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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822934/ecotoxicological-effects-of-binary-mixtures-of-siduron-and-cd-on-mrna-expression-in-the-earthworm-eisenia-fetida
#1
Herman Uwizeyimana, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Kifayatullah Khan
This study aimed to investigate the eco-toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to combined siduron (herbicide) and cadmium (Cd). Eisenia fetida gene expressions including metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein70 (Hsp70) were analyzed using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction after individual and combined siduron (0.90, 1.80, 3.60 and 7.20μgcm(-2)) and Cd (0.225, 0.45, 0.90 and 1.80μgcm(-2)) sublethal exposures. Where, the nature of the toxicological interactions between siduron and Cd in inducing or suppressing MT and Hsp70 expression was determined by applying the Combination index (CI)-isobologram model...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822814/assessment-of-drinking-water-quality-at-the-tap-using-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#2
Masoumeh Heibati, Colin A Stedmon, Karolina Stenroth, Sebastien Rauch, Jonas Toljander, Melle Säve-Söderbergh, Kathleen R Murphy
Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively, inexpensively and potentially on-line via fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. Detecting elevated DOM requires potential contamination events to be distinguished from natural fluctuations in the system, but how much natural variation to expect in a stable distribution system is unknown...
August 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822541/only-7-of-the-variation-in-feed-efficiency-in-veal-calves-can-be-predicted-from-variation-in-feeding-motivation-digestion-metabolism-immunology-and-behavioral-traits-in-early-life
#3
M S Gilbert, J J G C van den Borne, C G van Reenen, W J J Gerrits
High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822130/exploiting-natural-variation-to-discover-candidate-genes-involved-in-photosynthesis-related-traits
#4
Franklin Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Lucas de Ávila Silva, Wagner L Araújo, Agustin Zsögön, Adriano Nunes-Nesi
Naturally occurring genetic variation in plants can be very useful to dissect the complex regulation of primary metabolism as well as of physiological traits such as photosynthesis and photorespiration. The physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation in closely related species or accessions may provide important information that can be used to improve crop yield. In this chapter we describe in detail the use of a population of introgression lines (ILs), with the Solanum pennellii IL population as a study case, as a tool for the identification of genomic regions involved in the control of photosynthetic efficiency...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821603/a-simple-light-isotope-metabolic-labeling-slim-labeling-strategy-a-powerful-tool-to-address-the-dynamics-of-proteome-variations-in-vivo
#5
Thibaut Léger, Camille Garcia, Laetitia Collomb, Jean-Michel Camadro
Many quantitative proteomics strategies rely on in vivo metabolic incorporation of amino acids with modified stable isotope profiles into proteins. These methods give rise to multiple ions for each peptide, with possible distortion of the isotopolog distribution, making the overall analytical process complex. We validated an alternative strategy, simple light isotope metabolic labeling (SLIM-labeling), which alleviates many of these problems. SLIM-labeling is based on the in vivo reduction of the isotopic composition of proteins using metabolic precursors with a unique light isotope composition to label all amino acids...
August 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821299/pknb-remains-an-essential-and-a-conserved-target-for-drug-development-in-susceptible-and-mdr-strains-of-m-tuberculosis
#6
Anamika Gupta, Sudhir K Pal, Divya Pandey, Najneen A Fakir, Sunita Rathod, Dhiraj Sinha, S SivaKumar, Pallavi Sinha, Mycal Periera, Shilpa Balgam, Gomathi Sekar, K R UmaDevi, Shampa Anupurba, Vijay Nema
BACKGROUND: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) protein kinase B (PknB) which is now proved to be essential for the growth and survival of M.tb, is a transmembrane protein with a potential to be a good drug target. However it is not known if this target remains conserved in otherwise resistant isolates from clinical origin. The present study describes the conservation analysis of sequences covering the inhibitor binding domain of PknB to assess if it remains conserved in susceptible and resistant clinical strains of mycobacteria picked from three different geographical areas of India...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821222/impact-of-blood-collection-and-processing-on-peripheral-blood-gene-expression-profiling-in-type-1-diabetes
#7
Linda Yip, Rebecca Fuhlbrigge, Mark A Atkinson, C Garrison Fathman
BACKGROUND: The natural history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is challenging to investigate, especially as pre-diabetic individuals are difficult to identify. Numerous T1D consortia have been established to collect whole blood for gene expression analysis from individuals with or at risk to develop T1D. However, with no universally accepted protocol for their collection, differences in sample processing may lead to variances in the results. Here, we examined whether the choice of blood collection tube and RNA extraction kit leads to differences in the expression of genes that are changed during the progression of T1D, and if these differences could be minimized by measuring gene expression directly from the lysate of whole blood...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819995/the-effect-of-different-fish-feed-compositions-on-%C3%AE-13-c-and-%C3%AE-15-n-signatures-of-sea-bass-and-its-potential-value-for-tracking-mariculture-derived-nutrients
#8
Henrik Kusche, Nicola Hillgruber, Yvonne Rößner, Ulfert Focken
Increasing demand for fish and seafood calls for an expansion of aquaculture production. At the same time, the status of the marine environment must not be jeopardised. Stable isotopes are potential markers for tracking feed-based nutrient flows from aquaculture into marine biota. Here, we demonstrate how four experimental diets (main protein components: fishmeal, soya protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and Jatropha kernel meal) and a commercial diet induce characteristic δ(13)C and δ(15)N signals in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during nine weeks of laboratory feeding under replicate conditions...
