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Eduardo M Paiva, Vitor H da Silva, Ronei J Poppi, Claudete F Pereira, Jarbas J R Rohwedder
This work reports on the use of micro- and macro-Raman measurements for quantification of mebendazole (MBZ) polymorphs A, B, and C in mixtures. Three Raman spectrophotometers were studied with a laser spot size of 3, 80 and 100 μm and spectral resolutions of 3.9, 9 and 4 cm-1 , respectively. The samples studied were ternary mixtures varying the MBZ polymorphs A and C from 0 to 100% and polymorph B from 0 to 30%. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were developed using the pre-processing spectra (2nd derivative) of the ternary mixtures...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Levan Megutnishvili, Nino Todua, Stephen Stein, Anzor Mikaia
A GC-MS method is described for the characterization of thebaol, a component of opium poppy. The method includes preliminary sample derivatization to TMS, TBDMS, TFA, PFP and HFB substituted products. Fragmentation of resulting derivatives is unique under electron ionization, and proceeds via consecutive loss of two radicals that violate the "even-electron rule". Peaks of [M-2CH3 ]+. and [M-C4 H9 -CH3 ]+. ions show maximum intensities in the spectra of trimethyl- and tert-butyldimethylsilyl-thebaols...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mehran Dastmalchi, Limei Chang, Miguel A Torres, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Codeinone reductase (COR) catalyzes the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of codeinone to codeine as the penultimate step of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). COR also irreversibly reduces neopinone, which forms by spontaneous isomerization in aqueous solution from codeinone, to neopine. In a parallel pathway involving 3-O-desmethylated analogs, COR converts morphinone to morphine, and neomorphinone to neomorphine. Similar to neopine, neomorphine formation by COR is irreversible...
May 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Emmanouil Bagkeris, Laura Burgess, Patrick W Mallon, Frank A Post, Marta Boffito, Memory Sachikonye, Jane Anderson, David Asboe, Lucy Garvey, Jaime Vera, Ian Williams, Margaret Johnson, Daphne Babalis, Davide De Francesco, Alan Winston, Caroline A Sabin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Myung R Park, Xue Chen, Dean E Lang, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves three characterized O-methyltransferases (OMTs) and a fourth responsible for the 4'-methoxyl on the phthalideisoquinoline scaffold. The first three enzymes are homodimers, whereas the latter is a heterodimer encoded by two linked genes (OMT2 and OMT3). Neither OMT2 nor OMT3 form stable homodimers, but yield a substrate-specific heterodimer when co-expressed in Escherichia coli. The only substrate, 4'-O-desmethyl-3-O-acetylpapaveroxine, is a seco-berbine pathway intermediate that undergoes ester hydrolysis subsequent to 4'-O-methylation leading to the formation of narcotine hemiacetal...
May 3, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ruth Q Wolever, E Robert Schwartz, Poppy L A Schoenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Leo I Amodu, Jamil Alexis, Aron Soleiman, Meredith Akerman, Poppy Addison, Toni Iurcotta, Horacio L Rodriguez Rilo
BACKGROUND: Pancreatectomies have been identified as procedures with an increased risk of readmission. In surgical patients, readmissions within 30 days of discharge are usually procedure-related. We sought to determine predictors of 30-day readmission following pancreatic resections in a large healthcare system. METHODS: We retrospectively collected information from the records of 383 patients who underwent pancreatic resections from 2004-2013. To find the predictors of readmission in the 30 days after discharge, we performed a univariate screen of possible variables using the Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables...
April 22, 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Achmad Rudijanto, Made R Saraswati, Em Yunir, Poppy Kumala, Happy Hs Puteri, Veny Vv Mandang
BACKGROUND: hypoglycemia is a major adverse event of insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus patients. The study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of hypoglycemia among insulin treated patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Indonesian cohort. METHODS: this Indonesian cohort study consisted of retrospective and prospective evaluation of hypoglycemic episodes, using International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT) in 374 patients with diabetes (T1DM; n=17 or T2DM; n=357)...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Poppy C S Sephton-Clark, Kerstin Voelz
Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000). Their resistance to high levels of UV, desiccation, pressure, heat, and cold enables the survival of spores in the harshest conditions (Setlow, 2016)...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Opal Pitaksakulrat, Bonnie L Webster, Joanne P Webster, Thewarach Laha, Weerachai Saijuntha, Poppy H L Lamberton, Nadda Kiatsopit, Ross H Andrews, Trevor N Petney, Paiboon Sithithaworn
The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato causes serious public-health problems in northeast Thailand and Southeast Asian countries. A hypothesis has been proposed that O. viverrini represents a species complex with varying levels of genetic differentiation in Thailand and Lao PDR. This study aimed to clarify whether O. viverrini populations can be genetically divided into separate taxa. We collected O. viverrini s.l. from eight different locations in Lao PDR and Thailand. The results of nad1, cox1, CF-int6, Pm-int9, ITS2 and 28S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that sub-structuring occurred between the eight populations...
