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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049629/do-older-listeners-with-hearing-loss-benefit-from-dynamic-pitch-for-speech-recognition-in-noise
#1
Jing Shen, Pamela E Souza
Purpose: Dynamic pitch, the variation in the fundamental frequency of speech, aids older listeners' speech perception in noise. It is unclear, however, whether some older listeners with hearing loss benefit from strengthened dynamic pitch cues for recognizing speech in certain noise scenarios and how this relative benefit may be associated with individual factors. We first examined older individuals' relative benefit between natural and strong dynamic pitches for better speech recognition in noise...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049283/the-impact-of-muscle-relaxation-techniques-on-the-quality-of-life-of-cancer-patients-as-measured-by-the-fact-g-questionnaire
#2
Paula Parás-Bravo, Paloma Salvadores-Fuentes, Cristina Alonso-Blanco, María Paz-Zulueta, Miguel Santibañez-Margüello, Domingo Palacios-Ceña, Ester Boixadera-Planas, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer frequently suffer from emotional distress, characterized by psychological symptoms such as anxiety or depression. The presence of psychological symptoms combined with the complex nature of oncology processes can negatively impact patients' quality of life. We aimed to determine the impact of a relaxation protocol on improving quality of life in a sample of oncological patients treated in the Spanish National Public Health System. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter interventional study without a control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048992/eurasian-red-squirrels-show-little-seasonal-variation-in-metabolism-in-food-enriched-habitat
#3
James M Turner, Stephanie Reher, Lisa Warnecke, Kathrin H Dausmann
Energy expenditure and ambient temperature (Ta) are intrinsically linked through changes in an animal's metabolic rate. While the nature of this relationship is stable, the breadth of change in thermoregulatory cost varies with body size and physiological acclimatization to season. To explore seasonal metabolic changes of small mammals, we studied a population of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in a seminatural environment with a year-round supply of natural and supplemented food. In each season we measured the metabolic rate of wild-caught red squirrels, using open-flow respirometry, and hypothesized that individuals would make adjustments to contend with seasonal weather conditions...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048740/thyroid-hormone-fluctuations-indicate-a-thermoregulatory-function-in-both-a-tropical-alouatta-palliata-and-seasonally-cold-habitat-macaca-fuscata-primate
#4
Cynthia L Thompson, Brianna L Powell, Susan H Williams, Goro Hanya, Kenneth E Glander, Christopher J Vinyard
Thyroid hormones boost animals' basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and elevations are often apparent, tropical habitats also display distinct wet and dry seasons with modest changes in thermal environment. We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048601/screening-for-natural-variation-in-water-use-efficiency-traits-in-a-diversity-set-of-brassica-napus-l-identifies-candidate-variants-in-photosynthetic-assimilation
#5
Dianne Pater, Jack L Mullen, John K McKay, Julian I Schroeder
Seed yield and quality of crop species are significantly reduced by water deficit. Stable isotope screening (δ13C) of a diversity set of 147 accessions of Brassica napus grown in the field identified several accessions with extremes in water use efficiency (WUE). We next conducted an investigation of the physiological characteristics of selected natural variants with high and low WUE to understand how these characteristics translate to differences in WUE. We identified an interesting Spring accession, G302 (Mozart), that exhibited the highest WUE in the field and high CO2 assimilation rates coupled with an increased electron transport capacity (Jmax) under the imposed conditions...
