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Opium poppy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936080/maintainence-treatment-of-opioid-dependence-with-tramadol
#1
Siddharth Sarkar, Mohit Varshney, Vaibhav Patil, Rakesh Lal
BACKGROUND: Although tramadol has been used in the management of acute withdrawal in patients with opioid dependence, its use for maintenance treatment as a harm reduction approach has not been assessed systematically. This case series describes patients with opioid dependence who were treated with tramadol for long-term maintenance. METHODS: Patients with opioid dependence who received treatment at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were included in the study...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729873/ageratum-enation-virus-infection-induces-programmed-cell-death-and-alters-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-papaver-somniferum
#2
Ashish Srivastava, Lalit Agrawal, Rashmi Raj, Meraj Jaidi, Shri K Raj, Swati Gupta, Ritu Dixit, Poonam C Singh, Tusha Tripathi, Om P Sidhu, Brahma N Singh, Sudhir Shukla, Puneet S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar
A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch's postulates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681463/confirmation-of-recent-heroin-abuse-accepting-the-challenge
#3
REVIEW
Alexandra Maas, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Confirmation or exclusion of recent heroin consumption is still one of the major challenges for forensic and clinical toxicologists. A great variety of biomarkers is available for heroin abuse confirmation, including various opium alkaloids (e.g. morphine, codeine), street heroin impurities (e.g. 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC), noscapine, papaverine) as well as associated metabolites (e.g. 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine glucuronides). Though, the presence of most of these biomarkers cannot solely be attributed to a previous heroin administration but can, among other things, also be due to consumption of poppy seed products ('poppy seed defense'), opium preparations or specific medications, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641826/the-chemical-history-of-morphine-an-8000-year-journey-from-resin-to-de-novo-synthesis
#4
Karolina Brook, Jessica Bennett, Sukumar P Desai
Evidence of human use of opium dates back as far as the sixth millennium BCE. Ancient societies through the Renaissance period created a variety of opium products, proliferating its common use and subsequent addiction. Because the active moiety was not known at this time, the potency of these opium concoctions could neither be predicted nor controlled. The first step in identifying opium's active ingredient, morphine, was its chemical isolation in the early 1800s by Wilhelm Sertürner. The subsequent elucidation of morphine's chemical formula and Sir Robert Robinson's derivation of morphine's structural formula, which won him the 1947 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, round out 150 years of the incremental advances in our chemical understanding of morphine...
April 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630559/drug-policy-and-indigenous-peoples
#5
Julian Burger, Mary Kapron
This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609429/reciprocal-evolution-of-opiate-science-from-medical-and-cultural-perspectives
#6
George B Stefano, Nastazja Pilonis, Radek Ptacek, Richard M Kream
Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium...
June 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455458/an-interesting-case-of-opium-tea-toxicity
#7
Chitsa Seyani, Peregrine Green, Lisa Daniel, Amanda Pegden
We present an unusual cause of respiratory arrest resulting from sole ingestion of home-brewed opium tea. A 64-year-old woman was found unresponsive and in respiratory arrest by a first responder. There were no obvious signs of regular recreational drug use. On presentation to the local district general hospital, the patient was in extremis, with severe physiological and biochemical derangements. A naloxone infusion was commenced and she later made a good recovery. It was subsequently discovered that she had brewed opium tea from opium buds she had picked from a nearby commercial poppy farm, a practice she had learnt while in Afghanistan...
