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Natural variation

Rachel C McMullan, Martin T Ferris, Timothy A Bell, Vineet D Menachery, Ralph S Baric, Kunjie Hua, Daniel Pomp, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena
Exercise results in beneficial health outcomes and protects against a variety of chronic diseases. However, U.S. exercise guidelines recommend identical exercise programs for everyone, despite individual variation in responses to these programs, including paradoxical fat gain. Experimental models of exercise-induced paradoxical outcomes may enable the dissection of underlying physiological mechanisms as well as the evaluation of potential interventions. Whereas several studies have identified individual mice exhibiting paradoxical fat gain following exercise, no systematic effort has been conducted to identify and characterize models of paradoxical response...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Shani Tiwari, Dimitris Kaskaoutis, Vijay Kumar Soni, Shiv Dev Attri, Abhay Kumar Singh
The Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) experiences one of the highest aerosol loading over the globe with pronounced inter-/intra-seasonal variability. Four-year (January 2011-December 2014) continuous MICROTOPS-II sun-photometer measurements at Varanasi, central Ganges valley, provide an opportunity to investigate the aerosol physical and optical properties and their variability. A large variation in aerosol optical depth (AOD: from 0.23 to 1.89, mean of 0.82 ± 0.31) and Ångström exponent (AE: from 0.19 to 1...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liam J Hawkins, Rasha Al-Attar, Kenneth B Storey
Every cell in an individual has largely the same genomic sequence and yet cells in different tissues can present widely different phenotypes. This variation arises because each cell expresses a specific subset of genomic instructions. Control over which instructions, or genes, are expressed is largely controlled by transcriptional regulatory pathways. Each cell must assimilate a huge amount of environmental input, and thus it is of no surprise that transcription is regulated by many intertwining mechanisms...
2018: PeerJ
Kate M Quigley, Marie E Strader, Mikhail V Matz
Coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is the key biological interaction enabling existence of modern-type coral reefs, but the mechanisms regulating initial host-symbiont attraction, recognition and symbiont proliferation thus far remain largely unclear. A common reef-building coral, Acropora millepora, displays conspicuous fluorescent polymorphism during all phases of its life cycle, due to the differential expression of fluorescent proteins (FPs) of the green fluorescent protein family. In this study, we examine whether fluorescent variation in young coral juveniles exposed to natural sediments is associated with the uptake of disparate Symbiodinium assemblages determined using ITS-2 deep sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
Floortje E Scheepers, Jos de Mul, Frits Boer, Witte J Hoogendijk
Background: From an evolutionary perspective it is remarkable that psychotic disorders, mostly occurring during fertile age and decreasing fecundity, maintain in the human population. Aim: To argue the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms may not be viewed as an illness but as an adaptation phenomenon, which can become out of control due to different underlying brain vulnerabilities and external stressors, leading to social exclusion. Methods: A literature study and analysis. Results: Until now, biomedical research has not unravelld the definitive etiology of psychotic disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yan-Yan Liu, Xing-Ru Chen, Ling-Fei Gao, Mo Chen, Wen-Qiang Cui, Wen-Ya Ding, Xue-Ying Chen, Bello-Onaghise God'spower, Yan-Hua Li
Syringa oblata Lindl. ( S. oblata ) has been used in herbal medicines for treating bacterial diseases. It is also thought to inhibit Streptococcus suis ( S. suis ) biofilm formation. However, due to the inherent nature of the complexity in its chemical properties, it is difficult to understand the possible bioactive ingredients of S. oblata. The spectrum-effect relationships method was applied to screen the main active ingredients in S. oblata obtained from Heilongjiang Province based on gray relational analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Soheil Keshmiri, Hidenubo Sumioka, Ryuji Yamazaki, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Neuroscience research shows a growing interest in the application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in analysis and decoding of the brain activity of human subjects. Given the correlation that is observed between the Blood Oxygen Dependent Level (BOLD) responses that are exhibited by the time series data of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and the hemoglobin oxy/deoxy-genation that is captured by NIRS, linear models play a central role in these applications. This, in turn, results in adaptation of the feature extraction strategies that are well-suited for discretization of data that exhibit a high degree of linearity, namely, slope and the mean as well as their combination, to summarize the informational contents of the NIRS time series...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Kenta Suzuki, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Hiromi Watanabe, Hiroyuki Yamamoto
