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Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Sharon Reif, Rachel Sayko Adams, Grant A Ritter, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Paul T Bartone, Gregory G Homish
Background: Much research has focused on stress related to deployments; however, a substantial proportion of soldiers never deploy. In a study of 1.3 million veterans, suicide risk was higher among veterans who had never deployed. Thus, not being deployed may have an impact on soldiers' well-being; however, no measures exist to assess emotions regarding non-deployment. We aimed to develop and test an original measure of non-deployment emotions. Methods: We examined the Non-Deployment Emotions (NDE) questionnaire, a novel four-item measure of guilt, unit value, unit camaraderie, and unit connectedness in a sample of never-deployed male and female US Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers (N = 174)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Zhen-Zhen Cao, Mei-Ling Qin, Xiao-Yan Lin, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Ming-Xue Chen
Sulfur (S) fertilizer application in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is crucial in determining rice grain productivity and quality. However, little information is available concerning the effect of S supply on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in rice. In this study, both hydroponic and soil experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on Cd accumulation in rice under two Cd levels (0 and 50 μM), combined with three S concentrations (0, 2.64 and 5.28 mM). The moderate and excessive S supply (2...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kazushi Yamamoto, Yui Iwagaki, Kouichi Watanabe, Tomonori Nochi, Hisashi Aso, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
OBJECTIVES: We examined a moderate-fat (MF) diet that is enriched with fish oil (FO) and assessed whether lipid absorption was inhibited in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAM-P8). METHODS: All mice (N = 70) were fed a normal diet that contained 4 g soybean oil/100 g of diet for 6 mo and then divided the mice into four groups (n = 10 or 20/group). Mice in the baseline group were euthanized at 6 mo old, those in the control group continued on a normal diet until 15 mo of age, those in the MF diet group switched to an MF diet (8 g soybean oil/100 g of diet) until 15 mo of age, and those in the MF + FO group switched to an MF diet that was enriched with FO (6...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
Samuel Mesihää, Ilpo Rasanen, Ilkka Ojanperä
Gas chromatography (GC) hyphenated with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) was applied for the first time to the quantitative analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in urine, based on the N-equimolar response of NCD. A method was developed and validated to estimate the concentrations of three metabolites of the common stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) in spiked urine samples, simulating an analysis having no authentic reference standards for the metabolites and using the parent drug instead for quantitative calibration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Eimer Maloney, Ronan N McGinty, Daniel J Costello
PURPOSE: Reporting of 'real-world' data on efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic medications helps to inform physicians on how newer medications perform in the clinical setting, outside of the strict regimens of clinical trials. We report our experience of prescribing lacosamide monotherapy to a diverse range of patients at our epilepsy centre. METHODS: We performed a single-centre, retrospective review of all patients who had been prescribed lacosamide monotherapy over the last 8 years...
March 8, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nagendra Madan Singh, T N Sathyaprabha, Kashyap Malthish, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Studies have examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on human cardiac electrophysiology. However, no study has so far examined whether these effects vary with the magnitude of the electrical dose used to elicit the seizure. Because the benefits and adverse effects of the ECT seizure are dose-dependent, we examined the effects of different electrical doses of electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) on cardiac electrophysiology in an animal model with a view to determine whether cardiac electrophysiology could be a useful proxy to evaluate the quality of the ECT seizure...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Yasodha Maheshi Rohanachandra, Shamini Prathapan, Gampolage Swarna Wijetunge
INTRODUCTION: Maternal depression has been shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental, emotional and behavioural disorders in offspring. We aimed to describe the proportion of psychological problems among children of mothers with depression in Sri Lanka and to describe the association with the characteristics of the mothers' illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 100 children and adolescents between 4-16 years whose mother has a diagnosis of depression and currently in remission...
