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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151103/immunoregulatory-role-of-cannabinoids-during-infectious-disease
#1
Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes, Mónica Méndez-Díaz, Óscar Prospéro-García, Jorge Morales-Montor
Although the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including sleep and the immune response, its role during infections has not been fully studied. It is well known that the use of this drug increases susceptibility to infections because of the impact on the modulation of the immune system. Concerning the medicinal or recreational use of marijuana, its influence on the course of an infection, whether this has been caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and to a lesser degree, fungi, has been reported...
November 18, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150973/characterization-of-the-parasitic-dinoflagellate-amoebophrya-sp-infecting-akashiwo-sanguinea-in-coastal-waters-of-china
#2
Tiantian Chen, Yun Liu, Shuqun Song, Caiwen Li
The endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya infects a number of free-living marine dinoflagellates, including harmful algal bloom species. The parasitoid eventually kills its host and has been proposed to be a significant loss factor for dinoflagellate blooms in restricted coastal waters. For several decades, the difficulties of culturing host-parasitoid systems have been a great obstacle for further research on the biology of Amoebophrya. Here, we established an Akashiwo sanguinea-Amoebophrya sp. co-culture from Chinese coastal waters and studied the parasitoid's generation time, dinospore survival and infectivity, as well as its host specificity...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150963/detection-and-quantification-of-two-parasitic-ciliates-boveria-labialis-and-boveria-subcylindrica-ciliophora-scuticociliatia-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#3
Zifeng Zhan, Ju Li, Kuidong Xu
The thigmotrich scuticociliates Boveria labialis and Boveria subcylindrica are obligate parasites that may cause high mortality in cultured sea cucumbers and bivalves. Morphological methods can identify these organisms in active state, but are unable to discern them in resting stages. In aquaculture practice, these parasitic ciliates are hard to eradicate when massive infection occurs in sea cucumbers. Thus, early detection and precaution are crucial for the control of these pathogens. Under such circumstances, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) will serve as a fast way to detect and monitor the occurrence of these parasites...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#4
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150699/three-new-species-of-gyrodactylus-von-nordmann-1832-described-from-goodea-atripinnis-pisces-goodeidae-an-endemic-freshwater-fish-from-the-central-highlands-of-mexico
#5
Adriana García-Vásquez, Ismael Guzmán-Valdivieso, Ulises Razo-Mendivil, Miguel Rubio-Godoy
Goodea atripinnis Jordan, 1880 has a broad range of habitats and is the most widespread species of the endemic goodeid fishes, which inhabit the central highlands of Mexico. This species is known to be host to a high diversity of helminth parasites from which only three belong to the genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832: G. lamothei Mendoza-Palmero, Sereno-Uribe et Salgado-Maldonado, 2009, G. mexicanus Mendoza-Palmero, Sereno-Uribe et Salgado-Maldonado, 2009, and G. tomahuac Rubio-Godoy, Razo-Mendivil, García-Vásquez, Freeman, Shinn et Paladini, 2016...