Hydrothermal vent fields are vulnerable to natural disturbances, such as volcanic activity, and are currently being considered as targets for mineral mining. Local vent communities are linked by pelagic larval dispersal and form regional metacommunities, nested within a number of biogeographic provinces. Larval supply depends on the connectivity of the dispersal networks, and affects recoverability of communities from disturbances. However, it is unclear how the dispersal networks contribute to recoverability of local communities...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anton M Potapov, Alexei V Tiunov, Stefan Scheu
Despite the major importance of soil biota in nutrient and energy fluxes, interactions in soil food webs are poorly understood. Here we provide an overview of recent advances in uncovering the trophic structure of soil food webs using natural variations in stable isotope ratios. We discuss approaches of application, normalization and interpretation of stable isotope ratios along with methodological pitfalls. Analysis of published data from temperate forest ecosystems is used to outline emerging concepts and perspectives in soil food web research...
June 19, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Bing Chen, Martin E Feder, Le Kang
Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and their cognates are primary mitigators of cell stress. With increasingly severe impacts of climate change and other human modifications of the biosphere, the ability of the heat-shock system to affect evolutionary fitness in environments outside the laboratory and to evolve in response are topics of growing importance. Since the last major reviews, several advances have occurred. First, demonstrations of the heat-shock response outside the laboratory now include many additional taxa and environments...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Marta S Shocket, Daniela Vergara, Andrew J Sickbert, Jason M Walsman, Alexander T Strauss, Jessica L Hite, Meghan A Duffy, Carla E Cáceres, Spencer R Hall
Seasonal epidemics erupt commonly in nature and are driven by numerous mechanisms. Here, we suggest a new mechanism that could determine the size and timing of seasonal epidemics: rearing environment changes the performance of parasites. This mechanism arises when the environmental conditions in which a parasite is produced impact its performance-independently from the current environment. To illustrate the potential for 'rearing effects', we show how temperature influences infection risk (transmission rate) in a Daphnia-fungus disease system through both parasite rearing temperature and infection temperature...
June 19, 2018: Ecology
Melanie Clerc, Godefroy Devevey, Andy Fenton, Amy B Pedersen
Coinfections with parasitic helminths and microparasites are highly common in nature and can lead to complex within-host interactions between parasite species which can cause negative health outcomes for humans, and domestic and wild animals. Many of these negative health effects worsen with increasing parasite burdens. However, even though many studies have identified several key factors that determine worm burdens across various host systems, less is known about how the immune response interacts with these factors and what the consequences are for the outcome of within-host parasite interactions...
June 16, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Mohammed Naghizadeh, Eva Wattrang, Rikke B Kjærup, Maja Bakke, Sandra Shih, Tina S Dalgaard
Opsonins, an important arm of the innate immune system, are various soluble proteins, which play a critical role in destruction of invading pathogens directly or via engulfment of pathogens through the intermediate of phagocytosis. The diversity of opsonin profiles is under genetic influenceandmay be associated with variation in disease resistance. The aim of this study, was to set up an assay to determine serum opsonophagocytic potential (OPp) for chicken sera by flow cytometry and to evaluate the assay using samples from different chicken lines...