March 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Chengjiao Duan, Linchuan Fang, Congli Yang, Weibin Chen, Yongxing Cui, Shiqing Li
Enzymes in the soil are vital for assessing heavy metal soil pollution. Although the presence of heavy metals is thought to change the soil enzyme system, the distribution of enzyme activities in heavy metal polluted-soil is still unknown. For the first time, using soil zymography, we analyzed the distribution of enzyme activities of alfalfa rhizosphere and soil surface in the metal-contaminated soil. The results showed that the growth of alfalfa was significantly inhibited, and an impact that was most pronounced in seedling biomass and chlorophyll content...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Meryem Lehbili, Abdulmagid Alabdul Magid, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Hamid Morjani, Dominique Harakat, Zahia Kabouche
Eight undescribed triterpenoid saponins, scabiostellatosides A-H, together with three known compounds were isolated from the whole plant of Scabiosa stellata L. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses (1D, 2D-NMR and HRESIMS) and chemical methods. Scabiostellatosides A-H were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080). Scabiostellatoside F, a heptasaccharide derivative of oleanolic acid, exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against HT1080 cell line with IC50 value of 12...
March 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
Cliff C Kerr, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Tomasz G Smolinski, George L Chadderdon, David P Wilson
When standard optimization methods fail to find a satisfactory solution for a parameter fitting problem, a tempting recourse is to adjust parameters manually. While tedious, this approach can be surprisingly powerful in terms of achieving optimal or near-optimal solutions. This paper outlines an optimization algorithm, Adaptive Stochastic Descent (ASD), that has been designed to replicate the essential aspects of manual parameter fitting in an automated way. Specifically, ASD uses simple principles to form probabilistic assumptions about (a) which parameters have the greatest effect on the objective function, and (b) optimal step sizes for each parameter...
2018: PloS One
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kristen E Dunbar, Cristina Abascal, Saagar A Pandit, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the reliability of a frequently used subjective measurement of orbital compliance (0-3 scale) and describes a simple, quantitative measure with excellent intra- and interrater reliability. METHODS: Two examiners performed both measurements on 100 orbits (50 consecutive patients) from the office of 1 oculoplastics surgeon. Each measurement was obtained at 2 different time points, 10 minutes apart. For the subjective measurement, the patient was asked to close their eyes, and the globe was displaced posteriorly with digital pressure until moderate resistance was felt...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Alex Han, Alfred C Gellhorn
OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). Although QOL is generally thought to diminish over time, it is unknown if different patient groups demonstrate unique patterns of change in QOL. We sought to identify and characterize QOL trajectories in knee OA. DESIGN: This prospective cohort study included 1013 individuals with symptomatic knee OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify distinct temporal patterns of change in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) QOL subscale over 8 years...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Fauzia A Khan, Alan F Merry
The safety of anesthesia characteristic of high-income countries today is not matched in low-resource settings with poor infrastructure, shortages of anesthesia providers, essential drugs, equipment, and supplies. Health care is delivered through complex systems. Achieving sustainable widespread improvement globally will require an understanding of how to influence such systems. Health outcomes depend not only on a country's income, but also on how resources are allocated, and both vary substantially, between and within countries...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Kumari M Rathnayake, Michelle Weech, Kim G Jackson, Julie A Lovegrove
CVD are the leading cause of death in women globally, with ageing associated with progressive endothelial dysfunction and increased CVD risk. Natural menopause is characterised by raised non-fasting TAG concentrations and impairment of vascular function compared with premenopausal women. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased CVD risk after women have transitioned through the menopause are unclear. Dietary fat is an important modifiable risk factor relating to both postprandial lipaemia and vascular reactivity...
March 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Yushu Jin, Yusuke Makida, Tatsuya Uchida, Ryoichi Kuwano
A chemoselective hydrogenation of isoquinoline carbocycles was achieved by using the catalyst prepared from Ru(methallyl)2(cod) and trans-chelate chiral ligand PhTRAP. The unique chemoselectivity achieved in this hydrogenation could be ascribed to the trans-chelation of the chiral ligand. The procedure for preparing the catalyst strongly affects the reproducibility of the carbocycle hydrogenation. Various 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-substituted isoquinolines were selectively hydrogenated at their carbocycles to afford 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroisoquinolines as major products in high yields with moderate or good enantioselectivities...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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