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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779299/health-issues-of-refugees-attending-an-infectious-disease-refugee-health-clinic-in-a-regional-australian-hospital
#1
Peta J Masters, Penelope J Lanfranco, Emmy Sneath, Amanda J Wade, Sarah Huffam, James Pollard, James Standish, Kate McCloskey, Eugene Athan, Daniel P O'Brien, N Deborah Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Refugees in Australia present with conditions different to those of the general population. The aim of this study was to review the reasons for referral, prevalence of conditions and treatment outcomes for refugee patients attending a specialist referral clinic in regional Victoria. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients attending the refugee health clinic at University Hospital Geelong from January 2007 to December 2012...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779095/crispr-cas13a-targeting-of-rna-virus-in-plants
#2
Kulbhushan Chaudhary
This approach is quite promising to control plant viral diseases and create synthetic networks to better understand the structure/function relationship in RNA and proteins. Plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which causes enormous losses in crop yield worldwide. These viruses replicate into infected cells by highjacking host cellular machinery. Over the last two decades, diverse approaches such as conventional breeding, transgenic approach and gene silencing strategies have been used to control RNA viruses, but escaped due to high rate of mutation...
May 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778767/molecular-morphological-and-experimental-assessment-of-the-life-cycle-of-posthodiplostomum-nanum-trematoda-diplostomidae-from-brazil-with-phylogenetic-evidence-of-the-paraphyly-of-the-genus-posthodiplostomum-dubois-1936
#3
Danimar López-Hernández, Sean A Locke, Alan Lane de Melo, Élida Mara Leite Rabelo, Hudson Alves Pinto
Species of the genus Posthodiplostomum are intestinal parasites of piscivorous birds with worldwide distribution. Recent molecular surveys have focused on developmental stages from vertebrate hosts, with few sequences from larvae found in molluscs. Moreover, most published molecular data are from collections in North America, Europe and Asia, and there are no data for South American species. In the present study, cercariae found in the freshwater limpet Gundlachia ticaga from Brazil were used for morphological, experimental and molecular studies...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778721/worms-that-suck-phylogenetic-analysis-of-hirudinea-solidifies-the-position-of-acanthobdellida-and-necessitates-the-dissolution-of-rhynchobdellida
#4
Michael Tessler, Danielle de Carle, Madeleine L Voiklis, Olivia A Gresham, Johannes Neumann, Stanisław Cios, Mark E Siddall
Annelids possessing a posterior sucker and a fixed number of somites - most famously leeches (Hirudinida), but also crayfish worms (Branchiobdellida) and salmonid parasites (Acanthobdellida) - form a clade; however, determining the relationships between these orders has proven challenging. Here, we compile the largest molecular phylogenetic dataset yet analysed for these groups, including new sequences for key taxa. We find robust model-based support for a clade formed by Hirudinida and Acanthobdellida, contrasting the largest prior studies...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778408/ancient-cancers-and-infection-induced-oncogenesis
#5
Paul W Ewald
Cancers have been reported in bone and soft tissue of ancient agricultural populations. Fossilized bones from prehistoric periods provide evidence of tumors but only one example of cancer. Difficulties in diagnosing the causes of lesions in mummified tissue and fossilized bone, and in interpreting the prevalence of cancers from remains, draw attention to the need for complementary approaches to assess the occurrence of cancer in ancient populations. This paper integrates current knowledge about pathogen induction of cancer with phylogenetic analyses of oncogenic pathogens, and concludes that pathogen-induced cancers were probably generally present in ancient historic and prehistoric human populations...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778329/the-kinetoplast-dna-of-the-australian-trypanosome-trypanosoma-copemani-shares-features-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-trypanosoma-lewisi
#6
Adriana Botero, Irit Kapeller, Crystal Cooper, Peta L Clode, Joseph Shlomai, R C Andrew Thompson
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids. It consists of a few dozen maxicircles and several thousand minicircles, all catenated topologically to form a two-dimensional DNA network. Minicircles are heterogeneous in size and sequence among species. They present one or several conserved regions that contain three highly conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). CSB-1 (10 bp sequence) and CSB-2 (8 bp sequence) present lower interspecies homology, while CSB-3 (12 bp sequence) or the Universal Minicircle Sequence (UMS) is conserved within most trypanosomatids...
