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Natural variation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538819/how-strong-is-the-relationship-between-rainfall-variability-and-caatinga-productivity-a-case-study-under-a-changing-climate
#1
Cleber Salimon, Liana Anderson
Despite the knowledge of the influence of rainfall on vegetation dynamics in semiarid tropical Brazil, few studies address and explore quantitatively the various aspects of this relationship. Moreover, Northeast Brazil is expected to have its rainfall reduced by as much as 60% until the end of the 21st Century, under scenario AII of the IPCC Report 2010. We sampled and analyzed satellite-derived monthly rainfall and a vegetation index data for 40 sites with natural vegetation cover in Paraíba State, Brazil from 2001 to 2012...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535101/design-challenges-of-an-episode-based-payment-model-in-oncology-the-centers-for-medicare-medicaid-services-oncology-care-model
#2
Ronald M Kline, L Daniel Muldoon, Heidi K Schumacher, Larisa M Strawbridge, Andrew W York, Laura K Mortimer, Alison F Falb, Katherine J Cox, Carol Bazell, Ellen W Lukens, Mary C Kapp, Rahul Rajkumar, Amy Bassano, Patrick H Conway
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services developed the Oncology Care Model as an episode-based payment model to encourage participating practitioners to provide higher-quality, better-coordinated care at a lower cost to the nearly three-quarter million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with cancer who receive chemotherapy each year. Episode payment models can be complex. They combine into a single benchmark price all payments for services during an episode of illness, many of which may be delivered at different times by different providers in different locations...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534836/differentiation-and-structure-in-sulfolobus-islandicus-rod-shaped-virus-populations
#3
Maria A Bautista, Jesse A Black, Nicholas D Youngblut, Rachel J Whitaker
In the past decade, molecular surveys of viral diversity have revealed that viruses are the most diverse and abundant biological entities on Earth. In culture, however, most viral isolates that infect microbes are represented by a few variants isolated on type strains, limiting our ability to study how natural variation affects virus-host interactions in the laboratory. We screened a set of 137 hot spring samples for viruses that infect a geographically diverse panel of the hyperthemophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534113/cysteine-rich-low-molecular-weight-antimicrobial-peptides-from-brevibacillus-and-related-genera-for-biotechnological-applications
#4
REVIEW
Piyush Baindara, Anoop Kapoor, Suresh Korpole, Vishakha Grover
The production of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is an innate immunity trait of all life forms including eukaryotes and prokaryotes. While these AMPs are usually called as defensins in eukaryotes, they are known as bacteriocins in prokaryotes. Bacteriocins are more diverse AMPs considering their varied composition and posttranslational modifications. Accordingly, this review is focused on cysteine-rich AMPs resembling eukaryotic defensins such as laterosporulin from Brevibacillus spp. and associated peptides secreted by the members of related genera...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534062/insights-into-the-prevalence-and-underlying-causes-of-clonal-variation-through-transcriptomic-analysis-in-pichia-pastoris
#5
Rochelle Aw, Geraint R Barton, David J Leak
Clonal variation, wherein a range of specific productivities of secreted proteins are observed from supposedly identical transformants, is an accepted aspect of working with Pichia pastoris. It means that a significant number of transformants need to be tested to obtain a representative sample, and in commercial protein production, companies regularly screen thousands of transformants to select for the highest secretor. Here, we have undertaken a detailed investigation of this phenomenon by characterising clones transformed with the human serum albumin gene...