November 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150609/atomic-resolution-snapshot-of-leishmania-ribosome-inhibition-by-the-aminoglycoside-paromomycin
#6
Moran Shalev-Benami, Yan Zhang, Haim Rozenberg, Yuko Nobe, Masato Taoka, Donna Matzov, Ella Zimmerman, Anat Bashan, Toshiaki Isobe, Charles L Jaffe, Ada Yonath, Georgios Skiniotis
Leishmania is a single-celled eukaryotic parasite afflicting millions of humans worldwide, with current therapies limited to a poor selection of drugs that mostly target elements in the parasite's cell envelope. Here we determined the atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Leishmania ribosome in complex with paromomycin (PAR), a highly potent compound recently approved for treatment of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The structure reveals the mechanism by which the drug induces its deleterious effects on the parasite...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150386/role-of-endosymbionts-in-insect-parasitic-nematode-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Ioannis Eleftherianos, Shruti Yadav, Eric Kenney, Dustin Cooper, Yaprak Ozakman, Jelena Patrnogic
Endosymbiotic bacteria exist in many animals where they develop relationships that affect certain physiological processes in the host. Insects and their nematode parasites form great models for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of immune and parasitic processes. Both organisms contain endosymbionts that possess the ability to interfere with certain mechanisms of immune function and pathogenicity. This review summarizes recent information on the involvement of insect endosymbionts in the response to parasitic nematode infections, and the influence of nematode endosymbionts on specific aspects of the insect immune system...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150362/prevalence-of-pediculus-capitis-in-schoolchildren-in-battambang-cambodia
#8
Chien-Wei Liao, Po-Ching Cheng, Ting-Wu Chuang, Kuan-Chih Chiu, I-Chen Chiang, Juo-Han Kuo, Yun-Hung Tu, Yu-Min Fan, Hai-Tao Jiang, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pediculus capitis is the most common human ectoparasite. When it feeds on the blood through the scalp of its host, the anticoagulant in its saliva causes scalp inflammation and itching, and consequent scratching by the host causes further inflammation from bacterial infection. P. capitis infestation is currently a common parasitic dermatosis and a critical public health concern in underdeveloped countries. METHODS: Through naked eye inspection of P...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150323/screening-of-patient-blood-samples-for-babesiosis-using-enzymatic-assays
#9
Shekerah Primus, Lavoisier Akoolo, Samantha Schlachter, Nikhat Parveen
Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Transmitted by Ixodes ticks, the causative agent Babesia microti is an intraerythrocytic parasite that causes mild to deadly disease. Transmission of B. microti can also occur by transfusion of infected blood and blood products resulting in transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB), which carries a high risk of fatality. To effectively manage this rise in B. microti infections, better screening tools are needed, which require minimal manipulation of the samples before testing...
November 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150322/sex-ratios-of-the-tick-ixodes-arboricola-are-strongly-female-biased-but-there-are-no-indications-of-sex-distorting-bacteria
#10
A Raoul Van Oosten, Olivier Duron, Dieter J A Heylen
Studies on sex ratio are of fundamental importance for understanding the biology of populations and biological control of pests and pathogens. In most Ixodes tick species, only females feed in the adult stage and, hence, contribute to pathogen transmission. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola infests cavity-nesting birds and has limited dispersal possibilities. It plays an important role in the maintenance of zoonotic disease cycles. Here, we quantified the sex ratio of 718 adult I. arboricola ticks obtained from a laboratory stock at nine distinct periods (cohorts) from 2008 to 2015...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150282/artesunate-quercetin-luteolin-dual-drug-nanofacilitated-synergistic-treatment-for-malaria-a-plausible-approach-to-overcome-artemisinin-combination-therapy-resistance
#11
Nethravathi Puttappa, Raman Suresh Kumar, Karthik Yamjala
Malaria is one of the major global health challenge with 300 million new cases annually. The best regimen for treating Plasmodium falciparum induced malaria is based on artemisinin and its derivatives which were prescribed as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). These are highly effective drugs resulting in rapid clearance of parasites even in severe P. falciparum induced malaria patients. However, from the past few years parasites resistant to ACT's have begun to emerge in various parts of the world such as Cambodia and Greater Mekong Subregion...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149898/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-male-and-female-gametocytes-and-determination-of-parasite-sex-ratio-in-human-endemic-populations-by-novel-cheap-and-robust-rtqpcr-assays
#12
Federica Santolamazza, Pamela Avellino, Giulia Siciliano, Franck Adama Yao, Fabrizio Lombardo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, David Modiano, Pietro Alano, Valentina Dianora Mangano