May 17, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778229/a-novel-portable-filtration-system-for-sampling-and-concentration-of-microorganisms-demonstration-on-marine-microalgae-with-subsequent-quantification-using-ic-nasba
#7
Christos-Moritz Loukas, Matthew C Mowlem, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Nicolas G Green
This paper presents a novel portable sample filtration/concentration system, designed for use on samples of microorganisms with very low cell concentrations and large volumes, such as water-borne parasites, pathogens associated with faecal matter, or toxic phytoplankton. The example application used for demonstration was the in-field collection and concentration of microalgae from seawater samples. This type of organism is responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an example of which is commonly referred to as "red tides", which are typically the result of rapid proliferation and high biomass accumulation of harmful microalgal species in the water column or at the sea surface...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777921/comparison-of-heavy-metals-parasites-and-histopathology-in-sculpins-myoxocephalus-spp-from-two-sites-at-a-lead-zinc-mine-in-north-east-greenland
#8
Rasmus Dyrmose Nørregaard, Mai Dang, Lis Bach, Ole Geertz-Hansen, Kim Gustavson, Peter Aastrup, Pall S Leifsson, Jens Søndergaard, Barbara Nowak, Christian Sonne
The former lead-zinc mine at Mestersvig, Greenland, continues to contaminate the surrounding environment despite its operations ceasing over 50 years ago. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals are found in water, sediment and biota in the terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. To shed light on the present contamination and its potential effects on local fish we investigated gill and liver histology of sculpins (Myoxocephalus spp.) around the former mining area. Two species of sculpins were caught; shorthorn sculpins (M...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777624/characterisation-of-a-putative-glutamate-5-kinase-from-leishmania-donovani
#9
Natasha Sienkiewicz, Han B Ong, Alan H Fairlamb
Previous metabolic studies have demonstrated that leishmania parasites are able to synthesise proline from glutamic acid and threonine from aspartic acid. The first committed step in both biosynthetic pathways involves an amino acid kinase, either a glutamate 5-kinase (EC 2.7.2.11) or an aspartokinase (EC 2.7.2.4). Bioinformatic analysis of multiple leishmania genomes identifies a single amino-acid-kinase gene (LdBPK 262740.1) variously annotated as either a putative glutamate or aspartate kinase. To establish the catalytic function of this Leishmania donovani gene product, we have determined the physical and kinetic properties of the recombinant enzyme purified from Escherichia coli...
May 19, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777337/molecular-epidemiology-of-parasitic-protozoa-and-ehrlichia-canis-in-wildlife-in-madrid-central-spain
#10
Angel Criado-Fornelio, T Martín-Pérez, C Verdú-Expósito, S A Reinoso-Ortiz, J Pérez-Serrano
Wildlife species are involved in the transmission of diverse pathogens. This study aimed to monitor raccoons (Procyon lotor), American minks (Neovison vison), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as potential reservoirs in central Spain. Specifically, 200 spleen and fecal samples (from 194 raccoons, 3 minks, and 3 foxes) were analyzed molecularly by PCR/qPCR and sequencing for the presence of piroplasmids, Hepatozoon spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Ehrlichia canis infections in the Community of Madrid (Spain). Biological samples were obtained in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016...
May 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777336/first-morphological-and-molecular-analysis-of-eucoleus-boehmi-like-eggs-in-dogs-from-argentina
#11
Carla Mariela Lavallén, Romina Sandra Petrigh, Martín Horacio Fugassa, Guillermo María Denegri, Marcela Cecilia Dopchiz
The canid parasites Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) and Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) parasitize the lower and the upper respiratory tract, respectively. Reports and descriptions of these nematodes are scarce in Argentina, possibly due to misdiagnosis of morphologically similar trichuroids eggs, and the lack of knowledge about the species of Eucoleus in this geographical area. Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for identification of E. boehmi eggs based on the characteristics of the shell structure which differentiate between species...
May 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777183/harmless-sea-snail-parasite-causes-mass-mortalities-in-numerous-commercial-scallop-populations-in-the-northern-hemisphere
#12
Árni Kristmundsson, Mark Andrew Freeman
Apicomplexans comprise a group of unicellular, often highly pathogenic, obligate parasites exploiting either one or two hosts to complete a full reproductive cycle. For decades, various scallop populations have suffered cyclical mass mortality events, several of which shown to be caused by apicomplexan infections. We report the first dual mollusc life cycle for an apicomplexan: a species highly pathogenic in various pectinid bivalve species, but apathogenic when infecting the common whelk as Merocystis kathae...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776997/turning-workers-into-false-queens-the-role-of-exogenous-pheromones-in-regulating-reproduction-in-worker-honey-bees
#13
Abdullahi A Yusuf, Robin M Crewe, Christian W W Pirk
One of the responses that honey bee workers can make in the event of queen loss is to develop into false queens. False queens are workers that exhibit both behavioural and physiological traits similar to those of a true queen. However, the presence of more than one false queen in a colony distorts the established hierarchies. As transformation into a false queen occurs after emergence as an adult, we tested the effect of worker mobile pheromone carriers (PCs) treated with exogenously supplied pheromones on their nestmates...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776848/comparison-of-current-methods-used-to-detect-cryptosporidium-oocysts-in-stools
#14
REVIEW
Shahira A Ahmed, Panagiotis Karanis
In this review all of the methods that are currently in use for the investigation of Cryptosporidium in stool material are highlighted and critically discussed. It appears that more qualifications and background knowledge in this field regarding the diagnosis of the Cryptosporidium parasite is required. Furthermore, there is no standardization for the protocols that are commonly used to either detect oocysts in faeces or to diagnose the Cryptosporidium infection. It is therefore necessary to initiate further education and research that will assist in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faecal micro-cosmos...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776453/dye-residue-analysis-in-raw-and-processed-aquaculture-products-matrix-extension-of-aoac-international-official-method-%C3%A2-2012-25
#15
Wendy C Andersen, Christine R Casey, Tara J Nickel, Susan L Young, Sherri B Turnipseed
Background : Triphenylmethane dyes and metabolites are known or suspected mutagens and areprohibited in animals intended for human consumption. Despite toxicity, triphenylmethane dyes are used illegally as inexpensive treatments for fungal and parasite infections in aquatic animals. Objective: AOAC INTERNTIONAL Official Method ℠ 2012.25 for the LC-MS/MS determination of malachite green, crystal violet, brilliant green, and metabolites leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet in seafood products was previously validated for finfish (trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia) and shrimp, but had not been fully validated for other types of aquacultured products such as eel, molluscan shellfish, or frog or for processed seafoods...
