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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210094/endoscopic-ultrasound-sedation-in-the-united-kingdom-is-life-without-propofol-tolerable
#1
Jennifer Anne Campbell, Andrew James Irvine, Andrew Derek Hopper
There is compelling evidence to support the quality, cost effectiveness and safety profile of non-anesthesiologist-administered propofol for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). However in the United Kingdom, it is recommended that the administration and monitoring of propofol sedation for endoscopic procedures should be the responsibility of a dedicated and appropriately trained anaesthetist only. The majority of United Kingdom EUS procedures are performed with opiate and benzodiazepine sedation rather than anaesthetist led propofol lists due to anaesthetist resource availability...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206988/inhibition-of-autophagy-blocks-cathepsins-tbid-mitochondrial-apoptotic-signaling-pathway-via-stabilization-of-lysosomal-membrane-in-ischemic-astrocytes
#2
Xian-Yong Zhou, Yu Luo, Yong-Ming Zhu, Zhi-He Liu, Thomas A Kent, Jia-Guo Rong, Wei Li, Shi-Gang Qiao, Min Li, Yong Ni, Kazumi Ishidoh, Hui-Ling Zhang
Our previous study and others have demonstrated that autophagy is activated in ischemic astrocytes and contributes to astrocytic cell death. However, the mechanisms of ischemia-induced autophagy remain largely unknown. In this study, we established a rat's model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Autophagy was inhibited by either pharmacological treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and wortmannin (Wort) or genetic treatment with knockdown of Atg5 in primary cultured astrocytes and knockout of Atg5 in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203483/galanin-protects-from-caspase-8-12-initiated-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain-via-galr1
#3
Yun Li, Zhu Mei, Shuiqiao Liu, Tong Wang, Hui Li, Xiao-Xiao Li, Song Han, Yutao Yang, Junfa Li, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin (GAL) plays key role in many pathophysiological processes, but its role in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, the models of 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/1-7 d reperfusion (R)-induced ischemic stroke and in vitro cell ischemia of 1 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24 h reoxygenation in primary cultured cortical neurons were used to explore GAL's effects and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed significant increases of GAL protein levels in the peri-infarct region (P) and infarct core (I) within 48 h R of MCAO mice (p<0...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203482/long-non-coding-rna-h19-induces-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-activation-of-autophagy
#4
Jue Wang, Bin Cao, Dong Han, Miao Sun, Juan Feng
Long non-coding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) was found to be upregulated by hypoxia, its expression and function have never been tested in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study intended to investigate the role of lncRNA H19 and H19 gene variation in cerebral I/R injury with focusing on its relationship with autophagy activation. Cerebral I/R was induced in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. SH-SY5Y cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) to simulate I/R injury...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202414/lncrna-tug1-sponges-microrna-9-to-promote-neurons-apoptosis-by-up-regulated-bcl2l11-under-ischemia
#5
Shengcai Chen, Mengdie Wang, Hang Yang, Ling Mao, Quanwei He, Huijuan Jin, Zi-Ming Ye, Xue-Ying Luo, Yuan-Peng Xia, Bo Hu
Emerging studies have illustrated that LncRNAs TUG1 play critical roles in multiple biologic processes. However, the LncRNA TUG1 expression and function in ischemic stroke have not been reported yet. In this study, we found that LncRNA TUG1 expression was significantly up-regulated in brain ischemic penumbra from rat middle carotid artery occlusion (MCAO) model, while similar results were also observed in cultured neurons under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) insult. Knockdown of TUG1 decreased the ratio of apoptotic cells and promoted cells survival in vitro, which may be regulated by the elevated miRNA-9 expression and decreased Bcl2l11 protein...
February 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202285/decreased-mir-146a-expression-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-directly-targets-the-fbxl10-mrna-and-is-involved-in-modulating-apoptosis
#6
Sheng-Hua Li, Lan Chen, Xiao-Min Pang, Sheng-You Su, Xia Zhou, Chun-Yong Chen, Li-Gang Huang, Jing-Pin Li, Jing-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: miR-146a, a strong pro-apoptotic factor in some pathophysiological processes, is reported to be involved in ischemic stroke (IS), though its role remains unclear. Fbxl10 is an active anti-apoptotic factor and a predicted target of miR-146a. We hypothesized that dysregulation of miR-146a contributes to ischemic injury by targeting Fbxl10. METHODS: Circulating miRNAs were detected by miRNA microarray and qRT-PCR. miR-146a targets were predicted using bioinformatics and confirmed with a dual luciferase reporter assay...