May 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534024/cancer-immunoprevention-and-public-health
#6
REVIEW
Sandeep K Singh, Mehmet Tevfik Dorak
The power of cancer immune surveillance has been documented beyond doubt, and the successful exploitation of immune response to cancer has started a new era in the war against cancer. Cancer biologists have recognized immunoevasion as an emerging hallmark in addition to the six hallmarks of cancer. Besides the natural connection between the immune system and cancer development, most established environmental risk factors are now known to interfere with immune surveillance mechanisms. Genetic variations regulating immunity may also modulate cancer susceptibility, but evidence for this is currently limited...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533455/coevolution-of-coloration-and-colour-vision
#7
Olle Lind, Miriam J Henze, Almut Kelber, Daniel Osorio
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533454/genomics-of-coloration-in-natural-animal-populations
#8
REVIEW
Luis M San-Jose, Alexandre Roulin
Animal coloration has traditionally been the target of genetic and evolutionary studies. However, until very recently, the study of the genetic basis of animal coloration has been mainly restricted to model species, whereas research on non-model species has been either neglected or mainly based on candidate approaches, and thereby limited by the knowledge obtained in model species. Recent high-throughput sequencing technologies allow us to overcome previous limitations, and open new avenues to study the genetic basis of animal coloration in a broader number of species and colour traits, and to address the general relevance of different genetic structures and their implications for the evolution of colour...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532097/influence-of-telopeptides-on-the-structural-and-physical-properties-of-polymeric-and-monomeric-acid-soluble-type-i-collagen
#9
Róisín Holmes, Steve Kirk, Giuseppe Tronci, Xuebin Yang, David Wood
Currently two factors hinder the use of collagen as building block of regenerative devices: the limited mechanical strength in aqueous environment, and potential antigenicity. Polymeric collagen is naturally found in the cross-linked state and is mechanically tougher than the monomeric, acid-soluble collagen ex vivo. The antigenicity of collagen, on the other hand, is mainly ascribed to inter-species variations in amino acid sequences of the non-helical terminal telopeptides. These telopeptides can be removed through enzymatic treatment to produce atelocollagen, although the effect of this cleavage on triple helix organization, amino acidic composition and thermal properties is often disregarded...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531293/effect-of-expanded-variation-in-anther-position-on-pollinator-visitation-to-wild-radish-raphanus-raphanistrum
#10
Yuval Sapir, Keith Karoly, Vanessa A Koelling, Heather F Sahli, Frances N Knapczyk, Jeffrey K Conner
Background and Aims: Plant-pollinator interactions shape the evolution of flowers. Floral attraction and reward traits have often been shown to affect pollinator behaviour, but the possible effect of efficiency traits on visitation behaviour has rarely been addressed. Anther position, usually considered a trait that influences efficiency of pollen deposition on pollinators, was tested here for its effect on pollinator visitation rates and visit duration in flowers of wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum ...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530845/temporal-variation-in-the-abundance-and-timing-of-daily-activity-of-chagas-disease-vector-triatoma-gerstaeckeri-st%C3%A3-l-1859-in-a-natural-habitat-in-the-lower-rio-grande-valley-south-texas
#11
Alfredo Flores, Christopher Vitek, Teresa Feria Arroyo, Brian Lund Fredensborg
Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is a burden to millions of people in South and Central America. A sylvatic life cycle of the parasite exists in the Southern United States, but recent studies indicate an active peri-domestic life cycle of T. cruzi in Texas. The USA-Mexico border region in Texas displays areas of high poverty and sub-standard housing conditions which are important risk factors for a potential spill-over transmission to a domestic life cycle including humans. The objectives of the study were to examine short- and longterm temporal variation in vector activity, and to evaluate the effect of different combinations of attractants on the capture of potential triatomine vectors...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530610/saponins-in-pulses-and-their-health-promoting-activities-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Balwinder Singh, Jatinder Pal Singh, Narpinder Singh, Amritpal Kaur
Saponins are a class of natural compounds present in pulses having surface active properties. These compounds show variation in type, structure and composition of their aglycone moiety and oligosaccharide chains. Saponins have plasma cholesterol lowering effect in humans and are important in reducing the risk of many chronic diseases. Moreover, they have shown strong cytotoxic effects against cancer cell lines. However, more epidemiological and clinical studies are required for the proper validation of these health promoting activities...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530508/influence-of-transmitted-virus-on-the-host-s-immune-response-a-case-study
#13
Shahzma Merani, Michaela Lucas, Pooja Deshpande, Katja Pfafferott, Abha Chopra, Don Cooper, Shay Leary, Fabio Luciani, Silvana Gaudieri
Host hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell responses and the ability of the virus to escape this response are important correlates of infection outcome. Understanding this host-viral interplay has been difficult given the often asymptomatic nature of acute HCV infection. We studied a recent transmission case to determine whether adapted viral strains can be transmitted and influence the recipient's anti-HCV T cell response. The diversity of viral populations was examined using next-generation sequencing, and HCV-specific T cell interferon (IFN)-γ responses were assessed using a peptide panel representing the autologous viruses...
