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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929980/an-n-methyltransferase-from-ephedra-sinica-catalyzing-the-formation-of-ephedrine-and-pseudoephedrine-enables-microbial-phenylalkylamine-production
#1
Jeremy S Morris, Ryan A Groves, Jillian M Hagel, Peter J Facchini
Phenylalkylamines, such as the plant compounds ephedrine and pseudoephedrine and the animal neurotransmitters dopamine and adrenaline, compose a large class of natural and synthetic molecules with important physiological functions and pharmaceutically valuable bioactivities. The final steps of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine biosynthesis in members of the plant genus Ephedra involve N -methylation of norephedrine and norpseudoephedrine, respectively. Here, using a plant transcriptome screen, we report the isolation and characterization of an N -methyltransferase (NMT) from Ephedra sinica able to catalyze the formation of (pseudo)ephedrine and other naturally occurring phenylalkylamines, including N -methylcathinone and N -methyl(pseudo)ephedrine...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872026/spatiotemporal-oscillations-of-morphinan-alkaloids-in-opium-poppy
#2
Mahdi Rezaei, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Abdolhadi Hosseinzadeh, Alireza Abasi, Jaber Nasiri
Here, a comprehensive endeavor is made to simultaneously scrutinize spatiotemporal oscillations of three imperative morphinan alkaloids (i.e. thebaine, codeine, and morphine) alongside dynamic transcriptional patterns of TYDC, SalAT, COR, T6ODM, and CODM genes in different tissues of Papaver somniferum (i.e. root, bottom part of stem, upper part of stem, leaf, capsule wall, and capsule content) over five distinguished ontogenic stages (i.e. rosette, bud initiation, pendulous bud, flowering, and lancing). Apart from bottom stem and leaf, the maximum thebaine content occurred in lancing stage, while its minimum content did not follow a systematic rhythm, either among six tissues or five various sampling times...
June 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779229/codeinone-reductase-isoforms-with-differential-stability-efficiency-and-product-selectivity-in-opium-poppy
#3
Mehran Dastmalchi, Limei Chang, Miguel A Torres, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Codeinone reductase (COR) catalyzes the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of codeinone to codeine as the penultimate step of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). COR also irreversibly reduces neopinone, which forms by spontaneous isomerization in aqueous solution from codeinone, to neopine. In a parallel pathway involving 3-O-desmethylated analogs, COR converts morphinone to morphine, and neomorphinone to neomorphine. Similar to neopine, neomorphine formation by COR is irreversible...
May 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#4
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696753/biosynthetic-and-functional-color-scent-associations-in-flowers-of-papaver-nudicaule-and-their-impact-on-pollinators
#5
Jaime Martínez-Harms, Anne-Christin Warskulat, Bettina Dudek, Grit Kunert, Sybille Lorenz, Bill S Hansson, Bernd Schneider
Despite increasing evidence for biosynthetic connections between flower pigments and volatile compounds, examples of such relationships in polymorphic plant species remains limited. Herein, color-scent associations in flowers from Papaver nudicaule (Papaveraceae) have been investigated. The spectral reflectance and scent composition of flowers of four color cultivars was determined. We found that pigments and volatiles occur in specific combinations in flowers of P. nudicaule. The presence of indole in the bouquets is strongly associated with the occurrence of yellow pigments called nudicaulins, for which indole is one of the final biosynthetic precursors...