February 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202125/-effect-of-telomerase-activation-on-biological-behaviors-of-neural-stem-cells-in-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-insults
#7
Jun-Jie Meng, Shi-Ping Li, Feng-Yan Zhao, Yu Tong, De-Zhi Mu, Yi Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of telomerase activation on biological behaviors of neural stem cells after hypoxic-ischemic insults. METHODS: The neural stem cells passaged in vitro were divided into four groups: control, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), OGD+cycloastragenol (CAG) high concentration (final concentration of 25 μM), and OGD+CAG low concentration (final concentration of 10 μM). The latter three groups were subjected to OGD. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression level was evaluated by Western blot...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195185/microglia-preconditioned-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-promote-functional-recovery-in-ischemic-rats
#8
Masato Kanazawa, Minami Miura, Masafumi Toriyabe, Misaki Koyama, Masahiro Hatakeyama, Masanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nakajima, Osamu Onodera, Tetsuya Takahashi, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Takayoshi Shimohata
Cell-therapies that invoke pleiotropic mechanisms may facilitate functional recovery in stroke patients. We hypothesized that a cell therapy using microglia preconditioned by optimal oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke because optimal ischemia induces anti-inflammatory M2 microglia. We first delineated changes in angiogenesis and axonal outgrowth in the ischemic cortex using rats. We found that slight angiogenesis without axonal outgrowth were activated at the border area within the ischemic core from 7 to 14 days after ischemia...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194647/cofilin-mediates-lps-induced-microglial-cell-activation-and-associated-neurotoxicity-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-pathway
#9
Qasim Alhadidi, Zahoor A Shah
Microglial cells are activated in response to different types of injuries or stress in the CNS. Such activation is necessary to get rid of the injurious agents and restore tissue homeostasis. However, excessive activation of microglial cells is harmful and contributes to secondary injury. Pertinently, microglial cell activity was targeted in many preclinical and clinical studies but such strategy failed in clinical trials. The main reason behind the failed attempts is the complexity of the injury mechanisms which needs either a combination therapy or targeting a process that is involved in multiple pathways...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192752/genistein-inhibits-hypoxia-ischemic-induced-death-and-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells
#10
Yu-Xiang Wang, Kun Tian, Cong-Cong He, Xue-Ling Ma, Feng Zhang, Hong-Gang Wang, Di An, Bin Heng, Yu-Gang Jiang, Yan-Qiang Liu
A hypoxia/ischemia neuronal model was established in PC12 cells using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD-induced neuronal death, apoptosis, glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 expression, and potassium channel currents were evaluated in the present study to determine the effects of genistein in mediating the neuronal death and apoptosis induced by hypoxia and ischemia, as well as its underlying mechanism. OGD exposure reduced the cell viability, increased apoptosis, decreased the GluR2 expression, and decreased the voltage-activated potassium currents...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192099/role-of-interleukin-10-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-agonist-compound-21-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Bindu Pillai, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
INTRODUCTION: We and others have shown that the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21), provides neuroprotection and enhances recovery in rodent stroke models yet the mechanism involved is not known. Moreover, C21 treatment is associated with an anti-inflammatory response. Here we tested the hypothesis that C21 mediates neuroprotection by upregulating the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to 3h MCA suture occlusion and treated at reperfusion with C21 (0...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186440/britanin-ameliorates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inducing-the-nrf2-protective-pathway
#12
Guozhen Wu, Lili Zhu, Xing Yuan, Hao Chen, Rui Xiong, Shoude Zhang, Hao Cheng, Yunheng Shen, Huazhang An, Tiejun Li, Honglin Li, Weidong Zhang
AIMS: Oxidative stress is considered the major cause of tissue injury after cerebral ischemia. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is one of the most important defensive mechanisms against oxidative stresses and has been confirmed as a target for stroke treatment. Thus, we desired to find new Nrf2 activators and test their neuronal protective activity both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: The herb-derived compound Britanin is a potent inducer of the Nrf2 system...
