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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715162/designation-of-alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile-apaan-a-precursor-chemical-used-in-the-illicit-manufacture-of-phenylacetone-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-as-a-list-i-chemical-final-rule
#1
(no author information available yet)
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical...
July 14, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692860/-1-h-and-31-p-benchtop-nmr-of-liquids-and-solids-used-in-and-or-produced-during-the-manufacture-of-methamphetamine-by-the-hi-reduction-of-pseudoephedrine-ephedrine
#2
Ben Bogun, Sarah Moore
In this study, the use of benchtop NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of solids and liquids used and/or produced during the HI reduction of pseudoephedrine was evaluated. The study focused on identifying organic precursors and phosphorus containing compounds used in and/or produced during the manufacturing process. Samples taken from clandestine laboratories, where this synthesis process was suspected of occurring, were also analysed and evaluated. Benchtop NMR was able to distinguish between ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine as the free base and hydrochloride salt...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643439/a-simple-and-effective-physical-characteristic-profiling-method-for-methamphetamine-tablet-seized-in-china
#3
Tao Li, Zhendong Hua, Xin Meng, Cuimei Liu
Methamphetamine (MA) tablet production confers chemical and physical properties. This study developed a simple and effective physical characteristic profiling method for MA tablets with capital letter "WY" logos, which realized the discrimination between linked and unlinked seizures. Seventeen signature distances extracted from the "WY" logo were explored as factors for multivariate analysis and demonstrated to be effective to represent the features of tablets in the drug intelligence perspective. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate efficiency of different pretreatments and distance/correlation metrics, while "Standardization + Euclidean" and "Logarithm + Euclidean" algorithms outperformed the rest...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551534/tracing-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-sources-in-wastewater-and-receiving-waters-via-concentration-and-enantiomeric-profiling
#4
Zeqiong Xu, Peng Du, Kaiyang Li, Tingting Gao, Zhenglu Wang, Xiaofang Fu, Xiqing Li
Wastewater analysis is a promising approach to monitor illicit drug abuse of a community. However, drug use estimation via wastewater analysis may be biased by sources other than abuse. This is especially true for methamphetamine and amphetamine as their presence in wastewater may come from many sources, such as direct disposal or excretion following administration of prescription drugs. Here we traced methamphetamine and amphetamine sources via concentration and enantiomeric profiling of the two compounds from black market to receiving waters...
May 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056000/adverse-health-effects-associated-with-living-in-a-former-methamphetamine-drug-laboratory-victoria-australia-2015
#5
Jackie Wright, Michaela E Kenneally, John W Edwards, G Stewart Walker
The manufacture of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories occurs in various locations, including residential houses and apartments. Unlike the controlled manufacture of chemicals and drugs, clandestine manufacture results in the uncontrolled storage, use, generation, and disposal of a wide range of chemicals and the deposit of methamphetamine drug residues on indoor surfaces (1). These residues have been found at high levels on porous and nonporous surfaces and have been shown to persist for months to years (1)...
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750163/capillary-microextraction-a-new-method-for-sampling-methamphetamine-vapour
#6
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
November 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718476/development-of-visual-peak-selection-system-based-on-multi-iss-normalization-algorithm-to-apply-to-methamphetamine-impurity-profiling
#7
Hun Joo Lee, Eunyoung Han, Jaesin Lee, Heesun Chung, Sung-Gi Min
The aim of this study is to improve resolution of impurity peaks using a newly devised normalization algorithm for multi-internal standards (ISs) and to describe a visual peak selection system (VPSS) for efficient support of impurity profiling. Drug trafficking routes, location of manufacture, or synthetic route can be identified from impurities in seized drugs. In the analysis of impurities, different chromatogram profiles are obtained from gas chromatography and used to examine similarities between drug samples...
November 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428841/exposures-associated-with-clandestine-methamphetamine-drug-laboratories-in-australia
#8
REVIEW
Jackie Wright, John Edwards, Stewart Walker
The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine in residential homes may represent significant hazards and exposures not only to those involved in the manufacture of the drugs but also to others living in the home (including children), neighbours and first responders to the premises. These hazards are associated with the nature and improper storage and use of precursor chemicals, intermediate chemicals and wastes, gases and methamphetamine residues generated during manufacture and the drugs themselves. Many of these compounds are persistent and result in exposures inside a home not only during manufacture but after the laboratory has been seized or removed...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457561/vehicle-mounted-portable-mass-spectrometry-system-for-the-covert-detection-via-spatial-analysis-of-clandestine-methamphetamine-laboratories
#9
Phillip M Mach, Ethan M McBride, Zachary J Sasiene, Katie R Brigance, Shelia K Kennard, Kenneth C Wright, Guido F Verbeck
The ability to detect atmospheric effluent from clandestine methamphetamine manufacture is a useful tool for law enforcement. A membrane inlet mass spectrometer is mounted onto an all-electric drive capable hybrid vehicle that samples the atmosphere while in motion. Attributing a latitude and longitude to each spectrum collected, unique chemical fingerprints from clandestine manufacture are then mapped. This location-based mass spectrum data provides a localization to an area of interest. The synthesis of methamphetamine precursors was performed, and the impurities from such reactions were observed...
November 17, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26313473/injuries-from-methamphetamine-related-chemical-incidents-five-states-2001-2012
#10
Natalia Melnikova, Maureen F Orr, Jennifer Wu, Bryan Christensen
Methamphetamine (meth), a highly addictive drug, can be illegally manufactured using easily acquired chemicals; meth production can cause fires, explosions, injuries, and environmental contamination. To analyze injury incidence and trends, data on 1,325 meth-related chemical incidents reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system and National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) by the five participating states (Louisiana, Oregon, Utah, New York, and Wisconsin) with complete information during 2001-2012 were examined...
