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HeeSun Choi, Jonathan Kasko, Jing Feng
Background and Objectives : Mobility is a critical factor that influences older adults' independence and well-being. Older drivers may experience increased crash risks due to age-related cognitive declines. Ensuring safe driving practices among older drivers is important to maintain their mobility without sacrificing safety. Investigations for an effective assessment technology that can inform older drivers' risks associated with cognitive declines are warranted. This study aims to identify attentional deteriorations that may underlie crashes in various situations...
July 10, 2018: Gerontologist
Joshua Thody, Leighton Folkes, Zahara Medina-Calzada, Ping Xu, Tamas Dalmay, Vincent Moulton
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in many important biological pathways. They suppress the translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by directing the RNA-induced silencing complex to their sequence-specific mRNA target(s). In plants, this typically results in mRNA cleavage and subsequent degradation of the mRNA. The resulting mRNA fragments, or degradome, provide evidence for these interactions, and thus degradome analysis has become an important tool for sRNA target prediction...
July 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Loredana Tarraran, Roberto Mazzoli
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long history in industrial processes as food starters and biocontrol agents, and also as producers of high-value compounds. Lactic acid, their main product, is among the most requested chemicals because of its multiple applications, including the synthesis of biodegradable plastic polymers. Moreover, LAB are attractive candidates for the production of ethanol, polyhydroalkanoates, sweeteners and exopolysaccharides. LAB generally have complex nutritional requirements. Furthermore, they cannot directly ferment inexpensive feedstocks such as lignocellulose...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Molly M Quinn, Liza Jalalian, Salustiano Ribeiro, Katherine Ona, Utkan Demirci, Marcelle I Cedars, Mitchell P Rosen
STUDY QUESTION: Does microfluidic sorting improve the selection of sperm with lower DNA fragmentation over standard density-gradient centrifugation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Microfluidic sorting of unprocessed semen allows for the selection of clinically usable, highly motile sperm with nearly undetectable levels of DNA fragmentation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Microfluidic devices have been explored to sort motile and morphologically normal sperm from a raw sample without centrifugation; however, it is uncertain whether DNA damage is reduced in this process...
July 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
C Cuman, C E Beyer, D Brodie, T Fullston, J I Lin, E Willats, D Zander-Fox, J Mullen
STUDY QUESTION: Is next generation sequencing (NGS) capable of detecting smaller sub-chromosomal rearrangements in human embryos than the manufacturer's quoted resolution suggests? SUMMARY ANSWER: NGS was able to detect unbalanced chromosome segments smaller than the manufacturer's resolution. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) has been the gold standard platform used for PGD of chromosome rearrangements...
July 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Yan Jin, Hangzhou Xu, Chunxia Ma, Jiongming Sun, Hongmin Li, Shasha Zhang, Haiyan Pei
Removing harmful cyanobacteria intact by coagulation can prevent cell lysis and toxin release, which provides many benefits for drinking water production, including reduction of the burden on subsequent processes and guaranteeing the water quality. But the electronegativity and buoyancy of cyanobacterial cells make them settle slowly and their accumulation and concentration in flocs would still have severe adverse effects. In this study, we introduced a photocatalyst powder to act as a ballasting agent in the coagulation process and to degrade the cells and cyanotoxins during sludge storage...
July 7, 2018: Water Research
Prithvi Simha, Cecilia Lalander, Anooj Ramanathan, C Vijayalakshmi, Jennifer R McConville, Björn Vinnerås, M Ganesapillai
Sanitation systems based on source separation and valorisation of human urine can improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater management. Yet, the social acceptability of such new, resource-oriented sanitation practices have not been assessed systematically. We attempt to address this research gap by reporting the findings of a survey conducted at a South Indian university that evaluated support for urine recycling among 1252 Indian consumers. We place our findings in the context of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, quantify consumer attitude to urine recycling through an exploratory numerical approach, and identify explanatory factors that shape consumer beliefs and perceptions...
