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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899104/therapeutic-vaccine-against-hiv-viral-variability-ctl-epitopes-and-genetics-of-patients
#1
Herve J Fleury, Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson
The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viro-immunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs towards this type of response. The results of these trials are clearly not commensurate with the hope placed in them. Might there be one or more uncontrolled variables? The genetics of patients need to be taken into consideration, especially their HLA alleles...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879787/moving-forward-with-treatment-options-for-hiv-infected-children
#2
Jean-Christophe Beghin, Jean Cyr Yombi, Jean Ruelle, Dimitri Van der Linden
Current international guidelines recommend to treat all HIV-1 infected patients regardless of CD4 cell count. Despite the remarkable worldwide progress for universal access to antiretroviral during the last decade, the pediatric population remains fragile due to lack of randomized studies, inappropriate antiretroviral formulations, adherence difficulties, drug toxicity and development of resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest recommendations and advances for the treatment of HIV-infected children and highlights the potential complications of a lifelong antiretroviral treatment initiated early in life...
September 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873394/systematic-review-of-clinical-trials-assessing-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-treatments-a-first-step-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-establishing-an-individual-patient-data-sharing-platform
#3
Jacob T Bush, Monique Wasunna, Fabiana Alves, Jorge Alvar, Piero L Olliaro, Michael Otieno, Carol Hopkins Sibley, Nathalie Strub Wourgaft, Philippe J Guerin
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) annually. A variety of factors are taken into account when considering the best therapeutic options to cure a patient and reduce the risk of resistance, including geographical area, malnourishment and HIV coinfection. Pooled analyses combine data from many studies to answer specific scientific questions that cannot be answered with individual studies alone. However, the heterogeneity of study design, data collection, and analysis often makes direct comparison difficult...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851294/landscape-review-of-current-hiv-kick-and-kill-cure-research-some-kicking-not-enough-killing
#4
REVIEW
Kristian Thorlund, Marc S Horwitz, Brian T Fife, Richard Lester, D William Cameron
BACKGROUND: Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is life-long because it only suppresses de novo infections. Recent efforts to eliminate HIV have tested the ability of a number of agents to reactivate ('Kick') the well-known latent reservoir. This approach is rooted in the assumption that once these cells are reactivated the host's immune system itself will eliminate ('Kill') the virus. While many agents have been shown to reactivate large quantities of the latent reservoir, the impact on the size of the latent reservoir has been negligible...
August 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851229/the-california-hiv-aids-research-program-history-impact-and-hiv-cure-initiative
#5
Lisa Loeb Stanga, Laura Packel, Tyler Martz, George Lemp
This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly-funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first population-based longitudinal cohort study of persons living with HIV - The Gay Men's Health Study...
August 29, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835533/a-phase-ii-clinical-study-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-self-and-partner-anal-examinations-to-detect-anal-canal-abnormalities-including-anal-cancer
#6
Alan G Nyitray, Joseph T Hicks, Lu-Yu Hwang, Sarah Baraniuk, Margaret White, Stefanos Millas, Nkechi Onwuka, Xiaotao Zhang, Eric L Brown, Michael W Ross, Elizabeth Y Chiao
OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a common cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is no standard screening protocol for anal cancer. We conducted a phase II clinical trial to assess the feasibility of teaching MSM to recognise palpable masses in the anal canal which is a common sign of anal cancer in men. METHODS: A clinician skilled in performing digital anorectal examinations (DARE) used a pelvic manikin to train 200 MSM, aged 27-78 years, how to do a self-anal examination (SAE) for singles or a partner anal examination (PAE) for couples...
August 23, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782474/the-relevance-of-post-transcriptional-mechanisms-in-hiv-latency-reversal
#7
Ambra Sarracino, Alessandro Marcello
BACKGROUND: Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus has become a curable disease, which could not be cured because the virus persists in the face of an efficacious drug treatment. Current efforts for the rescue of replication-competent virus from cellular reservoirs are limited to drugs targeting transcriptional reactivation of the dormant virus and clinical trials so far are disappointing. One explanation could be that post-transcriptional pathways are not optimal thus impeding full reactivation of the virus, which is required for purging the cellular reservoirs...
August 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755872/new-approaches-for-the-enhancement-of-chimeric-antigen-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-hiv
#8
REVIEW
Mayra A Carrillo, Anjie Zhen, Jerome A Zack, Scott G Kitchen
HIV infection continues to be a life-long chronic disease in spite of the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling viral replication and preventing disease progression. However, because of the high cost of treatment, severe side effects, and inefficiency in curing the disease with ART, there is a call for alternative therapies that will provide a functional cure for HIV. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the control and clearance of viral infections and therefore immune-based therapies have attempted to engineer HIV-specific CTLs that would be able to clear the infection from the body...
September 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751153/ccr5-edited-gene-therapies-for-hiv-cure-closing-the-door-to-viral-entry
#9
REVIEW
Kevin G Haworth, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first reported and characterized more than three decades ago. Once thought of as a death sentence, HIV infection has become a chronically manageable disease. However, it is estimated that a staggering 0.8% of the world's population is infected with HIV, with more than 1 million deaths reported in 2015 alone. Despite the development of effective anti-retroviral drugs, a permanent cure has only been documented in one patient to date. In 2007, an HIV-positive patient received a bone marrow transplant to treat his leukemia from an individual who was homozygous for a mutation in the CCR5 gene...
