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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887796/vaccine-strategies-optimising-outcomes
#1
Karin Hardt, Paolo Bonanni, Susan King, Jose Ignacio Santos, Mostafa El-Hodhod, Gregory D Zimet, Scott Preiss
Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
November 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765293/effectiveness-of-one-dose-of-oral-cholera-vaccine-in-response-to-an-outbreak-a-case-cohort-study
#2
Andrew S Azman, Lucy A Parker, John Rumunu, Fisseha Tadesse, Francesco Grandesso, Lul L Deng, Richard Laku Lino, Bior K Bior, Michael Lasuba, Anne-Laure Page, Lameck Ontweka, Augusto E Llosa, Sandra Cohuet, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Dossou Vincent Sodjinou, Abdinasir Abubakar, Amanda K Debes, Allan M Mpairwe, Joseph F Wamala, Christine Jamet, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Marie-Laure Quilici, Iza Ciglenecki, Francisco J Luquero
BACKGROUND: Oral cholera vaccines represent a new effective tool to fight cholera and are licensed as two-dose regimens with 2-4 weeks between doses. Evidence from previous studies suggests that a single dose of oral cholera vaccine might provide substantial direct protection against cholera. During a cholera outbreak in May, 2015, in Juba, South Sudan, the Ministry of Health, Médecins Sans Frontières, and partners engaged in the first field deployment of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine to enhance the outbreak response...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703068/hospital-incidence-and-annual-rates-of-hospitalization-for-venous-thromboembolic-disease-in-france-and-the-usa
#3
François-André Allaert, Eric Benzenine, Catherine Quantin
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to describe the hospital incidences and annual hospitalization rates for venous thromboembolic disease by age and sex in France and the United States on the closest possible methodological bases. METHODS: French statistics are from the PMSI MCO (Programme de médicalisation des système d'information de médecine, chirurgie et obstétrique (French national hospital discharge register)) national database. These are compiled for each calendar year by collating résumé de sortie anonymisé (RSA, anonymous discharge summary) files forwarded and validated by health establishments with admissions in medicine, surgery, obstetrics, and odontology...
October 4, 2016: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679655/why-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-msf-provides-safe-abortion-care-and-what-that-involves
#4
Catrin Schulte-Hillen, Nelly Staderini, Jean-François Saint-Sauveur
MSF responds to needs for the termination of pregnancy, including on request (TPR); it is part of the organization's work aimed at reducing maternal mortality and suffering; and preventing unsafe abortions in the countries where we work. Following the publication of "Why don't humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion care?" we offer an insight into MSF's experience over the past few years. The article looks at the legal concerns and proposes that the importance of addressing maternal mortality should replace them and the operational set-up and action organized in a way that mitigates risks...
2016: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658876/paediatric-hiv-testing-beyond-the-context-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Jennifer Cohn, Katherine Whitehouse, Julia Tuttle, Kristin Lueck, Trang Tran
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-positive children in low-income and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed. Although HIV testing in children at health facilities is recommended by WHO, it is not well implemented. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the case-finding benefit of HIV screening in children aged 0-5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We did this systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with an a-priori protocol. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, WHO Global Index Medicus, Web of Science, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cochrane, Embase, CABS Abstracts, and LILACS databases for articles published between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2016, that reported the quantitative prevalence of HIV detected through screening in four key contexts (paediatric inpatient settings, paediatric outpatient settings, nutrition centres, and expanded programme on immunisation centres) in paediatric populations in low-income and middle-income countries...
October 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629683/-aborder-les-soins-pr%C3%A3-ventifs-chez-les-a%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-s
#6
REVIEW
Bachir Tazkarji, Robert Lam, Shawn Lee, Soumia Meiyappan
OBJECTIF: Guider les médecins de famille dans l'élaboration de plans de dépistage et de traitements préventifs à l'intention de leurs patients âgés. SOURCES DE L'INFORMATION: Une recension a été effectuée dans la base de données MEDLINE pour trouver des lignes directrices canadiennes sur les soins de santé primaires et les personnes âgées; des lignes directrices, des méta-analyses, des guides de pratique clinique ou des révisions systématiques portant sur le dépistage de masse chez les 80 ans et plus et les aînés fragiles, se limitant à ceux publiés entre 2006 et juillet 2016; et des articles sur les services de santé préventifs à l'intention des aînés et présentant un intérêt pour la pratique familiale ou les médecins de famille, limités à ceux publiés en anglais entre 2012 et juillet 2016...
