bones. Amplification and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represent signature genetic abnormalities encountered in osteosarcoma. Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Recently several studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in melanoma, ovarian cancer, gliomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798031/the-environmental-footprint-of-morphine-a-life-cycle-assessment-from-opium-poppy-farming-to-the-packaged-drug
#2
Scott McAlister, Yanjun Ou, Elise Neff, Karen Hapgood, David Story, Philip Mealey, Forbes McGain
OBJECTIVE: To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). DESIGN: 'Cradle-to-grave' process-based life cycle assessment (observational). SETTINGS: Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The environmental effects (eg, CO2 equivalent ('CO2 e') emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761334/the-ethnobotany-of-psychoactive-plant-use-a-phylogenetic-perspective
#3
Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659342/gene-actions-for-yield-and-its-attributes-and-their-implications-in-the-inheritance-pattern-over-three-generations-in-opium-poppy-papaver-somniferum-l
#4
Brij K Mishra, R Mishra, S N Jena, Sudhir Shukla
The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634038/isolation-and-characterization-of-reticuline-n-methyltransferase-involved-in-biosynthesis-of-the-aporphine-alkaloid-magnoflorine-in-opium-poppy
#5
Jeremy S Morris, Peter J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a large group of plant-specialized metabolites displaying an array of biological and pharmacological properties associated with numerous structural scaffolds and diverse functional group modification. N-Methylation is one of the most common tailoring reactions, yielding tertiary and quaternary pathway intermediates and products. Two N-methyltransferases accepting (i) early 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediates possessing a secondary amine and leading to the key branch-point intermediate (S)-reticuline and (ii) downstream protoberberines containing a tertiary amine and forming quaternary intermediates destined for phthalideisoquinolines and antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridines were previously characterized...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533032/structure-based-discovery-of-opioid-analgesics-with-reduced-side-effects
#6
Aashish Manglik, Henry Lin, Dipendra K Aryal, John D McCorvy, Daniela Dengler, Gregory Corder, Anat Levit, Ralf C Kling, Viachaslau Bernat, Harald Hübner, Xi-Ping Huang, Maria F Sassano, Patrick M Giguère, Stefan Löber, Da Duan, Grégory Scherrer, Brian K Kobilka, Peter Gmeiner, Bryan L Roth, Brian K Shoichet
Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids...
August 17, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516654/anesthesia-and-pain-relief-in-the-history-of-islamic-medicine
#7
Faranak Alembizar, Ayda Hosseinkhani, Alireza Salehi
BACKGROUND: Since diseases and surgeries could be very painful, the annihilation of pain has been the most important goal of physicians. The history of Iranian-Islamic medicine includes distinguished physicians that attempted to find different methods of anesthesia. This research aims at reviewing approaches for anesthesia throughout the history of the Iranian-Islamic medicine, in order to identify a variety of drugs used during that period. METHODS: In this research, the information was mainly collected from medical history, traditional literature and various search engines (e...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483984/manipulating-the-biosynthesis-of-bioactive-compound-alkaloids-for-next-generation-metabolic-engineering-in-opium-poppy-using-crispr-cas-9-genome-editing-technology
#8
Yagiz Alagoz, Tugba Gurkok, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4'OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473012/identification-of-a-secretory-phospholipase-a2-from-papaver-somniferum-l-that-transforms-membrane-phospholipids
#9
Veronika Jablonická, Johanna Mansfeld, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue...
September 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417928/plug-and-play-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloid-biosynthetic-gene-discovery-in-engineered-yeast
#10
J S Morris, M Dastmalchi, J Li, L Chang, X Chen, J M Hagel, P J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) metabolism has been the focus of a considerable research effort over the past half-century, primarily because of the pharmaceutical importance of several compounds produced by opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Advancements in genomics technologies have substantially accelerated the rate of gene discovery over the past decade, such that most biosynthetic enzymes involved in the formation of the major alkaloids of opium poppy have now been isolated and partially characterized...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378283/engineering-biosynthesis-of-the-anticancer-alkaloid-noscapine-in-yeast
#11
Yanran Li, Christina D Smolke
Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4'-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154652/blind-column-selection-protocol-for-two-dimensional-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#12
Niki K Burns, Luke M Andrighetto, Xavier A Conlan, Stuart D Purcell, Neil W Barnett, Jacquie Denning, Paul S Francis, Paul G Stevenson
The selection of two orthogonal columns for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (LC×LC) separation of natural product extracts can be a labour intensive and time consuming process and in many cases is an entirely trial-and-error approach. This paper introduces a blind optimisation method for column selection of a black box of constituent components. A data processing pipeline, created in the open source application OpenMS®, was developed to map the components within the mixture of equal mass across a library of HPLC columns; LC×LC separation space utilisation was compared by measuring the fractional surface coverage, fcoverage...