BACKGROUND: The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood is essential for human to mosquito parasite transmission. The detection of submicroscopic infections with gametocytes and the estimation of the gametocyte sex ratio are crucial to assess the human host potential ability to infect mosquitoes and transmit malaria parasites. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop sensitive and cheap Real Time qPCR assays for large-scale epidemiological surveys, based on detection and amplification of gametocyte sex specific transcripts selected from the literature: the female-specific pfs25 and pf glycerol kinase (pfGK) and the male-specific pfs230p and pf13 transcripts...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#14
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148583/study-of-the-hooking-behaviour-of-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-1837-copepodids-on-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-using-a-novel-in%C3%A2-vivo-test-system
#15
C Delfosse, C Lafont-Lecuelle, H Barthélémy, C Chabaud, E Teruel, C Bienboire-Frosini, P Pageat
The screening of putative semiochemicals involved in the interaction between Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodid and the Atlantic salmon could be used to develop methods to prevent infestation. A bioassay was designed to evaluate the attractiveness of Atlantic salmon for L. salmonis copepodids by counting the number of hooked parasites. A salmon was bathed in a tank with 60 copepodids during 45 min. The salmon was humanely killed and its body was scrubbed above a plastic bag. The content of the bag was filtered to count the number of hooked parasites...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148389/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-dna-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-persons-with-eosinophilic-meningitis-laos
#16
Damien K Y Ming, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Tehmina Bharucha, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Paul N Newton, Matthew T Robinson
Definitive identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis parasites from clinical specimens is difficult. As a result, regional epidemiology and burden are poorly characterized. To ascertain presence of this parasite in patients in Laos with eosinophilic meningitis, we performed quantitative PCRs on 36 cerebrospinal fluid samples; 4 positive samples confirmed the parasite's presence.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148381/unexpected-infection-with-armillifer-parasites
#17
Idzi Potters, Claude Desaive, Steven Van Den Broucke, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Lutgarde Lynen
Visceral pentastomiasis is usually found incidentally during surgery. We describe a case of visceral pentastomiasis discovered during inguinoscrotal hernia surgery for a man from Benin, Africa. Because surgical removal of nymphs is needed for symptomatic patients only, this patient's asymptomatic pentastomiasis was not treated and he recovered from surgery uneventfully.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147497/mechanism-and-performance-of-lithium-oxygen-batteries-a-perspective
#18
Nika Mahne, Olivier Fontaine, Musthafa Ottakam Thotiyl, Martin Wilkening, Stefan A Freunberger
Rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have amongst the highest formal energy and could store significantly more energy than other rechargeable batteries in practice if at least a large part of their promise could be realized. Realization, however, still faces many challenges than can only be overcome by fundamental understanding of the processes taking place. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry of the Li-O2 cathode and provide a perspective on dominant research needs. We put particular emphasis on issues that are often grossly misunderstood: realistic performance metrics and their reporting as well as identifying reversibility and quantitative measures to do so...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147019/identification-and-characterization-of-serine-protease-inhibitors-in-a-parasitic-wasp-pteromalus-puparum
#19
Lei Yang, Yaotian Mei, Qi Fang, Jiale Wang, Zhichao Yan, Qisheng Song, Zhe Lin, Gongyin Ye
Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) regulate protease-mediated activities by inactivating their cognate proteinases, and are involved in multiple physiological processes. SPIs have been extensively studied in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, little SPI information is available in parasitoids. Herein, we identified 57 SPI genes in total through the genome of a parasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum. Gene structure analyses revealed that these SPIs contain 7 SPI domains. Depending on their mode of action, these SPIs can be categorized into serpins, canonical inhibitors and alpha-2-macroglobulins (A2Ms)...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146979/thickness-dependent-parasitic-channel-formation-at-aln-si-interfaces
#20
Hareesh Chandrasekar, K N Bhat, Muralidharan Rangarajan, Srinivasan Raghavan, Navakanta Bhat
The performance of GaN-on-Silicon electronic devices is severely degraded by the presence of a parasitic conduction pathway at the nitride-substrate interface which contributes to switching losses and lower breakdown voltages. The physical nature of such a parasitic channel and its properties are however, not well understood. We report on a pronounced thickness dependence of the parasitic channel formation at AlN/Si interfaces due to increased surface acceptor densities at the interface in silicon. The origin of these surface acceptors is analyzed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements and traced to thermal acceptor formation due to Si-O-N complexes...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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