September 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611434/linezolid-associated-optic-neuropathy-in-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-mumbai-india
#7
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580098/impact-and-lessons-learned-from-mass-drug-administrations-of-malaria-chemoprevention-during-the-ebola-outbreak-in-monrovia-liberia-2014
#8
Anna Kuehne, Amanda Tiffany, Estrella Lasry, Michel Janssens, Clement Besse, Chibuzo Okonta, Kwabena Larbi, Alfred C Pah, Kostas Danis, Klaudia Porten
BACKGROUND: In October 2014, during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia healthcare services were limited while malaria transmission continued. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a mass drug administration (MDA) of malaria chemoprevention (CP) in Monrovia to reduce malaria-associated morbidity. In order to inform future interventions, we described the scale of the MDA, evaluated its acceptance and estimated the effectiveness. METHODS: MSF carried out two rounds of MDA with artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ) targeting four neighbourhoods of Monrovia (October to December 2014)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567107/emergence-of-epidemic-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-c-in-niger-2015-an-analysis-of-national-surveillance-data
#9
Fati Sidikou, Maman Zaneidou, Ibrahim Alkassoum, Stephanie Schwartz, Bassira Issaka, Ricardo Obama, Clement Lingani, Ashley Tate, Flavien Ake, Souleymane Sakande, Sani Ousmane, Jibir Zanguina, Issaka Seidou, Innocent Nzeyimana, Didier Mounkoro, Oubote Abodji, Xin Wang, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Jean Paul Moulia-Pelat, Assimawe Pana, Goumbi Kadade, Olivier Ronveaux, Ryan Novak, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Sarah Meyer
BACKGROUND: To combat Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A epidemics in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa, a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) has been progressively rolled out since 2010. We report the first meningitis epidemic in Niger since the nationwide introduction of MACV. METHODS: We compiled and analysed nationwide case-based meningitis surveillance data in Niger. Cases were confirmed by culture or direct real-time PCR, or both, of cerebrospinal fluid specimens, and whole-genome sequencing was used to characterise isolates...
August 23, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531847/plasmodium-parasitemia-associated-with-increased-survival-in-ebola-virus-infected-patients
#10
Kyle Rosenke, Jennifer Adjemian, Vincent J Munster, Andrea Marzi, Darryl Falzarano, Clayton O Onyango, Melvin Ochieng, Bonventure Juma, Robert J Fischer, Joseph B Prescott, David Safronetz, Victor Omballa, Collins Owuor, Thomas Hoenen, Allison Groseth, Cynthia Martellaro, Neeltje van Doremalen, Galina Zemtsova, Joshua Self, Trenton Bushmaker, Kristin McNally, Thomas Rowe, Shannon L Emery, Friederike Feldmann, Brandi N Williamson, Sonja M Best, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Allen Grolla, James E Strong, Gary Kobinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Kathryn C Zoon, Jorgen Stassijns, Ruggero Giuliani, Martin de Smet, Stuart T Nichol, Barry Fields, Armand Sprecher, Moses Massaquoi, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
BACKGROUND: The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. METHODS: All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412971/history-of-health-in-the-indian-ocean-care-prevention-teaching-and-research-from-the-17-th-to-the-mid-20th-century
#11
P Aubry, B-A Gaüzère
In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service...
May 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393544/-they-prefer-hidden-treatment-anti-tuberculosis-drug-taking-practices-and-drug-regulation-in-karakalpakstan
#12
B Stringer, K Lowton, M Tillashaikhov, N Parpieva, D Ulmasova, P du Cros, E Hasker, N Sergeeva
SETTING: The joint Médecins Sans Frontières/Ministry of Health Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Programme, Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. OBJECTIVE: Uzbekistan has high rates of MDR-TB. We aimed to understand patients' and prescribers' attitudes to anti-tuberculosis drug prescription, regulation and drug-taking behaviour. METHODS: Participants (12 patients, 12 practitioners) were recruited purposively. Data were gathered qualitatively using field notes and in-depth interviews and analysed thematically...
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330816/risk-perceptions-of-msf-healthcare-workers-on-the-recent-ebola-epidemic-in-west-africa
#13
S Sridhar, P Brouqui, J Fontaine, I Perivier, P Ruscassier, P Gautret, I Régner
Healthcare workers (HCW) in general are considered to be at high risk during epidemics. Their training for Ebola provided by Médecins sans frontières (MSF) is presently based on imparting factual information, which does not necessarily translate into knowledge or appropriate practices. We aimed to understand the importance of risk perception during training. A total of 130 MSF-trained HCW traveling to Africa during the Ebola epidemic of 2014-2015 participated in this longitudinal cohort study. Their baseline knowledge was good but did not significantly increase after training except for minor symptoms, case fatality rate and wearing personal protective equipment as a preventive measure...