February 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183451/the-novel-exercise-induced-hormone-irisin-protects-against-neuronal-injury-via-activation-of-the-akt-and-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-and-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-physical-exercise-in-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Dong-Jie Li, Yong-Hua Li, Hong-Bin Yuan, Le-Feng Qu, Pei Wang
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a novel exercise-induced myokine involved in the regulation of adipose browning and thermogenesis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of irisin in cerebral ischemia and determined whether irisin is involved in the neuroprotective effect of physical exercise in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used to produce cerebral ischemia in mice. First, the plasma irisin levels and changes in expression of the irisin precursor protein FNDC5 in skeletal muscle were determined post ischemic stroke...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181668/nsi-189-a-small-molecule-with-neurogenic-properties-exerts-behavioral-and-neurostructural-benefits-in-stroke-rats
#14
Naoki Tajiri, David M Quach, Yuji Kaneko, Stephanie Wu, David Lee, Tina Lam, Ken L Hayama, Thomas G Hazel, Karl Johe, Michael C Wu, Cesar V Borlongan
Enhancing neurogenesis may be a powerful stroke therapy. Here, we tested in a rat model of ischemic stroke the beneficial effects of NSI-189, an orally active, new molecular entity (mol. wt. 366) with enhanced neurogenic activity, and indicated as an anti-depressant drug in a clinical trial (Fava et al., 2015) and being tested in a Phase 2 efficacy trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, 2016) for treatment of major depression. Oral administration of NSI-189 in adult Sprague-Dawley rats starting at 6 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and daily thereafter over the next 12 weeks resulted in significant amelioration of stroke-induced motor and neurological deficits, which was maintained up to 24 weeks post-stroke...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165637/neuroprotective-effects-of-extracellular-dj-1-on-reperfusion-injury-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#15
Jay Han, Beryl Luk, Frank J S Lee
Using an in vitro model of ischemic stroke we treated differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by a reperfusion period where normal growth conditions were restored. Cells undergoing OGD exhibited significant cell death as measure by propidium iodide staining. However, cells treated with exogenous extracellular DJ-1 during reperfusion exhibited significant rescue from OGD-induced cell death.
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159699/drugs-targeting-intermediate-filaments-can-improve-neurosupportive-properties-of-astrocytes
#16
Yolanda de Pablo, Meng Chen, Elin Möllerström, Marcela Pekna, Milos Pekny
In response to central nervous system (CNS) injury, astrocytes upregulate intermediate filament (nanofilament) proteins GFAP and vimentin. Whereas the intermediate filament upregulation in astrocytes is important for neuroprotection in the acute phase of injury, it might inhibit the regenerative processes later on. Thus, timely modulation of the astrocyte intermediate filaments was proposed as a strategy to promote brain repair. We used clomipramine, epoxomicin and withaferin A, drugs reported to decrease the expression of GFAP, and assessed their effect on neurosupportive properties and resilience of astrocytes to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)...
January 31, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140748/the-effects-of-icariin-on-the-expression-of-hif-1%C3%AE-hsp-60-and-hsp-70-in-pc12-cells-suffered-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-injury
#17
Zhen-Tao Mo, Wen-Na Li, Yu-Rong Zhai, Shu-Ying Gao
CONTEXT: The effects of icariin, a chief constituent of flavonoids from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim (Berberidaceae), on the levels of HIF-1α, HSP-60 and HSP-70 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of icariin on the levels of HSP-60, HIF-1α and HSP-70 neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and cell viability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC12 cells were treated with icariin (10(-7), 10(-6) or 10(-5 )mol/L) for 3 h (1 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) plus 2 h OGD)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132879/microrna-137-protects-neurons-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-regulation-of-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#18
Fangkun Shi, Zhiling Dong, Hualian Li, Xiaoman Liu, Hongmei Liu, Ruifang Dong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as novel regulators in various pathological processes including ischemic stroke. However, the precise role of miRNAs in ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-137 in the regulation of neuronal ischemia/reperfusion injury with oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), a model of global brain ischemia. The results showed that miR-137 was significantly downregulated in neurons subjected to OGD/R treatment: OGD/R-induced cell injury was markedly inhibited by miR-137 overexpression and exacerbated by miR-137 suppression...
January 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131165/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-apoptosis-in-neural-stem-cells
#19
Yiwen Li, Lin Suo, Yang Liu, Huiyun Li, Wenxin Xue
Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) causes neural damages through stroke-induced ischemia. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been shown to alleviate ischemia-induced neural damages. However, ischemia reduces NSC survival. Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, and repairs brain injury-related neural damages. We aimed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rg1 could prevent NSCs from OGD insult. Using multiple techniques, we explored neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on OGD-insulted NSCs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129719/differences-in-reperfusion-induced-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-between-hippocampal-ca1-and-ca3-subfields-is-due-to-the-mitochondrial-thioredoxin-system
#20
Bocheng Yin, German Barrionuevo, Ines Batinic-Haberle, Mats Sandberg, Stephen Weber
AIMS: The susceptibility of CA1 over CA3 to damage from cerebral ischemia may be related to the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production/removal between the two hippocampal subfields. We aimed to measure CA1/CA3 differences in net ROS production in real time in the first thirty minutes of reperfusion in pyramidal cells. We aimed to determine the underlying cause of the differential vulnerability of CA1 and CA3. RESULTS: Real-time determinations of mitochondrial H2O2 and, independently, glutathione (GSH) redox status from roGFP-based probes in individual pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal cultures during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-reperfusion (RP) demonstrate a significantly more oxidizing environment during reperfusion in CA1 than CA3 mitochondria...
January 27, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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