July 4, 2018: Water Research
Bram Packet, Willy Poppe, Birgit Weynand, Miet Vanherck
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this prospective observational study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of the p16/Ki-67 dual stain technique (DST) for detecting CIN 2+ in a LLETZ referral setting. Test performances were compared with HR-HPV testing and Pap cytology. METHODS: All patients referred for a LLETZ procedure were candidates for participation in this trial. A total of 110 patients were enrolled between October 2016 and March 2017. From each participant, a cervical cytology sample was obtained before the onset of the LLETZ procedure...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Abdelkader Zebda, Jean-Pierre Alcaraz, Pankaj Vadgama, Sergey Shleev, Shelley D Minteer, François Boucher, Philippe Cinquin, Donald K Martin
There is a growing interest in the design and engineering of operational biofuel cells that can be implanted. This review highlights the recent progress in the electrochemistry of biofuel cell technologies, but with a particular emphasis on the medical and physiological aspects that impact the biocompatibility of biofuel cells operating inside a living body. We discuss the challenge of supplying power to implantable medical devices, with regard to the limitations of lithium battery technology and why implantable biofuel cells can be a promising alternative to provide the levels of power required for medical devices...
June 18, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Carmela Garofalo, Carmen Berbegal, Francesco Grieco, Maria Tufariello, Giuseppe Spano, Vittorio Capozzi
We report the first polyphasic characterization of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to select candidate strains for the design of starter cultures tailored for Apulian sparkling wines obtained from local grape variety. In addition, it is the first survey in our region that propose the selection of autochthonous starter cultures for sparkling wine i) including a preliminary tailored genotypic and technological screening, and ii) monitoring analytical contribution during secondary fermentation in terms of volatile compounds (VOCs)...
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yang Yu, Ling Yu, Chenghong Wang, J Paul Chen
Arsenic contamination due to anthropogenic and natural activities has posted a great risk to humans through several pathways. As such, development of cost-effective technologies for arsenic decontamination is very important from both social and economic standpoints. In this paper, we are reporting a novel adsorptive yttrium nanoparticles (YNPs)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) modified polysulfone (PSF) membrane for the efficient treatment of arsenic. In the preparation of membrane, the porous PSF membrane fabricated with hydrophilic polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer was coated by a PVA thin layer and then loaded with YNPs through an in-situ precipitation method using an ammonia vapor...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Thanaa Shalaby, Hesham Hamad, Ebtihag Ibrahim, Ola Mahmoud, Affaf Al-Oufy
Safety of drinking-water is an urgent for human health. It is critical to promote the cheap technologies for water purification to guarantee the free-pathogens-drinking water. The present study has been investigated the antibacterial activity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers membranes which decorated by Ag, CuO or ZnO nanoparticles as bactericides. The hybrid nanofiber composites were fabricated by electrospinning technique and the obtained membranes were characterized using SEM, EDX and FTIR. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated against E...
July 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nicholas J Ashton, Mark Ide, Michael Schöll, Kaj Blennow, Simon Lovestone, Abdul Hye, Henrik Zetterberg
There is a need for an accessible biomarker that can complement current cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers in an accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Saliva is a rich source of potential biomarkers and proteins related to neurodegenerative disorders have been shown to be present in this matrix, including tau. In this study, we quantified salivary total tau (t-tau) concentration in 160 healthy elderly control, 68 mild cognitive impairment, and 53 AD participants using ultrasensitive Single molecule array (Simoa) technology...
June 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Igor Jerković, Zvonimir Marijanović, Gabriele Serreli, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni Tuberoso
Late harvest (LHW) and ice harvest (IHW) Gewürztraminer wine samples from Croatia (Ilok) were investigated. Their technological parameters, chromaticity coordinates, total phenols content, and antioxidant capacity were determined. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, xanthine, and trans-caftaric acid were analyzed in the samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD). Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed isoamyl alcohol as predominant compound (21...
