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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737455/current-and-future-use-of-chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-in-infectious-immune-neoplastic-and-neurological-diseases-a-mini-review
#1
REVIEW
Domenico Plantone, Tatiana Koudriavtseva
The process of finding new therapeutic indications for currently used drugs, defined as 'repurposing', is receiving growing attention. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, with an original indication to prevent or cure malaria, have been successfully used to treat several infectious (HIV, Q fever, Whipple's disease, fungal infections), rheumatological (systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome), and other immunological diseases. Indeed, they have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, anti-infective, antithrombotic, and metabolic effects...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720939/promiscuous-multi-target-lupane-type-triterpenoids-inhibits-wild-type-and-drug-resistant-hiv-1-replication-through-the-interference-with-several-targets
#2
Luis M Bedoya, Manuela Beltrán, Javier García-Pérez, Patricia Obregón-Calderón, Oliver Callies, Ignacio A Jímenez, Isabel L Bazzocchi, José Alcamí
Current research on antiretroviral therapy is mainly focused in the development of new formulations or combinations of drugs belonging to already known targets. However, HIV-1 infection is not cured by current therapy and thus, new approaches are needed. Bevirimat was developed by chemical modification of betulinic acid, a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid (LPT), as a first-in-class HIV-1 maturation inhibitor. However, in clinical trials, bevirimat showed less activity than expected because of the presence of a natural mutation in Gag protein that conferred resistance to a high proportion of HIV-1 strains...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706951/transcriptional-modulation-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-primary-cd4-t-cells-following-vorinostat-treatment
#3
Cory H White, Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Steven M Lada, Michael S Breen, Tara P Hurst, Celsa A Spina, Douglas D Richman, John Frater, Gkikas Magiorkinis, Christopher H Woelk
The greatest obstacle to a cure for HIV is the provirus that integrates into the genome of the infected cell and persists despite antiretroviral therapy. A "shock and kill" approach has been proposed as a strategy for an HIV cure whereby drugs and compounds referred to as latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are used to "shock" the silent provirus into active replication to permit "killing" by virus-induced pathology or immune recognition. The LRA most utilized to date in clinical trials has been the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-vorinostat...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682301/ethical-challenges-in-developing-an-educational-video-to-empower-potential-participants-during-consent-processes-in-hiv-cure-research-in-south-africa
#4
EDITORIAL
Ciara Staunton, Malcolm de Roubaix, Dianno Baatjies, Gill Black, Melany Hendricks, Theresa Rossouw, Keymanthri Moodley
Obtaining consent for HIV research is complex, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Low levels of education, complexity of science and research processes, confusion about basic elements of research, and socio-economic conditions that make access to medical care difficult have collectively led to concerns about the adequacy of the consent process. Given the exponential growth of HIV prevention and treatment research in South Africa, HIV researchers are increasingly facing challenges obtaining authentic informed consent from potential participants...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651411/-leishmania-antigenuria-to-predict-initial-treatment-failure-and-relapse-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-hiv-coinfected-patients-an-exploratory-study-nested-within-a-clinical-trial-in-ethiopia
#5
Johan van Griensven, Bewketu Mengesha, Tigist Mekonnen, Helina Fikre, Yegnasew Takele, Emebet Adem, Rezika Mohammed, Koert Ritmeijer, Florian Vogt, Wim Adriaensen, Ermias Diro
Background: Biomarkers predicting the risk of VL treatment failure and relapse in VL/HIV coinfected patients are needed. Nested within a two-site clinical trial in Ethiopia (2011-2015), we conducted an exploratory study to assess whether (1) levels of Leishmania antigenuria measured at VL diagnosis were associated with initial treatment failure and (2) levels of Leishmania antigenuria at the end of treatment (parasitologically-confirmed cure) were associated with subsequent relapse. Methods: Leishmania antigenuria at VL diagnosis and cure was determined using KAtex urine antigen test and graded as negative (0), weak/moderate (grade 1+/2+) or strongly-positive (3+)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643011/the-effect-of-antiretroviral-intensification-with-dolutegravir-on-residual-virus-replication-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#6
Thomas A Rasmussen, James H McMahon, J Judy Chang, Jennifer Audsley, Ajantha Rhodes, Surekha Tennakoon, Ashanti Dantanarayana, Tim Spelman, Tina Schmidt, Stephen J Kent, Vincent Morcilla, Sarah Palmer, Julian H Elliott, Sharon R Lewin
BACKGROUND: Whether ongoing virus replication occurs in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear; therefore, whether residual virus replication is a barrier to achieving a cure for HIV is also unknown. We aimed to establish whether ART intensification with dolutegravir would reveal or affect residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals on suppressive treatment. METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we enrolled HIV-infected adults (aged 18 years and older) receiving combination ART (at least three agents) for at least 3 years from the Alfred Hospital and Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia...