July 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160219/-impact-of-a-targeted-technical-assistance-to-improve-vaccine-coverage-in-cameroon-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-and-mauritania-in-2014
#14
Y Glèlè Ahanhanzo, D Palenfo, C Saussier, P Gbèdonou, A Tonda, A Da Silva, A Aplogan
Within the framework of its strategic goal of vaccine coverage (VC) improvement, GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance has entrusted the Agence de médecine préventive (agency for preventive medicine, AMP) with technical assistance services to Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), and Mauritania. This support was provided to selected priority districts (PDs) with the worst Penta3 coverage performances. In 2014, PDs benefited from technical and management capacities in vaccinology strengthening for district medical officers, supportive supervisions and technical assistance in health logistics, data management and quality...
August 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26959413/successful-control-of-ebola-virus-disease-analysis-of-service-based-data-from-rural-sierra-leone
#15
Kamalini Lokuge, Grazia Caleo, Jane Greig, Jennifer Duncombe, Nicholas McWilliam, James Squire, Manjo Lamin, Emily Veltus, Anja Wolz, Gary Kobinger, Marc-Antoine de la Vega, Osman Gbabai, Sao Nabieu, Mohammed Lamin, Ronald Kremer, Kostas Danis, Emily Banks, Kathryn Glass
INTRODUCTION: The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877518/p-212-sneddon-syndrome-causing-stroke-on-young-about-an-observation
#16
N Benmostefa, I Baretil, A Bouchoucha, S Kouach, A Rouina, R Malek
OBJECTIFS: Le syndrome de Sneddon (SS) représente une cause rare d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC). La prise en charge passe d'abord par la prévention des facteurs de risque et repose surtout sur les traitements antithrombotiques. MéTHODES: Un cas rapporté. RéSULTATS: Patiente de 50 ans, mère de 5EVBP, aux antécédents d'une HTA et de 3 accouchements prématurés, a été admise en service de médecine interne pour pris en charge d'un phénomène de Raynaud sévère compliqué d'une ischémie du gros orteil...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877462/p-155-stress-and-burnout-a-new-university-health-challenge-survey-among-students-at-the-faculty-of-medicine-of-constantine-2014
#17
N Boussouf, W Boulassel, A Albane, S Benmaiza, D Zoughailech
Évaluer le stress et le Burn out syndrome chez les étudiants en médecine, en pharmacie et chirurgie dentaire à l'Université de Constantine 3. MéTHODES: En 2014, une enquête transversale a été menée chez les étudiants à la faculté de médecine de Constantine. Un auto-questionnaire volontaire et anonyme a collecté des informations sur l'âge, le sexe, la durée de travail hebdomadaire a la maison, le niveau de perception du stress (score de Cohen, /40) et le burn-out syndrome (échelle MBI : Maslach Burn-out Inventory)...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877368/p-069-kidney-and-hypertension
#18
F Boussema, S Karma, L Lamouchi, S Slaoui
OBJECTIFS: Le diagnostic étiologique de l'HTA reste rare. Le but de l'étude est de penser à une étiologie curable. MéTHODES: On va prendre13 jeunes travailleurs, en contact avec un toxique et qui ont présenté des céphalées, des vertiges, un bourdonnement d'oreilles, des coliques abdominales, une asthénie, une constipation, une pâleur, une hématurie, des polynévrites. Le travailleur est en contact avec un toxique au cours de son travail, a eu une visite d'embauche, est contrôlé de façon périodique, et toute autre cause que l'HTA a été recherchée et éliminée...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859559/effect-of-short-term-supplementation-with-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-or-micronutrients-for-children-after-illness-for-prevention-of-malnutrition-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-nigeria
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Saskia van der Kam, Nuria Salse-Ubach, Stephanie Roll, Todd Swarthout, Sayaka Gayton-Toyoshima, Nma Mohammed Jiya, Akiko Matsumoto, Leslie Shanks
BACKGROUND: Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period...
February 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859481/effect-of-short-term-supplementation-with-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-or-micronutrients-for-children-after-illness-for-prevention-of-malnutrition-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-uganda
#20
Saskia van der Kam, Stephanie Roll, Todd Swarthout, Grace Edyegu-Otelu, Akiko Matsumoto, Francis Xavier Kasujja, Cristian Casademont, Leslie Shanks, Nuria Salse-Ubach
BACKGROUND: Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period...
February 2016: PLoS Medicine
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