July 14, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Hong Wang, Lifeng Wang, Liancheng Wang, Zheng Xing, Xuan Wu, Wei Zhao, Xiujun Qi, Zhicheng Ju, Quanchao Zhuang
Early studies indicate that graphite is feasible as a negative electrode of the potassium ion battery while its electrochemical performance still cannot meet the application demand. More efforts should focus on increasing the specific capacity and improve superior rate capability in the meantime. As an attempt, we utilize a stainless steel autoclave technology to make the phosphorus nanoparticles encapsulated in the reduced graphene oxide matrix as the electrode materials for potassium ion battery. As a result, the composite matrix affords high reversible capacity of 354 mAh g-1 and 253 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and 500 mA g-1, respectively...
July 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jia Xue, Kevin Caton, Samendra Sherchan
Naegleria fowleri in recreational waters is a serious health threat. A rapid and accurate method to determine this pathogen in water is vital to develop effective control strategies. In this study, we compared two molecular methods: droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays in identifying N. fowleri from clinical and environmental samples. Strong agreement between ddPCR and qPCR methods over clinical DNA samples was observed. The limit of detection (LOD) for ddPCR and qPCR assays were 2...
July 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Corinna L Schultz, Melissa A Alderfer
BACKGROUND: Management of pediatric cancer entails frequent laboratory and radiology testing to monitor response to treatment, side effects, and possible relapse of disease. Little is known about how caregivers of children with cancer would like to receive results of these tests and whether on-line patient portals may meet those preferences. PROCEDURES: One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 caregivers of children with cancer purposively sampled for breadth on demographic characteristics...
July 14, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Heather J Beck, Isabella Moll
Previously, leaderless mRNAs (lmRNAs) were perceived to make up only a minor fraction of the transcriptome in bacteria. However, advancements in RNA sequencing technology are uncovering vast numbers of lmRNAs, particularly in archaea, Actinobacteria , and extremophiles and thus underline their significance in cellular physiology and regulation. Due to the absence of conventional ribosome binding signals, lmRNA translation initiation is distinct from canonical mRNAs and can therefore be differentially regulated...
July 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Martina Persic, Jerneja Jakopic, Metka Hudina
BACKGROUND: Tannins are frequently the main focus in the investigation of de-astringency treatments of persimmon, and the effect of a controlled atmosphere on other phytochemicals is often overlooked. In this research, the changes in content of total soluble and insoluble phenolics, soluble tannins, saponins, carotenoids and changes in primary metabolites were monitored. RESULTS: Generally, treatment with ethylene induces a decrease in total phenolic content, while in treatment with CO2 , the content of total phenolics remains unchanged in comparison to the level of total phenolics before treatment...
July 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kiki C Andree, Anouk Mentink, Leonie L Zeune, Leon W M M Terstappen, Nikolas H Stoecklein, Rui P Neves, Christiane Driemel, Rita Lampignano, Liwen Yang, Hans Neubauer, Tanja Fehm, Johannes C Fischer, Elisabetta Rossi, Mariangela Manicone, Umberto Basso, Piero Marson, Rita Zamarchi, Yohann Loriot, Valerie Lapierre, Vincent Faugeroux, Marianne Oulhen, Françoise Farace, Gemma Fowler, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Berni Ebbs, Maryou Lambros, Mateus Crespo, Penny Flohr, Johann S de Bono
Frequently, the number of circulating tumor cells (CTC) isolated in 7.5 mL of blood is too small to reliably determine tumor heterogeneity and to be representative as a 'liquid biopsy'. In the EU FP7 program CTCTrap, we aimed to validate and optimize the recently introduced Diagnostic LeukApheresis (DLA) to screen liters of blood. Here we present the results obtained from 34 metastatic cancer patients subjected to DLA in the participating institutions. 7.5 mL blood processed with CellSearch was used as 'gold standard' reference...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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