August 28, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25786659/oral-fluid-with-three-modes-of-collection-and-plasma-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-enantiomer-concentrations-after-controlled-intranasal-l-methamphetamine-administration
#11
Matthew N Newmeyer, Marta Concheiro, Jose Luiz da Costa, Ronald Flegel, David A Gorelick, Marilyn A Huestis
Methamphetamine is included in drug testing programmes due to its high abuse potential. d-Methamphetamine is a scheduled potent central nervous system stimulant, while l-methamphetamine is the unscheduled active ingredient in the over-the-counter nasal decongestant Vicks® VapoInhaler™. No data are available in oral fluid (OF) and few in plasma after controlled Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. We quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers in OF collected with two different devices and plasma via a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
October 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25707704/discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-in-methamphetamine-trained-rats
#12
Jennifer E Naylor, Kevin B Freeman, Bruce E Blough, William L Woolverton, Sally L Huskinson
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cathinones are beta-ketophenethylamine analogs manufactured to avoid legal restrictions placed on illicit stimulants like methamphetamine. Regulating these "emerging" designer drugs require scientific evidence of abuse potential. METHODS: The present study evaluated the discriminative-stimulus effects of three synthetic cathinones, recently identified in commercial and confiscated products, in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate methamphetamine (1...
April 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25590548/-methamphetamine-just-another-stimulant-or-a-more-complex-problem
#13
Tania Lecomte, Marjolaine Massé
UNLABELLED: Methamphetamine (MA) has recently become very popular in the media, due in part to its increasing popularity as well as its psychotropic effects and the negative consequences of its use. Is it a stimulant like any other, or does methamphetamine use lead to specific difficulties in its users? The aim of this article is to provide a brief review of the literature by explaining some of the reasons for its popularity in Canada as well as the physical, dental, psychiatric, cognitive and legal problems associated with its use...
2014: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25567572/crystallographic-investigations-of-select-cathinones-emerging-illicit-street-drugs-known-as-bath-salts
#14
Matthew R Wood, Roger A Lalancette, Ivan Bernal
The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms...
January 2015: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25559418/us-federal-cocaine-essential-precursor-chemical-regulation-impacts-on-us-cocaine-availability-an-intervention-time-series-analysis-with-temporal-replication
#15
James K Cunningham, Russell C Callaghan, Lon-Mu Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research shows that essential/precursor chemical controls have had substantial impacts on US methamphetamine and heroin availability. This study examines whether US federal essential chemical regulations have impacted US cocaine seizure amount, price and purity-indicators of cocaine availability. DESIGN: Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)-intervention time-series analysis was used to assess the impacts of four US regulations targeting cocaine manufacturing chemicals: potassium permanganate/selected solvents, implemented October 1989 sulfuric acid/hydrochloric acid, implemented October 1992; methyl isobutyl ketone, implemented May 1995; and sodium permanganate, implemented December 2006...
May 2015: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25395974/altitude-may-contribute-to-regional-variation-in-methamphetamine-use-in-the-united-states-a-population-database-study
#16
Tae-Suk Kim, Douglas G Kondo, Namkug Kim, Perry F Renshaw
OBJECTIVE: Methamphetamine (MA) use rates in the United States (US) have consistently demonstrated geographical variation and have been higher in the West and Midwest. This uneven pattern of use could be explained by regional differences in MA manufacturing and distribution, but may also result from differences in altitude. The hypobaric hypoxia found at high altitude alters neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain, which may contribute to MA use. The present study investigated the relationship between mean altitude and MA use rate in the 48 contiguous US states and the District of Columbia...
October 2014: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25392483/baths-salts-spice-and-related-designer-drugs-the-science-behind-the-headlines
#17
REVIEW
Michael H Baumann, Ernesto Solis, Lucas R Watterson, Julie A Marusich, William E Fantegrossi, Jenny L Wiley
The abuse of synthetic psychoactive substances known as "designer drugs," or "new psychoactive substances" (NPS), is increasing at an alarming rate. NPS are purchased as alternatives to traditional illicit drugs of abuse and are manufactured to circumvent laws regulating the sale and use of controlled substances. Synthetic cathinones (i.e., "bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids (i.e., "spice") are two types of NPS that have received substantial media attention. Although low recreational doses of bath salts or spice compounds can produce desirable effects, high doses or chronic exposure often leads to dangerous medical consequences, including psychosis, violent behaviors, tachycardia, hyperthermia, and even death...
November 12, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25217551/a-fatal-intoxication-of-2-5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine-a-case-report
#18
Rachel Y Barnett, Daniel D Baker, Nancy E Kelly, Calvin E McGuire, Timothy C Fassette, Jan M Gorniak
Designer drugs appear to be increasing in popularity because of the ease of obtaining these constituents, the lack of ability to identify the substance(s) in routine drug screening, the appeal of the drug(s) being 'safe' due to them being marketed as a 'legal high' and possibly due to stronger restrictions that are being placed on prescription drugs. As components of designer drugs are identified and regulated by the DEA, new constituents, or analogs, of these designer drugs are being manufactured to circumvent legislation...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25217541/methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-isomer-concentrations-in-human-urine-following-controlled-vicks-vapoinhaler-administration
#19
Michael L Smith, Daniel C Nichols, Paula Underwood, Zachary Fuller, Matthew A Moser, Ron Flegel, David A Gorelick, Matthew N Newmeyer, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25111169/adjuvants-for-vaccines-to-drugs-of-abuse-and-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Carl R Alving, Gary R Matyas, Oscar Torres, Rashmi Jalah, Zoltan Beck
Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role...
September 22, 2014: Vaccine
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