October 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047456/a-reusable-osl-film-for-2d-radiotherapy-dosimetry
#6
Crijns Wouter, Vandenbroucke Dirk, Leblans Paul, Depuydt Tom
Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) combines reusability, sub-mm resolution, and a linear dose response in a single radiation detection technology. Such a combination is currently lacking in radiotherapy dosimetry. But OSL-films have a strong energy dependent response to keV photons due to a relative high effective atomic number (Z eff). The current work studied the applicability of a 2D OSL-film with a reduced Z eff as (IMRT/VMAT) dosimeter. Based on their commercial OSL-film experience, Agfa Healthcare N...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047141/dawn-song-in-natural-and-artificial-continuous-day-light-pollution-affects-songbirds-at-high-latitudes
#7
Elizabeth P Derryberry
In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046573/sex-specific-evolution-during-the-diversification-of-live-bearing-fishes
#8
Zachary W Culumber, Michael Tobler
Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046544/palaeoclimate-explains-a-unique-proportion-of-the-global-variation-in-soil-bacterial-communities
#9
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Andrew Bissett, David J Eldridge, Fernando T Maestre, Ji-Zheng He, Jun-Tao Wang, Kelly Hamonts, Yu-Rong Liu, Brajesh K Singh, Noah Fierer
The legacy impacts of past climates on the current distribution of soil microbial communities are largely unknown. Here, we use data from more than 1,000 sites from five separate global and regional datasets to identify the importance of palaeoclimatic conditions (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) in shaping the current structure of soil bacterial communities in natural and agricultural soils. We show that palaeoclimate explains more of the variation in the richness and composition of bacterial communities than current climate...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046533/anatomical-integration-of-the-sacral-hindlimb-unit-coordinated-by-gdf11-underlies-variation-in-hindlimb-positioning-in-tetrapods
#10
Yoshiyuki Matsubara, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shiro Egawa, Ayumi Hattori, Takaya Suganuma, Yuhei Kohara, Tatsuya Nagai, Koji Tamura, Shigeru Kuratani, Atsushi Kuroiwa, Takayuki Suzuki
Elucidating how body parts from different primordia are integrated during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. In tetrapod evolution, while the position of the hindlimb has diversified along with the vertebral formula, the mechanism responsible for this coordination has not been well understood. However, this synchronization suggests the presence of an evolutionarily conserved developmental mechanism that coordinates the positioning of the hindlimb skeleton derived from the lateral plate mesoderm with that of the sacral vertebrae derived from the somites...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046416/it-s-just-sand-between-the-toes-how-particle-size-and-shape-variation-affect-running-performance-and-kinematics-in-a-generalist-lizard
#11
Philip J Bergmann, Kyle J Pettinelli, Marian E Crockett, Erika G Schaper
Animals must cope with and be able to move effectively on a variety of substrates. Substrates composed of granular media, such as sand and gravel, are extremely common in nature, and vary tremendously in particle size and shape. Despite many studies of the properties of granular media and comparisons of locomotion between granular and solid substrates, the effects of systematically manipulating these media on locomotion is poorly understood. We studied granular media ranging over four orders of magnitude in particle size, and differing in the amount of particle shape variation, to determine how these factors affected substrate physical properties and sprinting in the generalist lizard Eremias arguta We found that media with intermediate particle sizes had high bulk densities, low angles of stability and low load-bearing capacities...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046374/a-multivariate-test-of-disease-risk-reveals-conditions-leading-to-disease-amplification
#12
Fletcher W Halliday, Robert W Heckman, Peter A Wilfahrt, Charles E Mitchell
Theory predicts that increasing biodiversity will dilute the risk of infectious diseases under certain conditions and will amplify disease risk under others. Yet, few empirical studies demonstrate amplification. This contrast may occur because few studies have considered the multivariate nature of disease risk, which includes richness and abundance of parasites with different transmission modes. By combining a multivariate statistical model developed for biodiversity-ecosystem-multifunctionality with an extensive field manipulation of host (plant) richness, composition and resource supply to hosts, we reveal that (i) host richness alone could not explain most changes in disease risk, and (ii) shifting host composition allowed disease amplification, depending on parasite transmission mode...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046241/natural-variation-of-the-zygomaticomaxillary-complex-symmetry-in-normal-individuals