May 22, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529835/a-new-set-of-microsatellite-primers-for-coelogyne-fimbriata-orchidaceae-and-cross-amplification-in-c-ovalis
#14
Wei-Chang Huang, Kai Jiang, Chao Hu, Yue-E Xiao, Barnabas C Seyler, Yuan-Yuan Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Declining orchid populations have made it necessary to prioritize the study of population structure and genetic diversity for species including Coelogyne fimbriata (Orchidaceae). METHODS AND RESULTS: A biotin-streptavidin capture method was used to construct a microsatellite library for C. fimbriata. A total of 15 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using 47 C. fimbriata individuals from two natural populations in China...
May 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529723/role-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-variation-in-graft-versus-host-disease-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Effie W Petersdorf
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Since the discovery of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system over 50 years ago, significant advances have clarified the nature of HLA variation between transplant recipients and donors as a chief etiology of GVHD. New information on coding and non-coding gene variation and GVHD risk provides clinicians with options to consider selected mismatched donors when matched donors are not available...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529384/the-pelskin-project-part-v-towards-the-control-of-the-flow-around-aerofoils-at-high-angle-of-attack-using-a-self-activated-deployable-flap
#16
Marco E Rosti, Laura Kamps, Christoph Bruecker, Mohammad Omidyeganeh, Alfredo Pinelli
During the flight of birds, it is often possible to notice that some of the primaries and covert feathers on the upper side of the wing pop-up under critical flight conditions, such as the landing approach or when stalking their prey (see Fig. 1) . It is often conjectured that the feathers pop up plays an aerodynamic role by limiting the spread of flow separation . A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to shed some light on the physical mechanism determining the feathers self actuation and their effective role in controlling the flow field in nominally stalled conditions...
2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529085/variations-in-native-protein-glycation-and-plasma-antioxidants-in-several-birds-of-prey
#17
Tana Ingram, Jessica Zuck, Chad R Borges, Patrick Redig, Karen L Sweazea
Birds are an anomaly among vertebrates as they are remarkably long-lived despite having naturally high blood glucose and metabolic rates. For mammals, hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and protein glycation. In contrast, many studies have shown that domestic and wild birds are relatively resistant to these glucose-mediated pathologies. Surprisingly very little research has examined protein glycation in birds of prey, which by nature consume a diet high in protein and fat that promotes gluconeogenesis...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#18
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528580/update-on-the-distribution-of-the-co-invasive-schyzocotyle-acheilognathi-bothriocephalus-acheilognathi-the-asian-fish-tapeworm-in-freshwater-fishes-of-mexico
#19
G Pérez-Ponce de León, O Lagunas-Calvo, L García-Prieto, R Briosio-Aguilar, R Aguilar-Aguilar
The Asian fish tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) represents a threat to freshwater fish, mainly cyprinids, across the globe. This tapeworm possesses an extraordinary ability to adapt to different environmental conditions and, because of that, from its natural geographical origin in mainland Asia, it has colonized every continent except Antarctica. It is thought that this pathogenic tapeworm was first co-introduced into Mexico in 1965 from China, with the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, although the first formal record of its presence was published in 1981...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528408/the-glaucous-winged-gull-larus-glaucescens-as-an-indicator-of-chemical-contaminants-in-the-canadian-pacific-marine-environment-evidence-from-stable-isotopes
#20
M L Davis, J E Elliott, T D Williams
The Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) has been selected by Environment Canada as a marine indicator species for long-term monitoring of persistent contaminants in the Canadian Pacific. However, the indicator value of this species depends on its trophic level and proportion of marine prey in its diet. Eggs, used as the monitoring medium, are produced entirely from maternal resources and knowledge of adult diet before and during egg production is critical to interpreting contaminant levels. Due to a lack of recent and reliable dietary ecology work, we examined the diet of breeding Glaucous-winged gulls through carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotope analysis at three colonies on the Pacific coast...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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