April 26, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607619/identification-and-metabolite-profiling-of-alkaloids-in-aerial-parts-of-papaver-rhoeas-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Jae-Hyeon Oh, In Jin Ha, Min Young Lee, Eun-Ok Kim, Dain Park, Jun-Hee Lee, Seok-Geun Lee, Do-Wan Kim, Tae-Ho Lee, Eui-Ju Lee, Chang-Kug Kim
Papaver plants can produce diverse bioactive alkaloids. Papaver rhoeas Linnaeus (common poppy or corn poppy) is an annual flowering medicinal plant used for treating cough, sleep disorder, and as a sedative, pain reliever, and food. It contains various powerful alkaloids like rhoeadine, benzylisoquinoline, and proaporphine. To investigate and identify alkaloids in the aerial parts of P. rhoeas, samples were collected at different growth stages and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563567/the-effects-of-promoter-variations-of-the-n-methylcanadine-1-hydroxylase-cyp82y1-gene-on-the-noscapine-production-in-opium-poppy
#7
Davar Abedini, Sajad Rashidi Monfared, Alireza Abbasi
Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and some members of the Papaveraceae family. It has been primarily used for its antitussive effects; more recently, its anticancer properties were shown. Herein, we detected an SSR embedded in the promoter region of the CYP82Y1 gene, which was found to be the first committed-step enzyme in the noscapine biosynthesis pathway, using the MISA program. Some collected ecotypes of P. somniferum were investigated for understanding of SSRs role in the regulation of gene expression and metabolite content...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520812/nature-s-first-atypical-opioids-kratom-and-mitragynines
#8
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, M H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Advances in pain research have led to an understanding that many pains are driven by more than one underlying (patho)physiologic cause (ie, they are "multimechanistic") and that better pain relief is obtained with fewer adverse effects when an analgesic is correspondingly multimechanistic. At least two of the more-modern analgesics combine opioid and non-opioid mechanisms, and have become known as "atypical opioids." Less well known is that just as Nature evolved opioids, it also evolved atypical opioids, presaging modern drug discovery efforts...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462921/complete-chloroplast-genomes-of-papaver-rhoeas-and-papaver-orientale-molecular-structures-comparative-analysis-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#9
Jianguo Zhou, Yingxian Cui, Xinlian Chen, Ying Li, Zhichao Xu, Baozhong Duan, Yonghua Li, Jingyuan Song, Hui Yao
Papaver rhoeas L. and P. orientale L., which belong to the family Papaveraceae, are used as ornamental and medicinal plants. The chloroplast genome has been used for molecular markers, evolutionary biology, and barcoding identification. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of P. rhoeas and P. orientale are reported. Results show that the complete chloroplast genomes of P. rhoeas and P. orientale have typical quadripartite structures, which are comprised of circular 152,905 and 152,799-bp-long molecules, respectively...
February 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433083/inhibition-of-phospholipases-influences-the-metabolism-of-wound-induced-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids-in-papaver-somniferum-l
#10
Veronika Jablonická, Jörg Ziegler, Zuzana Vatehová, Desana Lišková, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. The formation of BIAs is induced in poppy plants by stress conditions, such as wounding or salt treatment; however, the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied...
April 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416103/development-of-a-method-to-extract-opium-poppy-papaver-somniferum-l-dna-from-heroin
#11
Michael A Marciano, Sini X Panicker, Garrett D Liddil, Danielle Lindgren, Kevin S Sweder
This study is the first to report the successful development of a method to extract opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) DNA from heroin samples. Determining of the source of an unknown heroin sample (forensic geosourcing) is vital to informing domestic and foreign policy related to counter-narcoterrorism. Current profiling methods focus on identifying process-related chemical impurities found in heroin samples. Changes to the geographically distinct processing methods may lead to difficulties in classifying and attributing heroin samples to a region/country...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415748/an-ethnobotanical-study-in-midyat-turkey-a-city-on-the-silk-road-where-cultures-meet
#12
Ali Akgul, Ayfer Akgul, Serdar G Senol, Hasan Yildirim, Ozcan Secmen, Yunus Dogan
BACKGROUND: Studies of ethnobotanical usages in south-eastern Turkey are rare. To widen this field of knowledge, we conducted an ethnobotanical study in Midyat (Mardin Province), Turkey. METHODS: The field study was completed during three years (2007-2010). Our aim was to document the ethnobotanical uses of local plants and to make an ethnobotanical inventory of uncommon plants using qualitative interviews. RESULTS: During field studies, 368 voucher specimens were collected in the investigated area...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408320/crystal-structure-of-thebaine-6-o-demethylase-from-the-morphine-biosynthesis-pathway
#13
Anna Kluza, Ewa Niedzialkowska, Katarzyna Kurpiewska, Zuzanna Wojdyla, Matthew Quesne, Ewa Kot, Przemyslaw J Porebski, Tomasz Borowski
Thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) from Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), which belongs to the non-heme 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases (ODD) family, is a key enzyme in the morphine biosynthesis pathway. Initially, T6ODM was characterized as an enzyme catalyzing O-demethylation of thebaine to neopinone and oripavine to morphinone. However, the substrate range of T6ODM was recently expanded to a number of various benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Here, we present crystal structures of T6ODM in complexes with 2-oxoglutarate (T6ODM:2OG, PDB: 5O9W) and succinate (T6ODM:SIN, PDB: 5O7Y)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402492/agrobacterium-bohemicum-sp-nov-isolated-from-poppy-seed-wastes-in-central-bohemia
#14
Jiří Zahradník, Jaroslav Nunvar, Hana Pařízková, Lucie Kolářová, Andrea Palyzová, Helena Marešová, Michal Grulich, Eva Kyslíková, Pavel Kyslík
Two non-pathogenic strains R89-1 and R90T isolated from poppy seed (Papaver somniferum L.) wastes were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was conducted with six genes (atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA, rpoB, 16S rRNA). The strains represented a new species which clustered with Agrobacterium rubi NBRC 13261T and Agrobacterium skierniewicense Ch11T type strains. MLSA was further accompanied by whole-genome phylogeny, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses for both strains...
