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Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
Janis L Dickinson, Poppy McLeod, Robert Bloomfield, Shorna Allred
Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory identifies five moral axes that can influence human motivation to take action on vital problems like climate change. The theory focuses on five moral foundations, including compassion, fairness, purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty; these have been found to differ between liberals and conservatives as well as Democrats and Republicans. Here we show, based on the Cornell National Social Survey (USA), that valuations of compassion and fairness were strong, positive predictors of willingness to act on climate change, whereas purity had a non-significant tendency in the positive direction (p = 0...
2016: PloS One
Nilson T Poppi, Luís H W Gowdak, Luciana O C Dourado, Eduardo L Adam, Thiago N P Leite, Bruno M Mioto, José E Krieger, Luiz A M César, Alexandre C Pereira
BACKGROUND: The predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic refractory angina are limited. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assays are biomarkers that may be used to determine the prognosis of patients with stable coronary artery disease. HYPOTHESIS: Hs-cTnT is a predictor of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with refractory angina. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 117 consecutive patients in this study...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Jordi Rey-Caballero, Julio Menéndez, Jordi Giné-Bordonaba, Marisa Salas, Ricardo Alcántara, Joel Torra
In southern Europe, the intensive use of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and tribenuron-methyl in cereal crop systems has resulted in the evolution of resistant (R) corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) biotypes. Experiments were conducted to elucidate (1) the resistance response to these two herbicides, (2) the cross-resistant pattern to other synthetic auxins and (3) the physiological basis of the auxin resistance in two R (F-R213 and D-R703) populations. R plants were resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl (F-R213) or just to 2,4-D (D-R703) and both R populations were also resistant to dicamba and aminopyralid...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandra Baggioni
Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids. It is found in such plants as Berberis [e.g. Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Berberis aristata (tree turmeric)], Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Xanthorhiza simplicissima (yellowroot), Phellodendron amurense ([2]) (Amur corktree), Coptis chinensis (Chinese goldthread), Tinospora cordifolia, Argemone mexicana (prickly poppy) and Eschscholzia californica (Californian poppy). In vitro it exerts significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Brij K Mishra, R Mishra, S N Jena, Sudhir Shukla
The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Jeremy S Morris, Peter J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a large group of plant specialized metabolites displaying an array of biological and pharmacological properties associated with numerous structural scaffolds and diverse functional group modification. N-Methylation is one of the most common tailoring reactions, yielding tertiary and quaternary pathway intermediates and products. Two N-methyltransferases accepting (i) early 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediates possessing a secondary amine and leading to the key branch-point intermediate (S)-reticuline, and (ii) downstream protoberberines containing a tertiary amine and forming quaternary intermediates destined for phthalideisoquinolines and antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridines were previously characterized...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Simon Loiodice, Poppy Winlow, Sarah Dremier, Etienne Hanon, David Dardou, Omar Ouachikh, Aziz Hafidi, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Franck Durif
RATIONALE: Impulsive-compulsive disorders (ICD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been described as behavioral or substance addictions including hypersexuality, gambling, or compulsive medication use of the dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). OBJECTIVES: A remaining challenge is to understand the neuroadaptations leading to reward bias in PD patients under DRT. METHODS: To this end, the appetitive effect of the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole was assessed after chronic exposure to L-dopa in an alpha-synuclein PD rat model...
September 10, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Rajib Lodh, Poppy Siddell, Jonathan Jones, Matthew C H J Morrall
INTRODUCTION: The majority of severely injured children in England have a significant head injury and will be seen in Major Trauma Centers (MTCs). The period following brain injury represents an opportunity to influence recovery of neurological function. The study sought to determine whether children who had sustained a head injury were referred for neurorehabilitation. METHOD: The study was conducted over one year at one center. Children sustaining a moderate or severe head injury were identified and compared to those referred for neurorehabilitation...
September 2, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Alexandra Maas, Michael Krämer, Konrad Sydow, Pai-Shan Chen, Torsten Dame, Frank Musshoff, Bernd W K Diehl, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Discrimination between street heroin consumption and poppy seed ingestion represents a major toxicological challenge in daily routine work. Several difficulties associated with conventional street heroin markers originate from their versatile occurrence in various poppy seed products and medications, respectively, as well as to small windows of detection. A novel opportunity to overcome these hindrances is represented by the new potential street heroin marker acetylated-thebaine-4-metabolite glucuronide (ATM4G), originating from thebaine during street heroin synthesis followed by metabolic reactions after administration...
August 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Zhuo Huang, Jiao He, Xiao-Juan Zhong, Han-Du Guo, Si-Han Jin, Xi Li, Ling-Xia Sun
DREB1 of the AP2/ERF superfamily plays a key role in the regulation of plant response to low temperatures. In this study, a novel DREB1/CBF transcription factor, PnDREB1, was isolated from Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule), a plant adaptive to low temperature environments. It is homologous to the known DREB1s of Arabidopsis and other plant species. It also shares similar 3D structure, and conserved and functionally important motifs with DREB1s of Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the AP2 domain of PnDREB1 is similar to those of Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, and M...