#13
Jean-Pierre T F Ho, Ruud Schreurs, Souhir Aydi, Roya Rezai, Thomas J J Maal, Arjen J van Wijk, Ludo F M Beenen, Leander Dubois, Dan M J Milstein, Alfred G Becking
OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to investigate variations in the symmetry of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) in normal individuals. METHOD: Computed tomography datasets of 200 individuals without facial fractures were analyzed using a validated three-dimensional analysis technique. The absolute average distance (AD) and 90th percentile distance (NPD) were calculated, representing respectively the overall and maximum symmetry between bilateral ZMCs. RESULTS: The mean AD and NPD of the total study group was 0...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045754/genomic-studies-of-local-adaptation-in-natural-plant-populations
#14
Victoria L Sork
Local adaptation arises as a result of selection by the local environment favoring phenotypes that enhance fitness. Geographic patterns of phenotypic variation are in part due to this selective process. Classically, the genetic basis of those phenotypes has been studied in plant populations using a quantitative genetic approach in which plants from different source populations are grown in common environments, in reciprocal transplant experiments, or in studies across a wide geographic and environmentally heterogeneous area...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045732/life-history-adaptations-to-seasonality
#15
Øystein Varpe
Seasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism's full life...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045669/genetic-decoupling-of-thermal-hardiness-across-metamorphosis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Philip J Freda, Jackson T Alex, Theodore J Morgan, Gregory J Ragland
As organisms age the environment fluctuates, exerting differential selection across ontogeny. In particular, highly seasonal environments expose life stages to often drastically different thermal environments. This developmental variation is particularly striking in organisms with complex life cycles, wherein life history stages also exhibit distinct morphologies, physiologies, and behaviors. Genes acting pleiotropically on thermal responses may produce genetic correlations across ontogeny, constraining the independent evolution of each life stage to their respective thermal environments...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044885/heritability-and-social-brood-effects-on-personality-in-juvenile-and-adult-life-history-stages-in-a-wild-passerine
#17
Isabel S Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre Jp Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044248/task-demands-tdcs-intensity-and-the-comt-val-158-met-polymorphism-impact-tdcs-linked-working-memory-training-gains
#18
Jaclyn A Stephens, Kevin T Jones, Marian E Berryhill
Working memory (WM) training paired with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve executive function in older adults. The unclear mechanism of tDCS likely depends on tDCS intensity, and task relevant genetic factors (e.g., for WM: COMT val(158)met, DAT, BDNF val(66)met). Higher tDCS intensity does not always lead to greater cognitive gains, and genetic polymorphisms may modulate tDCS-linked WM improvements. To evaluate these factors, 137 healthy older adults provided DNA samples and received Visual and Spatial WM training paired with tDCS (sham, 1, 1...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044133/effects-of-water-availability-on-a-forestry-pathosystem-fungal-strain-specific-variation-in-disease-severity
#19
Riikka Linnakoski, Junko Sugano, Samuli Junttila, Pertti Pulkkinen, Fred O Asiegbu, Kristian M Forbes
Norway spruce is one of the most important commercial forestry species in Europe, and is commonly infected by the bark beetle-vectored necrotrophic fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica. Spruce trees display a restricted capacity to respond to environmental perturbations, and we hypothesized that water limitation will increase disease severity in this pathosystem. To test this prediction, 737 seedlings were randomized to high (W+) or low (W-) water availability treatment groups, and experimentally inoculated with one of three E...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043571/an-uncertainty-based-framework-to-quantifying-climate-change-impacts-on-coastal-flood-vulnerability-case-study-of-new-york-city
#20
Zahra Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Karamouz
The continued development efforts around the world, growing population, and the increased probability of occurrence of extreme hydrologic events have adversely affected natural and built environments. Flood damages and loss of lives from the devastating storms, such as Irene and Sandy on the East Coast of the USA, are examples of the vulnerability to flooding that even developed countries have to face. The odds of coastal flooding disasters have been increased due to accelerated sea level rise, climate change impacts, and communities' interest to live near the coastlines...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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