May 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248451/features-and-outcomes-of-drugs-for-combination-therapy-as-multi-targets-strategy-to-combat-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Atish Kumar Sahoo, Jagnehswar Dandapat, Umesh Chandra Dash, Satish Kanhar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a deleterious neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory, cognitive functions and may lead to dementia in late stage of life. The pathogenic cause of AD remains incompletely understood and FDA approved drugs are partial inhibitors rather than curative. Most of drugs are synthetic or natural products as galanthamine is an alkaloid obtained from Galanthus spp. Huperzine A, an alkaloid found in Huperzia spp., gingkolides a diterpenoids from Gingko biloba and many ethnobotanicals like Withania somnifera (L...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183612/suitable-reference-genes-for-accurate-gene-expression-analysis-in-papaver-rhoeas-under-2-4-d-herbicide-stress
#16
L Scarabel, A Milani, S Panozzo, A Rasori
Resistance to 2,4-D (2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid) herbicide is increasing in various dicotyledonous weed species, including Papaver rhoeas, a weed infesting Southern European wheat crops. Non-target-site resistance to this herbicide is governed by a range of genes involved in herbicide stress response. To enable reliable measurement of gene expression levels in herbicide-resistant and susceptible plants it is necessary to normalize qPCR data using internal control genes with stable expression. In an attempt to find the best reference genes, the stability of seven candidate reference genes was assessed in plants resistant and susceptible to 2,4-D, subjected or not to herbicide stress...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125236/library-of-norcoclaurine-synthases-and-their-immobilization-for-biocatalytic-transformations
#17
Horst Lechner, Pablo Soriano, Roman Poschner, Helen C Hailes, John M Ward, Wolfgang Kroutil
Norcoclaurine synthases (NCS), catalyzing a Pictet-Spengler reaction in plants as one of the first enzymes in the biosynthetic benzylisoquinoline pathway, are investigated for biocatalytic transformations. The library of NCS available is extended by two novel NCSs from Argemone mexicana (AmNCS1, AmNCS2) and one new NCS from Corydalis saxicola (CsNCS); furthermore, it is shown that the NCS from Papaver bracteatum (PbNCS) is a highly productive catalyst leading to the isoquinoline product with up to >99% e...
March 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081011/characterization-of-fungi-causing-lesion-blight-on-papaver-dubium-in-iran
#18
Parisa Razaghi, Doustmorad Zafari
Papaver dubium (common name, blindeyes, Papaveraceae) is widespread throughout Europe and America and is an important weed in western Iran. Since 2009, a blight disease has occurred in several areas in Hamedan Province, Iran, causing significant damage to plants of P. dubium. Small, yellow-brown lesions appeared on lower leaves and eventually expanded to the whole plant, resulting in necrosis and complete wilting. This study was conducted to identify the causal agent(s) of the blight disease on blindeyes plants...
March 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033916/contribution-of-ruminal-fungi-archaea-protozoa-and-bacteria-to-the-methane-suppression-caused-by-oilseed-supplemented-diets
#19
Shaopu Wang, Katrin Giller, Michael Kreuzer, Susanne E Ulbrich, Ueli Braun, Angela Schwarm
Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments were generated: rumen fluid being intact (I), without archaea (-A), without fungi (-F), without protozoa (-P) and with bacteria only (-AFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975129/retraction-structural-basis-of-the-substrate-specificity-and-enzyme-catalysis-of-a-papaver-somniferum-tyrosine-decarboxylase
#20
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article on p. 5 in vol. 4, PMID: 28232911.].
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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