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Genetic variation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231513/increasing-ascorbate-levels-in-crops-to-enhance-human-nutrition-and-plant-abiotic-stress-tolerance
#1
REVIEW
Richard C Macknight, William A Laing, Sean M Bulley, Ronan C Broad, Alexander At Johnson, Roger P Hellens
Ascorbate (or vitamin C) is an essential human micronutrient predominantly obtained from plants. In addition to preventing scurvy, it is now known to have broader roles in human health, for example as a cofactor for enzymes involved in epigenetic programming and as regulator of cellular iron uptake. Furthermore, ascorbate is the major antioxidant in plants and underpins many environmentally induced abiotic stress responses. Biotechnological approaches to enhance the ascorbate content of crops therefore have potential to improve both human health and abiotic stress tolerance of crops...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231417/genetic-and-genomic-evidence-of-niche-partitioning-and-adaptive-radiation-in-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbionts
#2
Dario I Ojeda Alayon, Clement K M Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Yiyuan Zhang, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K Boone, Allan L Carroll, Janice E K Cooke, Amanda D Roe, Felix A H Sperling, Richard C Hamelin
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defenses and modifying host tissues to favor brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231407/co-occurrence-and-hybridization-of-anther-smut-pathogens-specialized-on-dianthus-hosts
#3
Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud, Michael E Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231383/the-pangenome-of-hexaploid-bread-wheat
#4
Juan D Montenegro, Agnieszka A Golicz, Philipp E Bayer, Bhavna Hurgobin, HueyTyng Lee, Chon-Kit Kenneth Chan, Paul Visendi, Kaitao Lai, Jaroslav Doležel, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards
There is an increasing understanding that gene presence absence variation plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits, however there have been relatively few studies on gene presence absence variation in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars...
February 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231077/association-of-genetic-variation-in-the-tachykinin-receptor-3-locus-with-hot-flashes-and-night-sweats-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-study
#5
Carolyn J Crandall, JoAnn E Manson, Chancellor Hohensee, Steve Horvath, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Erin S LeBlanc, Mara Z Vitolins, Rami Nassir, Janet S Sinsheimer
OBJECTIVE: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS, ie, hot flashes or night sweats) are reported by many, but not all, women. The extent to which VMS are genetically determined is unknown. We evaluated the relationship of genetic variation and VMS. METHODS: In this observational study, we accessed data from three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (SNP Health Association Resource cohort [SHARe], WHI Memory Study cohort [WHIMS+], and Genome-Wide Association Studies of Treatment Response in Randomized Clinical Trials [GARNET] studies, total n = 17,695) of European American, African American, and Hispanic American postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Study...
March 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230293/influence-of-complex-childhood-diseases-on-variation-in-growth-and-skeletal-development
#6
REVIEW
Babette S Zemel
The study of human growth and skeletal development by human biologists is framed by the larger theoretical concerns regarding the underpinnings of population variation and human evolution. This unique perspective is directly relevant to the assessment of child health and well-being at the individual and group level, as well as the construction of growth charts. Environmental, behavioral (nutrition and physical activity), and disease-related factors can prevent attainment of full genetic potential for growth...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230171/impact-of-genetic-variation-on-human-camkk2-regulation-by-ca-2-calmodulin-and-multisite-phosphorylation
#7
Matthew T O'Brien, Jonathan S Oakhill, Naomi X Y Ling, Christopher G Langendorf, Ashfaqul Hoque, Toby A Dite, Anthony R Means, Bruce E Kemp, John W Scott
The Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2) is a key regulator of neuronal function and whole-body energy metabolism. Elevated CaMKK2 activity is strongly associated with prostate and hepatic cancers, whereas reduced CaMKK2 activity has been linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disease in humans. Here we report the functional effects of nine rare-variant point mutations that were detected in large-scale human genetic studies and cancer tissues, all of which occur close to two regulatory phosphorylation sites and the catalytic site on human CaMKK2...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229967/genetic-architecture-of-seed-longevity-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#8
Mian Abdur Rehman Arif, Manuela Nagel, Ulrike Lohwasser, Andreas Borner
The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical and chemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183 bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over some decades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageing procedures. A phenotype-genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observed variation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229354/genetic-differentiation-of-colombian-populations-of-anopheles-darlingi-root-diptera-culicidae
#9
C Y Rosero, G I Jaramillo, R Gonzalez, H Cardenas
Anopheles darlingi Root is a primary vector of malaria in the neotropic region, a species not just highly anthropophilic but very efficient in transmitting Plasmodium species and considered the most important vector in the Amazon region. The main goal of this study was to determine the genetic structure of the A. darlingi populations using microsatellites (STR) in western and eastern regions of Colombia. DNA extraction was done with the cited protocol of band using the Genomic Prep™ cell and tissue isolation commercial kits...