July 24, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689442/drug-interactions-in-hiv-infected-patients-treated-for-hepatitis-c
#11
REVIEW
Vicente Soriano, Pablo Labarga, José V Fernandez-Montero, Carmen de Mendoza, Laura Benítez-Gutiérrez, José M Peña, Pablo Barreiro
The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C field. Most hepatitis C patients can now be cured, including those coinfected with HIV. However, drug-drug interactions (DDI) between DAA and antiretrovirals (ARV) should be known to prevent either toxicity due to drug overexposure or treatment failures due to low drug concentrations. Areas covered: Clinically significant DDI may be classified as major (when co-administration should be contraindicated) or minor (when they require close monitoring, changes in drug dosage or in timing)...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687550/sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-a-single-tablet-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-infection-of-all-genotypes
#12
REVIEW
Misty M Miller
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, interaction potential, efficacy, and safety of the newest direct-acting antiviral (DAA) medication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C are reviewed. SUMMARY: Nonstructural proteins 5A (NS5A) and 5B (NS5B) are key drivers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Velpatasvir, an inhibitor of NS5A, was coformulated with the NS5B inhibitor sofosbuvir to provide a single-tablet combination DAA (Epclusa, Gilead Sciences)...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662034/efficacy-and-safety-of-available-treatments-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil-a-multicenter-randomized-open-label-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Dorcas Lamounier Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa, Roque Pacheco de Almeida, Enaldo Viera de Melo, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães de Carvalho, Ana Rabello, Andréa Lucchesi de Carvalho, Anastácio de Queiroz Sousa, Robério Dias Leite, Simone Soares Lima, Thais Alves Amaral, Fabiana Piovesan Alves, Joelle Rode
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient evidence to support visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment recommendations in Brazil and an urgent need to improve current treatments. Drug combinations may be an option. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, open label, controlled trial was conducted in five sites in Brazil to evaluate efficacy and safety of (i) amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmphoB) (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days), (ii) liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and (iii) a combination of LAMB (10 mg/kg single dose) plus meglumine antimoniate (MA) (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 10 days), compared to (iv) standard treatment with MA (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 20 days)...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#14
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592534/comprehensive-cross-clade-characterization-of-antibody-mediated-recognition-complement-mediated-lysis-and-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-of-hiv-1-envelope-specific-antibodies-toward-eradication-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir
#15
Shariq Mujib, Jun Liu, A K M Nur-Ur Rahman, Jordan A Schwartz, Phil Bonner, Feng Yun Yue, Mario A Ostrowski
Immunotherapy with passive administration of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 envelope-specific antibodies (bnAbs) in the setting of established infection in vivo has yielded mixed results. The contribution of different antibodies toward the direct elimination of infected cells is poorly understood. In this study, we determined the ability of 12 well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies to recognize and eliminate primary CD4 T cells infected with HIV-1 belonging to clades A, B, C, and D, via antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), in vitro We further tested unique combinations of these antibodies to determine the optimal antibody cocktails to be tested in future clinical trials...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587569/will-cure-trials-introduce-an-uncomfortable-revolution-in-the-field-of-hiv-research
#16
Christel Protière, Marie Préau, Marjolaine Doumergue, Marion Mora, Olivier Lambotte, Bruno Spire, Marie Suzan-Monti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539449/anti-hiv-1-adcc-antibodies-following-latency-reversal-and-treatment-interruption
#17
Wen Shi Lee, Anne B Kristensen, Thomas A Rasmussen, Martin Tolstrup, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Arnold Reynaldi, Miles P Davenport, Sean Emery, Janaki Amin, David A Cooper, Virginia L Kan, Julie Fox, Henning Gruell, Matthew S Parsons, Stephen J Kent
There is growing interest in utilizing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate infected cells following reactivation from HIV-1 latency. A potential barrier is that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies decline in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may not be sufficient to eliminate reactivated latently infected cells. It is not known whether reactivation from latency with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) could provide sufficient antigenic stimulus to boost HIV-1-specific ADCC...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530684/tackling-hiv-and-aids-contributions-by-non-human-primate-models
#18
Koen K A Van Rompay
During the past three decades, non-human primate (NHP) models have gained an increasing importance in HIV basic and translational research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian or simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, SHIV) results in a disease that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its benefits and limitations, carefully designed NHP studies with selection of experimental variables have unraveled important questions of basic pathogenesis and have provided the tools to explore and screen intervention strategies...
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520969/cell-mediated-immunity-to-target-the-persistent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoir
#19
REVIEW
James L Riley, Luis J Montaner
Effective clearance of virally infected cells requires the sequential activity of innate and adaptive immunity effectors. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, naturally induced cell-mediated immune responses rarely eradicate infection. However, optimized immune responses could potentially be leveraged in HIV cure efforts if epitope escape and lack of sustained effector memory responses were to be addressed. Here we review leading HIV cure strategies that harness cell-mediated control against HIV in stably suppressed antiretroviral-treated subjects...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513067/interventions-for-cutaneous-molluscum-contagiosum
#20
REVIEW
Johannes C van der Wouden, Renske van der Sande, Emma J Kruithof, Annet Sollie, Lisette Wa van Suijlekom-Smit, Sander Koning
BACKGROUND: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006, and updated previously in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of specific treatments and management strategies, including waiting for natural resolution, for cutaneous, non-genital molluscum contagiosum in people without immune deficiency...
May 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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