April 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208284/detection-of-papaverine-for-the-possible-identification-of-illicit-opium-cultivation
#8
Rustin Y Mirsafavi, Kristine Lai, Neal D Kline, Augustus W Fountain, Carl D Meinhart, Martin Moskovits
Papaverine is a non-narcotic alkaloid found endemically and uniquely in the latex of the opium poppy. It is normally refined out of the opioids that the latex is typically collected for, hence its presence in a sample is strong prima facie evidence that the carrier from whom the sample was collected is implicated in the mass cultivation of poppies or the collection and handling of their latex. We describe an analysis technique combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with microfluidics for detecting papaverine at low concentrations and show that its SERS spectrum has unique spectroscopic features that allows its detection at low concentrations among typical opioids...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991536/genes-encoding-norcoclaurine-synthase-occur-as-tandem-fusions-in-the-papaveraceae
#9
Jing Li, Eun-Jeong Lee, Limei Chang, Peter J Facchini
Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) catalyzes the enantioselective Pictet-Spengler condensation of dopamine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde as the first step in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) biosynthesis. NCS orthologs in available transcriptome databases were screened for variants that might improve the low yield of BIAs in engineered microorganisms. Databases for 21 BIA-producing species from four plant families yielded 33 assembled contigs with homology to characterized NCS genes. Predicted translation products generated from nine contigs consisted of two to five sequential repeats, each containing most of the sequence found in single-domain enzymes...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830833/noscapine-targets-egfr-p-tyr1068-to-suppress-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-mg63-cells
#10
Ming He, Linlin Jiang, Zhaozhou Ren, Guangbin Wang, Jiashi Wang
Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arises in the metaphysis of long bones. Amplification and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represent signature genetic abnormalities encountered in osteosarcoma. Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Recently several studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in melanoma, ovarian cancer, gliomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798031/the-environmental-footprint-of-morphine-a-life-cycle-assessment-from-opium-poppy-farming-to-the-packaged-drug
#11
Scott McAlister, Yanjun Ou, Elise Neff, Karen Hapgood, David Story, Philip Mealey, Forbes McGain
OBJECTIVE: To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). DESIGN: 'Cradle-to-grave' process-based life cycle assessment (observational). SETTINGS: Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The environmental effects (eg, CO2 equivalent ('CO2 e') emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761334/the-ethnobotany-of-psychoactive-plant-use-a-phylogenetic-perspective
#12
Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659342/gene-actions-for-yield-and-its-attributes-and-their-implications-in-the-inheritance-pattern-over-three-generations-in-opium-poppy-papaver-somniferum-l
#13
Brij K Mishra, R Mishra, S N Jena, Sudhir Shukla
The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634038/isolation-and-characterization-of-reticuline-n-methyltransferase-involved-in-biosynthesis-of-the-aporphine-alkaloid-magnoflorine-in-opium-poppy
#14
Jeremy S Morris, Peter J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a large group of plant-specialized metabolites displaying an array of biological and pharmacological properties associated with numerous structural scaffolds and diverse functional group modification. N-Methylation is one of the most common tailoring reactions, yielding tertiary and quaternary pathway intermediates and products. Two N-methyltransferases accepting (i) early 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediates possessing a secondary amine and leading to the key branch-point intermediate (S)-reticuline and (ii) downstream protoberberines containing a tertiary amine and forming quaternary intermediates destined for phthalideisoquinolines and antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridines were previously characterized...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533032/structure-based-discovery-of-opioid-analgesics-with-reduced-side-effects
#15
Aashish Manglik, Henry Lin, Dipendra K Aryal, John D McCorvy, Daniela Dengler, Gregory Corder, Anat Levit, Ralf C Kling, Viachaslau Bernat, Harald Hübner, Xi-Ping Huang, Maria F Sassano, Patrick M Giguère, Stefan Löber, Da Duan, Grégory Scherrer, Brian K Kobilka, Peter Gmeiner, Bryan L Roth, Brian K Shoichet
Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids...
September 8, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516654/anesthesia-and-pain-relief-in-the-history-of-islamic-medicine
#16
Faranak Alembizar, Ayda Hosseinkhani, Alireza Salehi
BACKGROUND: Since diseases and surgeries could be very painful, the annihilation of pain has been the most important goal of physicians. The history of Iranian-Islamic medicine includes distinguished physicians that attempted to find different methods of anesthesia. This research aims at reviewing approaches for anesthesia throughout the history of the Iranian-Islamic medicine, in order to identify a variety of drugs used during that period. METHODS: In this research, the information was mainly collected from medical history, traditional literature and various search engines (e...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483984/manipulating-the-biosynthesis-of-bioactive-compound-alkaloids-for-next-generation-metabolic-engineering-in-opium-poppy-using-crispr-cas-9-genome-editing-technology
#17
Yagiz Alagoz, Tugba Gurkok, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4'OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473012/identification-of-a-secretory-phospholipase-a2-from-papaver-somniferum-l-that-transforms-membrane-phospholipids
#18
Veronika Jablonická, Johanna Mansfeld, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue...
September 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417928/plug-and-play-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloid-biosynthetic-gene-discovery-in-engineered-yeast
#19
J S Morris, M Dastmalchi, J Li, L Chang, X Chen, J M Hagel, P J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) metabolism has been the focus of a considerable research effort over the past half-century, primarily because of the pharmaceutical importance of several compounds produced by opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Advancements in genomics technologies have substantially accelerated the rate of gene discovery over the past decade, such that most biosynthetic enzymes involved in the formation of the major alkaloids of opium poppy have now been isolated and partially characterized...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378283/engineering-biosynthesis-of-the-anticancer-alkaloid-noscapine-in-yeast
#20
Yanran Li, Christina D Smolke
Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4'-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer...
July 5, 2016: Nature Communications
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