February 23, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229336/relevant-principal-factors-affecting-the-reproducibility-of-insect-primary-culture
#10
Norichika Ogata, Kikuo Iwabuchi
The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins...
February 22, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229269/in-arabidopsis-thaliana-distinct-alleles-encoding-mitochondrial-rna-processing-factor-4-support-the-generation-of-additional-5-termini-of-ccmb-transcripts
#11
Katrin Stoll, Christian Jonietz, Sarah Schleicher, Catherine Colas des Francs-Small, Ian Small, Stefan Binder
In plant mitochondria, the 5' ends of many transcripts are generated post-transcriptionally. We show that the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 (RPF4) supports the generation of extra 5' ends of ccmB transcripts in Landsberg erecta (Ler) and a number of other Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. RPF4 was identified in Ler applying a forward genetic approach supported by complementation studies of ecotype Columbia (Col), which generates the Ler-type extra ccmB 5' termini only after the introduction of the RPF4 allele from Ler...
February 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229131/discovering-cortical-folding-patterns-in-neonatal-cortical-surfaces-using-large-scale-dataset
#12
Yu Meng, Gang Li, Li Wang, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore, Dinggang Shen
The cortical folding of the human brain is highly complex and variable across individuals. Mining the major patterns of cortical folding from modern large-scale neuroimaging datasets is of great importance in advancing techniques for neuroimaging analysis and understanding the inter-individual variations of cortical folding and its relationship with cognitive function and disorders. As the primary cortical folding is genetically influenced and has been established at term birth, neonates with the minimal exposure to the complicated postnatal environmental influence are the ideal candidates for understanding the major patterns of cortical folding...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228687/reproductive-biology-and-variation-of-nuclear-ribosomal-its-and-ets-sequences-in-the-calligonum-mongolicum-complex-polygonaceae
#13
Wei Shi, Jun Wen, Yanfeng Zhao, Gabriel Johnson, Borong Pan
To explore the biosystematics of the Calligonum mongolicum complex (Polygonaceae), the flowering phenological period, breeding and pollination characters and seed set of the complex (Calligonum Mongolicum Turze, Calligonum chinense A. Los., Calligonum gobicum A. Los., Calligonum pumilum A. Los. and Calligonum zaidamense A. Los.) were documented in the Turpan Eremophyte Botanical Garden, China. The sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS region were employed to differentiate the Calligonum mongolicum complex and other species in sect...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228273/compliments-of-factor-h-what-s-in-it-for-amd
#14
Mary J Mattapallil, Rachel R Caspi
Genetic variations in complement factor H (CFH) confer greater risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this issue of Immunity, Calippe et al. (2017) uncover a non-canonical role for CFH in the inhibition of mononuclear phagocyte elimination from sub-retinal lesions, providing insight into the pathophysiology of AMD associated with CFH variants.