July 25, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Loek Brinkman, Arjen Stolk, Tom R Marshall, Sophie Esterer, Poppy Sharp, H Chris Dijkerman, Floris P de Lange, Ivan Toni
UNLABELLED: To select a movement, specific neuronal populations controlling particular features of that movement need to be activated, whereas other populations are downregulated. The selective (dis)inhibition of cortical sensorimotor populations is governed by rhythmic neural activity in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-25 Hz) frequency range. However, it is unclear whether and how these rhythms contribute independently to motor behavior. Building on a recent dissociation of the sensorimotor alpha- and beta-band rhythms, we test the hypothesis that the beta-band rhythm governs the disinhibition of task-relevant neuronal populations, whereas the alpha-band rhythm suppresses neurons that may interfere with task performance...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aashish Manglik, Henry Lin, Dipendra K Aryal, John D McCorvy, Daniela Dengler, Gregory Corder, Anat Levit, Ralf C Kling, Viachaslau Bernat, Harald Hübner, Xi-Ping Huang, Maria F Sassano, Patrick M Giguère, Stefan Löber, Da Duan, Grégory Scherrer, Brian K Kobilka, Peter Gmeiner, Bryan L Roth, Brian K Shoichet
Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids...
August 17, 2016: Nature
Faranak Alembizar, Ayda Hosseinkhani, Alireza Salehi
BACKGROUND: Since diseases and surgeries could be very painful, the annihilation of pain has been the most important goal of physicians. The history of Iranian-Islamic medicine includes distinguished physicians that attempted to find different methods of anesthesia. This research aims at reviewing approaches for anesthesia throughout the history of the Iranian-Islamic medicine, in order to identify a variety of drugs used during that period. METHODS: In this research, the information was mainly collected from medical history, traditional literature and various search engines (e...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Poppy H L Lamberton, Robert A Cheke, Martin Walker, Peter Winskill, J Lee Crainey, Daniel A Boakye, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Iñaki Tirados, Michael D Wilson, Anthony Tetteh-Kumah, Sampson Otoo, Rory J Post, María-Gloria Basañez
BACKGROUND: Vector-biting behaviour is important for vector-borne disease (VBD) epidemiology. The proportion of blood meals taken on humans (the human blood index, HBI), is a component of the biting rate per vector on humans in VBD transmission models. Humans are the definitive host of Onchocerca volvulus, but the simuliid vectors feed on a range of animals and HBI is a key indicator of the potential for human onchocerciasis transmission. Ghana has a diversity of Simulium damnosum complex members, which are likely to vary in their HBIs, an important consideration for parameterization of onchocerciasis control and elimination models...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Cristina Arango-Ocampo, Favio González, Juan Fernando Alzate, Natalia Pabón-Mora
BACKGROUND: Bocconia and Macleaya are the only genera of the poppy family (Papaveraceae) lacking petals; however, the developmental and genetic processes underlying such evolutionary shift have not yet been studied. RESULTS: We studied floral development in two species of petal-less poppies Bocconia frutescens and Macleaya cordata as well as in the closely related petal-bearing Stylophorum diphyllum. We generated a floral transcriptome of B. frutescens to identify MADS-box ABCE floral organ identity genes expressed during early floral development...
2016: EvoDevo
Yagiz Alagoz, Tugba Gurkok, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4'OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L...
2016: Scientific Reports
Veronika Jablonická, Johanna Mansfeld, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue...
September 2016: Phytochemistry
G O Setti, E Joanni, R J Poppi, D P Dos Santos, D P de Jesus
In this communication, we report one factor that could limit the quantitative analysis by SERS, which has not yet been discussed in the literature. Our results show that SERS experiments performed with the substrate immersed in liquid solutions are subjected to a temporal drift in the Raman signal intensity. Measurements were performed using gold nanoparticle suspensions and gold-covered nanostructured ITO surfaces as SERS substrates, immersed in analyte solutions of crystal violet and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid...
August 15, 2016: Analyst
Thomas Crellen, Martin Walker, Poppy H L Lamberton, Narcis B Kabatereine, Edridah M Tukahebwa, James A Cotton, Joanne P Webster
BACKGROUND:  Mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in sub-Saharan Africa. The effectiveness of this strategy is dependent on the continued high efficacy of praziquantel; however, drug efficacy is rarely monitored using appropriate statistical approaches that can detect early signs of wane. METHODS:  We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study, examining children infected with Schistosoma mansoni from 6 schools in Uganda that had previously received between 1 and 9 rounds of MDA with praziquantel...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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