August 18, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819831/biodiversity-variability-and-metal-accumulation-strategies-in-plants-spontaneously-inhibiting-fly-ash-lagoon-india
#9
Suchita Mukhopadhyay, Vivek Rana, Adarsh Kumar, Subodh Kumar Maiti
Out of 29 plant species taken into consideration for biodiversity investigations, the present study screened out Cyperus rotundus L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Croton bonplandianus Baill., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., and Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. as the most suitable metal-tolerant plant species (high relative density and frequency) which can grow on metal-laden fly ash (FA) lagoon. Total (aqua-regia), residual (HNO3) and plant available (CaCl2) metal concentrations were assessed for the clean-up of metal-contaminated FA disposal site using naturally colonized plants...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819774/whole-exome-sequencing-of-wild-derived-inbred-strains-of-mice-improves-power-to-link-phenotype-and-genotype
#10
Peter L Chang, Emily Kopania, Sara Keeble, Brice A J Sarver, Erica Larson, Annie Orth, Khalid Belkhir, Pierre Boursot, François Bonhomme, Jeffrey M Good, Matthew D Dean
The house mouse is a powerful model to dissect the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, and serves as a model to study human diseases. Despite a wealth of discoveries, most classical laboratory strains have captured only a small fraction of genetic variation known to segregate in their wild progenitors, and existing strains are often related to each other in complex ways. Inbred strains of mice independently derived from natural populations have the potential to increase power in genetic studies with the addition of novel genetic variation...
August 17, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819256/fbn30-in-wild%C3%A2-anopheles-gambiae-functions-as-a-pathogen-recognition-molecule-against-clinically-circulating-plasmodium-falciparum-in-malaria-endemic-areas-in-kenya
#11
Guodong Niu, Genwei Zhang, Caio Franca, Yingjun Cui, Stephen Munga, Yaw Afrane, Jun Li
Malaria is a worldwide health problem that affects two-thirds of the world population. Plasmodium invasion of anopheline mosquitoes is an obligatory step for malaria transmission. However, mosquito-malaria molecular interactions in nature are not clear. A genetic variation within mosquito fibrinogen related-protein 30 (FBN30) was previously identified to be associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in natural Anopheles gambiae populations at malaria endemic areas in Kenya, and reducing FBN30 expression by RNAi makes mosquitoes more susceptible to P...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819158/discovering-condition-specific-gene-co-expression-patterns-using-gaussian-mixture-models-a-cancer-case-study
#12
Stephen P Ficklin, Leland J Dunwoodie, William L Poehlman, Christopher Watson, Kimberly E Roche, F Alex Feltus
A gene co-expression network (GCN) describes associations between genes and points to genetic coordination of biochemical pathways. However, genetic correlations in a GCN are only detectable if they are present in the sampled conditions. With the increasing quantity of gene expression samples available in public repositories, there is greater potential for discovery of genetic correlations from a variety of biologically interesting conditions. However, even if gene correlations are present, their discovery can be masked by noise...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819099/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-a-phoretic-behavior
#13
Daehan Lee, Heeseung Yang, Jun Kim, Shannon Brady, Stefan Zdraljevic, Mostafa Zamanian, Heekyeong Kim, Young-Ki Paik, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C Andersen, Junho Lee
Phoresy is a widespread form of commensalism that facilitates dispersal of one species through an association with a more mobile second species. Dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a phoretic behavior called nictation, which could enable interactions with animals such as isopods or snails. Here, we show that natural C. elegans isolates differ in nictation. We use quantitative behavioral assays and linkage mapping to identify a genetic locus (nict-1) that mediates the phoretic interaction with terrestrial isopods...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818331/molecular-epidemiology-of-epizootic-haematopoietic-necrosis-virus-ehnv
#14
Paul M Hick, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Patrick M Thompson, Thomas B Waltzek, Joy A Becker, Richard J Whittington
Low genetic diversity of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) was determined for the complete genome of 16 isolates spanning the natural range of hosts, geography and time since the first outbreaks of disease. Genomes ranged from 125,591-127,487 nucleotides with 97.47% pairwise identity and 106-109 genes. All isolates shared 101 core genes with 121 potential genes predicted within the pan-genome of this collection. There was high conservation within 90,181 nucleotides of the core genes with isolates separated by average genetic distance of 3...