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228119/genetic-variation-of-the-toll-like-receptors-in-a-swedish-allergic-rhinitis-case-population
#15
V Henmyr, D Carlberg, E Manderstedt, C Lind-Halldén, T Säll, L O Cardell, C Halldén
BACKGROUND: Variation in the 10 toll-like receptor (TLR) genes has been significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in several candidate gene studies and three large genome-wide association studies. These have all investigated common variants, but no investigations for rare variants (MAF ≤ 1%) have been made in AR. The present study aims to describe the genetic variation of the promoter and coding sequences of the 10 TLR genes in 288 AR patients. METHODS: Sanger sequencing and Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing was used to identify polymorphisms in a Swedish AR population and these were subsequently compared and evaluated using 1000Genomes and Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) data...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228092/variation-in-rates-of-spontaneous-male-production-within-the-nematode-species-pristionchus-pacificus-supports-an-adaptive-role-for-males-and-outcrossing
#16
Katy Morgan, Angela McGaughran, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
BACKGROUND: The nematode species Pristionchus pacificus has an androdioecious mating system in which populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and relatively few males. The prevalence of males in such a system is likely to depend on the relative pros and cons of outcrossing. While outcrossing generates novel allelic combinations and can therefore increase adaptive potential, it may also disrupt the potentially beneficial consequences of repeated generations of selfing. These include purging of deleterious alleles, inheritance of co-adapted allele complexes, improved hermaphrodite fitness and increased population growth...
February 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228089/genotypic-characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-spp-in-tertiary-center-iran
#17
Shervin Shokouhi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Matin Rouhani, Mahdiyeh Ghasemnejad
BACKGROUND: Enterococci infection rate, mortality and morbidity has been increased in recent decades accompanied by progressive emerging antimicrobial resistance. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), important pathogen in hospitalized patients, have distinct antibiotic susceptibility to glycopeptides that varied genetically and can influence in choosing therapeutic agents. In this study, we aimed to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance according to the genotypic variations in VREs...
February 10, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227475/label-free-detection-of-sex-determining-region-y-sry-via-capacitive-biosensor
#18
Shilpa Sivashankar, Christos Sapsanis, Sumeyra Agambayev, Ulrich Buttner, Khaled Nabil Salama, Shilpa Sivashankar, Christos Sapsanis, Sumeyra Agambayev, Ulrich Buttner, Khaled Nabil Salama, Khaled Nabil Salama, Shilpa Sivashankar, Sumeyra Agambayev, Christos Sapsanis, Ulrich Buttner
In this work, we present for the first time, the use of a simple fractal capacitive biosensor for the quantification and detection of sex-determining region Y (SRY) genes. This section of genetic code, which is found on the Y chromosome, finds importance for study as it causes fetuses to develop characteristics of male sex-like gonads when a mutation occurs. It is also an important genetic code in men, and disorders involving the SRY gene can cause infertility and sexual malfunction that lead to a variety of gene mutational disorders...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227225/integration-of-snps-fmri-methylation-data-with-sparse-multi-cca-for-schizophrenia-study
#19
Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex mental disorder associated with genetic variations, brain development and activities, and environmental factors. There is an increasing interest in combining genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging datasets to explore different level of biomarkers for the correlation and interaction between these diverse factors. Sparse Multi-Canonical Correlation Analysis (sMCCA) is a powerful tool that can analyze the correlation of three or more datasets. In this paper, we propose the sMCCA model for imaging genomics study...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226269/the-causes-and-consequences-of-dna-methylome-variation-in-plants
#20
REVIEW
Danelle K Seymour, Claude Becker
Epigenetic variation - polymorphisms at the level of DNA methylation or histone modifications - modulates chromatin accessibility, which can perturb transcriptional activity and spur phenotypic variation. Determining the origin, frequency spectrum, and consequences of epigenetic variants is key to understanding the role of this variation in generating stable phenotypic variation in plants. Here we review recent literature on DNA methylation variation in both model and crop plant species with a focus on the link between genotype, epigenotype, and transcription...
February 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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