May 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594094/navigating-multiple-sources-of-healing-in-the-context-of-hiv-aids-and-wide-availability-of-antiretroviral-treatment-a-qualitative-study-of-community-participants-perceptions-and-experiences-in-rural-south-africa
#7
Thembelihle Zuma, Daniel Wight, Tamsen Rochat, Mosa Moshabela
Background: South Africa introduced the world's largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004 and since 2016 the Department of Health implemented a universal Treatment as Prevention (TasP) strategy. However, some studies have shown that increasing the availability of ART is insufficient for the comprehensive treatment of HIV, since many people still use traditional health practitioners (THPs) to avoid being identified as HIV positive, and for reasons unrelated to HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study explored the factors influencing how both HIV-negative and HIV-positive people choose amongst multiple sources of healing and how they engage with them, in the context of HIV/AIDS and wide availability of ART...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580818/tuberculosis-advances-and-challenges-in-development-of-new-diagnostics-and-biomarkers
#8
REVIEW
Gerhard Walzl, Ruth McNerney, Nelita du Plessis, Matthew Bates, Timothy D McHugh, Novel N Chegou, Alimuddin Zumla
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and detection of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis is essential for achieving global tuberculosis control. Despite the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the first-line rapid tuberculosis diagnostic test, the gap between global estimates of incidence and new case notifications is 4·1 million people. More accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests are needed to improve case detection...
March 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555233/interferon-associated-therapies-toward-hiv-control-the-back-and-forth
#9
REVIEW
Nicolas Noël, Béatrice Jacquelin, Nicolas Huot, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research...
March 9, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500712/quarter-century-of-anti-hiv-car-t-cells
#10
REVIEW
Thor A Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A therapy that might cure HIV is a very important goal for the 30-40 million people living with HIV. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have recently had remarkable success against certain leukemias, and there are reasons to believe they could be successful for HIV. This manuscript summarizes the published research on HIV CAR T cells and reviews the current anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells has been going on for at least the last 25 years...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490663/class-modeling-analysis-reveals-t-cell-homeostasis-disturbances-involved-in-loss-of-immune-control-in-elite-controllers
#11
José M Benito, María C Ortiz, Agathe León, Luis A Sarabia, José M Ligos, María Montoya, Marcial Garcia, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Rosario Palacios, Alfonso Cabello, Clara Restrepo, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge Del Romero, Manuel Leal, María A Muñoz-Fernández, José Alcamí, Felipe García, Miguel Górgolas, Norma Rallón
BACKGROUND: Despite long-lasting HIV replication control, a significant proportion of elite controller (EC) patients may experience CD4 T-cell loss. Discovering perturbations in immunological parameters could help our understanding of the mechanisms that may be operating in those patients experiencing loss of immunological control. METHODS: A case-control study was performed to evaluate if alterations in different T-cell homeostatic parameters can predict CD4 T-cell loss in ECs by comparing data from EC patients showing significant CD4 decline (cases) and EC patients showing stable CD4 counts (controls)...
February 28, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410548/analysis-of-the-spanish-ccr5-%C3%A2-32-inventory-of-cord-blood-units-lower-cell-counts-in-homozygous-donors
#12
Emma Enrich, Francisco Vidal, Francisco Sánchez-Gordo, Juan M Gómez-Zumaquero, Antonio Balas, Francesc Rudilla, Luisa Barea, Ana Castro, Luis Larrea, Miguel A Perez-Vaquero, Isidro Prat, Sergio Querol, Gregorio Garrido, Rafael Matesanz, Enric Carreras, Rafael F Duarte
The possibility to use CCR5-∆32 umbilical cord blood to cure HIV infection in patients in need of a hematopoietic transplant has been suggested. The less stringent HLA compatibility needed in this type of transplant facilitates the search of a suitable donor having the CCR5-∆32 mutation. To achieve an inventory of CCR5-∆32 cord blood units, the 20,236 best cell quality units of the Spanish Registry were genotyped. Furthermore, their CD34+ and total nucleated cells counts, blood type, gender, HLA and donor's geographical and ancestral origin were analyzed...