July 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909086/functional-characterization-of-4-omt-and-7omt-genes-in-bia-biosynthesis
#13
Tugba Gurkok, Esma Ozhuner, Iskender Parmaksiz, Sebahattin Özcan, Mine Turktas, Arif İpek, Ibrahim Demirtas, Sezer Okay, Turgay Unver
Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes remain to be revealed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847395/total-biosynthesis-of-opiates-by-stepwise-fermentation-using-engineered-escherichia-coli
#14
Akira Nakagawa, Eitaro Matsumura, Takashi Koyanagi, Takane Katayama, Noriaki Kawano, Kayo Yoshimatsu, Kenji Yamamoto, Hidehiko Kumagai, Fumihiko Sato, Hiromichi Minami
Opiates such as morphine and codeine are mainly obtained by extraction from opium poppies. Fermentative opiate production in microbes has also been investigated, and complete biosynthesis of opiates from a simple carbon source has recently been accomplished in yeast. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli serves as an efficient, robust and flexible platform for total opiate synthesis. Thebaine, the most important raw material in opioid preparations, is produced by stepwise culture of four engineered strains at yields of 2...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844398/death-in-a-legal-poppy-field-in-spain
#15
María Antonia Martínez, Salomé Ballesteros, Elena Almarza, Joaquín Garijo
Opium is a substance extracted from Papaver somniferum L. Opium latex contains morphine, codeine, and thebaine and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. In Spain opium growing is allowed only for scientific or pharmaceutical purposes and harvest is supervised by the Spanish Health Ministry. This work describes a sudden fatality involving opium consumption in a legal poppy field. The toxicological and autopsy findings, previous disease, paraphernalia, and scenario are discussed in order to clarify cause and manner of death...
August 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811699/the-pharmacological-basis-of-opioids
#16
REVIEW
Carla Ghelardini, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Enrica Bianchi
An opioid is a chemical that binds to opioid receptors, which are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. The different effects elicited by activation of these receptors are due to their specific neuronal and extraneuronal distribution. The painkiller effect of opioids is induced by the synergy of the two events, namely reduction of pain threshold and emotional detachment from pain. The opioid effects transcending analgesia include sedation, respiratory depression, constipation and a strong sense of euphoria...
September 2015: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26794966/endophytes-of-opium-poppy-differentially-modulate-host-plant-productivity-and-genes-for-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids
#17
Shiv S Pandey, Sucheta Singh, C S Vivek Babu, Karuna Shanker, N K Srivastava, Alok Kalra
Endophytes reside in different parts of the poppy plant and perform the tissue-specific functions. Most leaf endophytes modulate photosynthetic efficiency, plant growth, and productivity while capsule endophytes modulate alkaloid biosynthesis. Endophytes promote plant growth, provide protection from environmental stresses and are the source of important secondary metabolites. Here, we established that the endophytes of opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. may play a role in the modulation of plant productivity and benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) biosynthesis...
May 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690027/noscapine-protects-oln-93-oligodendrocytes-from-ischemia-reperfusion-damage-calcium-and-nitric-oxide-involvement
#18
S Nadjafi, S-A Ebrahimi, N Rahbar-Roshandel
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from opium poppy, on oligodendrocyte during ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to chemical ischemia and nitric oxide (NO) production during ischemia/reperfusion were evaluated as the hallmarks of ischemia-derived excitotoxic event. OLN-93 cell line (a permanent immature rat oligodendrocyte) was used as a model of oligodendrocyte. 30- or 60-minute-oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 hours reperfusion were used to induce excitotoxicity...
December 2015: Acta Physiologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26593749/characterization-and-origin-of-the-b-and-c-compounds-in-the-acid-neutral-forensic-signatures-of-heroin-products-from-the-acylation-of-porphyroxine-and-subsequent-hydrolysis
#19
John F Casale, Ellen S Casale, Steven G Toske, Patrick A Hays, Sini Panicker
Two significant compounds often found in the gas chromatographic analysis of the acid/neutral extracts from illicit heroin have remained uncharacterized for 30 years. The unknown compounds are referred to as the 'B' and 'C' compounds. It has been postulated that these compounds arise from acetylation of porphyroxine, a rhoeadine alkaloid found at trace levels in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. Porphyroxine was isolated from opium and acetylated to produce N,O(8) -diacetylporphyroxine. Mild hydrolysis produced N,O(8) -diacetyl-O(14) -desmethyl-epi-porphyroxine (the C compound) and N-acetyl-O(14) -desmethyl-epi-porphyroxine (the B compound)...
November 23, 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468188/pain-and-poppies-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly-of-opioid-analgesics
#20
REVIEW
Tuan Trang, Ream Al-Hasani, Daniela Salvemini, Michael W Salter, Howard Gutstein, Catherine M Cahill
UNLABELLED: Treating pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and a key facet of disease management. The isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in 1804 added an essential pharmacological tool in the treatment of pain and spawned the discovery of a new class of drugs known collectively as opioid analgesics. Revered for their potent pain-relieving effects, even Morpheus the god of dreams could not have dreamt that his opium tincture would be both a gift and a burden to humankind...
October 14, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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