May 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776448/anti-plasmodial-activities-of-combretum-molle-combretaceae-zwoo-seed-extract-in-swiss-albino-mice
#16
Merkin Anato, Tsige Ketema
OBJECTIVE: Objective of the study was to evaluate in vivo anti-plasmodial activities of Combretum molle seed extract. METHODS: As a standard protocol, initially the acute toxicity of the plant seed extract was checked following single administration of crude seed extract of the plant at doses 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. This was followed by evaluation of anti-plasmodial activity of crude seed extract of the plant following a 4 days suppressive test. RESULTS: In acute toxicity study sign of toxicity was not observed...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776407/comparative-genomics-of-the-miniature-wasp-and-pest-control-agent-trichogramma-pretiosum
#17
Amelia R I Lindsey, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Xin Wu, Dan Sun, Ellen O Martinson, Zhichao Yan, Paul F Rugman-Jones, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, Harsha Vardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Gongyin Ye, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Soojin V Yi, Richard Stouthamer, John H Werren
BACKGROUND: Trichogrammatids are minute parasitoid wasps that develop within other insect eggs. They are less than half a millimeter long, smaller than some protozoans. The Trichogrammatidae are one of the earliest branching families of Chalcidoidea: a diverse superfamily of approximately half a million species of parasitoid wasps, proposed to have evolved from a miniaturized ancestor. Trichogramma are frequently used in agriculture, released as biological control agents against major moth and butterfly pests...
May 18, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776137/numerical-simulation-of-three-component-multiphase-flows-at-high-density-and-viscosity-ratios-using-lattice-boltzmann-methods
#18
Reza Haghani Hassan Abadi, Abbas Fakhari, Mohammad Hassan Rahimian
In this paper, we propose a multiphase lattice Boltzmann model for numerical simulation of ternary flows at high density and viscosity ratios free from spurious velocities. The proposed scheme, which is based on the phase-field modeling, employs the Cahn-Hilliard theory to track the interfaces among three different fluid components. Several benchmarks, such as the spreading of a liquid lens, binary droplets, and head-on collision of two droplets in binary- and ternary-fluid systems, are conducted to assess the reliability and accuracy of the model...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775852/biomimetic-magnetoelectric-nanocrystals-synthesized-by-polymerization-of-heme-as-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biosensing-application
#19
Jeong Eun Hyeon, Da Woon Jeong, Young Jin Ko, Seung Wook Kim, Chulhwan Park, Sung Ok Han
Regardless of the malaria disease risk, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has an interesting mechanism. During its growth within the red blood cell, toxic free heme is converted into an insoluble crystalline form called the malaria pigment, or hemozoin. In particular, natural hemozoin nanocrystals can provide multiple applications in biosensing fields for health care and diagnosis as similar to artificial metal nanoparticles. In this study, the heme was biologically synthesized and polymerized by Corynebacterium glutamicum and final polymer was applied as a biomimetic conductive biopolymer...
May 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775826/atypical-virulence-in-a-type-iii-toxoplasma-gondii-strain-isolated-in-japan
#20
Yuji Taniguchi, Cornelia Appiah-Kwarteng, Mami Murakami, Junpei Fukumoto, Kisaburo Nagamune, Tomohide Matsuo, Tatsunori Masatani, Hirotaka Kanuka, Tokio Hoshina, Katsuya Kitoh, Yasuhiro Takashima
The virulence of a type III Toxoplasma gondii strain isolated in Japan and designated here as TgCatJpGi1/TaJ was examined in mice and micro minipigs in this study. Despite its type III genotype, oral or intraperitoneal inoculation of cysts from it resulted in severe virulence in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with a high dose of TgCatJpGi1/TaJ tachyzoites showed no obvious clinical signs of infection, and all of them survived for >21 days post-inoculation. Furthermore, no clinical signs of infection were seen when micro minipigs were inoculated with 900 cysts...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
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