August 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818101/a-new-method-for-sequencing-the-hypervariable-plasmodium-falciparum-gene-var2csa-from-clinical-samples
#15
Antoine Dara, Mark A Travassos, Matthew Adams, Sarah Schaffer DeRoo, Elliott F Drábek, Sonia Agrawal, Miriam K Laufer, Christopher V Plowe, Joana C Silva
BACKGROUND: VAR2CSA, a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, mediates the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A, a surface-associated molecule expressed in placental cells, and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA is a target of naturally acquired immunity and, as such, is a leading vaccine candidate against placental malaria. This protein is very polymorphic and technically challenging to sequence...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817724/from-the-animal-house-to-the-field-are-there-consistent-individual-differences-in-immunological-profile-in-wild-populations-of-field-voles-microtus-agrestis
#16
Elena Arriero, Klara M Wanelik, Richard J Birtles, Janette E Bradley, Joseph A Jackson, Steve Paterson, Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis, on a range of life history and infection metrics, and on gene expression levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817580/criticality-predicts-maximum-irregularity-in-recurrent-networks-of-excitatory-nodes
#17
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Ralf Wessel
A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817531/bias-confounding-and-interaction-lions-and-tigers-and-bears-oh-my
#18
Thomas R Vetter, Edward J Mascha
Epidemiologists seek to make a valid inference about the causal effect between an exposure and a disease in a specific population, using representative sample data from a specific population. Clinical researchers likewise seek to make a valid inference about the association between an intervention and outcome(s) in a specific population, based upon their randomly collected, representative sample data. Both do so by using the available data about the sample variable to make a valid estimate about its corresponding or underlying, but unknown population parameter...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817352/arhgap29-mutation-is-associated-with-abnormal-oral-epithelial-adhesions
#19
B J Paul, K Palmer, J C Sharp, C H Pratt, S A Murray, M Dunnwald
Nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) is a prevalent birth defect of complex etiology. Previous studies identified mutations in ARHGAP29 associated with an increased risk for NSCL/P. To investigate the effects of ARHGAP29 in vivo, we generated a novel murine allele by inserting a point mutation identified in a patient with NSCL/P. This single-nucleotide variation of ARHGAP29 translates to an early nonsense mutation (K326X), presumably resulting in loss-of-function (LoF). Embryos from Arhgap29(K326X/+) intercrosses were harvested at various time points...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816188/assessment-of-changes-in-nickel-and-chromium-levels-in-the-gingival-crevicular-fluid-during-fixed-orthodontic-treatment
#20
Vinny Bhasin, Swati J Pustake, Viprat Joshi, Anil Tiwari, Meenakshi Bhasin, Ramandeep S Punia
BACKGROUND: Various components of appliances used in fixed orthodontic treatment are fabricated from materials that are highly resistant in nature and have high strength and biocompatibility. Corrosion of materials occurs inside the oral cavity due to numerous environmental or oral factors that act on them. These factors include temperature, pH variation, salivary conditions, mechanical loads, microbiological and enzymatic activity, and various food components. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the material obtained from the gingival sulcus and might act as a potential source for various biomarkers in the orthodontic setup because inflammatory-induced response is directly related to orthodontic forces in GCF...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
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