April 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Choudhary Shoaib Ahmed, Poppy L Winlow, Aimee L Parsons, Catherine L Jopling
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense RNA virus that persistently infects human liver, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV replication requires the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122). In contrast to canonical miRNA-mediated repression via 3'UTR sites, miR-122 positively regulates HCV replication by a direct interaction with the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral RNA. The protein factor requirements for this unusual miRNA regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we identify eIF4AII, previously implicated in miRNA-mediated repression via 3'UTR sites, as a host factor that is important for HCV replication...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Afroditi Stathi, Janet Withall, Colin J Greaves, Janice L Thompson, Gordon Taylor, Antonieta Medina-Lara, Colin Green, James Bilzon, Selena Gray, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Claire E Sexton, Max J Western, Jolanthe L de Koning, Jessica C Bollen, Sarah J Moorlock, Naiara Demnitz, Poppy Seager, Jack M Guralnik, W Jack Rejeski, Ken R Fox
BACKGROUND: The REtirement in ACTion (REACT) study is a multi-centre, pragmatic, two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT) with an internal pilot phase. It aims to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community, group-based physical activity intervention for reducing, or reversing, the progression of functional limitations in older people who are at high risk of mobility-related disability. METHODS/DESIGN: A sample of 768 sedentary, community-dwelling, older people aged 65 years and over with functional limitations, but who are still ambulatory (scores between 4 and 9 out of 12 in the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB)) will be randomised to receive either the REACT intervention, delivered over a period of 12 months by trained facilitators, or a minimal control intervention...
April 17, 2018: Trials
Yanran Li, Sijin Li, Kate Thodey, Isis Trenchard, Aaron Cravens, Christina D Smolke
Microbial biosynthesis of plant natural products from simple building blocks is a promising approach toward scalable production and modification of high-value compounds. The pathway for biosynthesis of noscapine, a potential anticancer compound, from canadine was recently elucidated as a 10-gene cluster from opium poppy. Here we demonstrate the de novo production of noscapine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , through the reconstruction of a biosynthetic pathway comprising over 30 enzymes from plants, bacteria, mammals, and yeast itself, including 7 plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized enzymes...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jae-Hyeon Oh, In Jin Ha, Min Young Lee, Eun-Ok Kim, Dain Park, Jun-Hee Lee, Seok-Geun Lee, Do-Wan Kim, Tae-Ho Lee, Eui-Ju Lee, Chang-Kug Kim
Papaver plants can produce diverse bioactive alkaloids. Papaver rhoeas Linnaeus (common poppy or corn poppy) is an annual flowering medicinal plant used for treating cough, sleep disorder, and as a sedative, pain relief, and food. It contains various powerful alkaloids like rhoeadine, benzylisoquinoline, and proaporphine. To investigate and identify alkaloids in the aerial parts of Papaver rhoeas, samples were collected at different growth stages and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Davar Abedini, Sajad Rashidi Monfared, Alireza Abbasi
Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and some members of the Papaveraceae family. It has been primarily used for its antitussive effects; more recently, its anticancer properties were shown. Herein, we detected an SSR embedded in the promoter region of the CYP82Y1 gene, which was found to be the first committed-step enzyme in the noscapine biosynthesis pathway, using the MISA program. Some collected ecotypes of P. somniferum were investigated for understanding of SSRs role in the regulation of gene expression and metabolite content...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nehal Narayan, Poppy Bennett, Cathleen Chan, Ben Rhodes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Poppy Sharp, David Melcher, Clayton Hickey
Constructing useful representations of our visual environment requires the ability to selectively pay attention to particular locations at specific moments. Whilst there has been much investigation on the influence of selective attention on spatial discrimination, less is known about its influence on temporal discrimination. In particular, little is known about how endogenous attention influences two fundamental and opposing temporal processes: segregation - the parsing of the visual scene over time into separate features, and integration - the binding together of related elements...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, M H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Advances in pain research have led to an understanding that many pains are driven by more than one underlying (patho)physiologic cause (ie, they are "multimechanistic") and that better pain relief is obtained with fewer adverse effects when an analgesic is correspondingly multimechanistic. At least two of the more-modern analgesics combine opioid and non-opioid mechanisms, and have become known as "atypical opioids." Less well known is that just as Nature evolved opioids, it also evolved atypical opioids, presaging modern drug discovery efforts...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Srini Chary
Methadone for pain management in this article describes briefly pain, methadone as a Level 3 World Health Organization ladder opioid in the context of India and rest of the world, as well as the relationship to past, present, and future possibilities of pain management. Acute pain is proportional to the injury most of the times, and such proportionality may not exist in chronic pain. Pain management over decades has changed because of knowledge and availability of molecules and compounds to reduce chronic pain...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Urip Harahap, Poppy Anjelisa Zaitun Hasibuan, Panal Sitorus, Nur Arfian, Denny Satria
Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the antimigration activity of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. in the 4T1 breast cancer cell line. Methods: Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. fruit powder was extracted by maceration method with n-hexane and ethylacetate solvents. Cytotoxicity and proliferation were assessed using the MTT method and the cell cycle by flow cytometry. In addition, wound healing assays were conducted by a microscopic method, and expression of COX-2 and VEGFR-2 were determined using qRT-PCR...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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