February 6, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369303/report-from-the-international-conference-on-viral-hepatitis-2017
#13
Vicente Soriano, Benjamin Young, Nancy Reau
The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347826/acceptability-of-hiv-cure-related-trials-the-challenges-for-physicians-and-people-living-with-hiv-anrs-apsec
#14
Marie Preau, Marjolaine Doumergue, Christel Protiere, Cécile Goujard, Marion Mora, Laurence Meyer, Jean-Daniel Lelievre, François Raffi, Bruno Spire, Olivier Lambotte, Marie Suzan-Monti
Essential HIV cure-related clinical trials (HCRCT) have a potentially high-risk profile in terms of participants' health, which could hinder enrollment by people living with HIV (PLWH) and healthcare professionals (HP). The ANRS-APSEC survey is part of the IAS "Towards an HIV cure" initiative, which promotes multidisciplinary research for a safe, affordable and scalable cure. The study objectives were to understand the psychosocial mechanisms underlying PLWH and HP viewpoints about future HCRCT. Six focus group discussions (three with PLWH (n = 21) and three with HP (n = 30)) were held in three French infectious disease units...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324227/getting-the-kill-into-shock-and-kill-strategies-to-eliminate-latent-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Youry Kim, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin
Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is currently no HIV cure and treatment is life long. HIV persists during ART due to long-lived and proliferating latently infected CD4+ T cells. One strategy to eliminate latency is to activate virus production using latency reversing agents (LRAs) with the goal of triggering cell death through virus-induced cytolysis or immune-mediated clearance. However, multiple studies have demonstrated that activation of viral transcription alone is insufficient to induce cell death and some LRAs may counteract cell death by promoting cell survival...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305405/real-world-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-second-generation-direct-acting-antivirals-initial-results-from-a-multicentre-canadian-retrospective-cohort-of-diverse-patients
#16
Alex I Aspinall, Abdel A Shaheen, Golasa S Kochaksaraei, Breean Haslam, Samuel S Lee, Gisela Macphail, Jeff Kapler, Oscar E Larios, Kelly W Burak, Mark G Swain, Meredith A Borman, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: High hepatitis C cure rates have been observed in registration trials with second-generation direct-acting antivirals. Real-world data also indicate high sustained viral response (SVR) rates. Our objective was to determine real-world SVR rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who were treated with second-generation direct-acting antivirals in the first 18 months of their availability in Canada. METHODS: Four centres in Calgary contributed their treatment data for a diverse patient population including those who had or had not undergone liver transplantation, those coinfected with HIV and vulnerable populations...
January 5, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280961/rna-interference-therapies-for-an-hiv-1-functional-cure
#17
REVIEW
Robert J Scarborough, Anne Gatignol
HIV-1 drug therapies can prevent disease progression but cannot eliminate HIV-1 viruses from an infected individual. While there is hope that elimination of HIV-1 can be achieved, several approaches to reach a functional cure (control of HIV-1 replication in the absence of drug therapy) are also under investigation. One of these approaches is the transplant of HIV-1 resistant cells expressing anti-HIV-1 RNAs, proteins or peptides. Small RNAs that use RNA interference pathways to target HIV-1 replication have emerged as competitive candidates for cell transplant therapy and have been included in all gene combinations that have so far entered clinical trials...
December 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243498/-cart-intensification-by-the-hiv-1-tat-b-clade-vaccine-progress-to-phase-iii-efficacy-studies
#18
Aurelio Cafaro, Cecilia Sgadari, Orietta Picconi, Antonella Tripiciano, Sonia Moretti, Vittorio Francavilla, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Stefano Buttò, Giovanni Cozzone, Fabrizio Ensoli, Paolo Monini, Barbara Ensoli
In spite of its success at suppressing HIV replication, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) only partially reduces immune dysregulation and loss of immune functions. These cART-unmet needs appear to be due to persistent virus replication and cell-to-cell transmission in reservoirs, and are causes of increased patients' morbidity and mortality. Up to now, therapeutic interventions aimed at cART-intensification by attacking the virus reservoir have failed. Areas covered: We briefly review the rationale and clinical development of Tat therapeutic vaccine in cART-treated subjects in Italy and South Africa (SA)...
February 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237332/traditional-complementary-and-alternative-medical-cures-for-hiv-rationale-and-implications-for-hiv-cure-research
#19
Xin Pan, Alice Zhang, Gail E Henderson, Stuart Rennie, Chuncheng Liu, Weiping Cai, Feng Wu, Joseph D Tucker
Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been used by some people living with HIV (PLHIV) in an attempt to cure HIV. This article reviews the main factors influencing their decision to choose TCAM to cure HIV and discusses implications for HIV cure research. Those who decide to pursue traditional, complementary, and alternative medical cures may be influenced by the health system, cultural, and social dynamics, and their own individual beliefs and preferences. These same factors may impact participation in HIV cure research...
December 13, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226307/macrolides-for-treatment-of-haemophilus-ducreyi-infection-in-sexually-active-adults
#20
REVIEW
Laura Romero, Cesar Huerfano, Carlos F Grillo-Ardila
BACKGROUND: Chancroid is a genital ulcerative disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. This microorganism is endemic in Africa, where it can cause up to 10% of genital ulcers. Macrolides may be an effective alternative to treat chancroid and, based on their oral administration and duration of therapy, could be considered as first line therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi infection in sexually active adults...
December 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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