June 19, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Anna Maria Alexandrou, Timo Saarinen, Jan Kujala, Riitta Salmelin
During natural speech perception, listeners must track the global speaking rate, that is, the overall rate of incoming linguistic information, as well as transient, local speaking rate variations occurring within the global speaking rate. Here, we address the hypothesis that this tracking mechanism is achieved through coupling of cortical signals to the amplitude envelope of the perceived acoustic speech signals. Cortical signals were recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) while participants perceived spontaneously produced speech stimuli at three global speaking rates (slow, normal/habitual, and fast)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Carlo Lancia, Cristian Spitoni, Jakob Anninga, Jeremy Whelan, Matthew R Sydes, Gordana Jovic, Marta Fiocco
Marginal structural models are causal models designed to adjust for time-dependent confounders in observational studies with dynamically adjusted treatments. They are robust tools to assess causality in complex longitudinal data. In this paper, a marginal structural model is proposed with an innovative dose-delay joint-exposure model for Inverse-Probability-of-Treatment Weighted estimation of the causal effect of alterations to the therapy intensity. The model is motivated by a precise clinical question concerning the possibility of reducing dosages in a regimen...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Beibei Chen, Jinhui Chen, Qingzhang Du, Daling Zhou, Longxin Wang, Jianbo Xie, Ying Li, Deqiang Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as key regulators of complex traits, but how genetic alterations in miRNA biogenesis genes (miRBGs) affect quantitative variation has not been elucidated. We conducted transcript analyses and association genetics to investigate how miRBGs, miRNA genes (MIRNAs) and their respective targets contribute to secondary growth in a natural population of 435 Populus tomentosa individuals. This analysis identified 29 843 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; frequency > 0.10) within 682 genes (80 miRBGs, 152 MIRNAs, and 457 miRNA targets)...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Anthony Diego Muller Barboza, Victor Satler Pylro, Rodrigo Josemar Seminot Jacques, Paulo Ivonir Gubiani, Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros, Júlio Kuhn da Trindade, Eric W Triplett, Luiz Roesch
Soil microbial communities' assembly is strongly tied to changes in temperature and moisture. Although microbial functional redundancy seems to overcome taxonomical composition changes, the sensitivity and resilience of soil microbial communities from subtropical regions in response to seasonal variations are still poorly understood. Thus, the development of new strategies for biodiversity conservation and sustainable management require a complete understanding of the soil abiotic process involved in the selection of microbial taxa and functions...
2018: PeerJ
Aihong Fu, Weihong Li, Yaning Chen, Yuting Liu
The Yanqi Basin and the Konqi River Basin of the Kaidu-Konqi River Basin were chosen as the study sites in this paper in order to investigate suitable scales of natural and artificial oases with a specified water resource and water quantity planned by the local government. Combined with remote-sensing images from 2013, water resources in 2013, 2025 and 2035, and weather and socioeconomic data, suitable scales of oases were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) The total available water quantities in the Yanqi Basin and the Konqi River Basin without river base flow, and the input of water into Bosten Lake and Tarim River, over high-, normal and low-flow periods, in 2025 and 2035, were 19...
2018: PeerJ
Suppada Kananub, Wassana Jawjaroensri, John VanLeeuwen, Henrik Stryhn, Pipat Arunvipas
Aim: The study was to determine seasonal fluctuations and non-nutritional factors associated with bulk tank milk urea nitrogen(BTMUN). Materials and Methods: A total of 58,364 BTM testing records were collected from 2364 farms in Central Thailand during September 2014-August 2015. Using square root BTMUN as the outcome, other milk components, farm effect, and sampling time were analyzed by univariable repeated measures linear regression, and significant variables were included in multivariable repeated measures linear regression...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Pandiyan Muthuramalingam, Subramanian Radhesh Krishnan, Subramani Pandian, Narayanan Mareeswaran, Wilson Aruni, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Manikandan Ramesh
The diversity in plant metabolites with improved phytonutrients is essential to achieve global food security and sustainable crop yield. Our study using computational metabolomics genome wide association study (cmGWAS) reports on a comprehensive profiling of threonine (Thr) metabolite in rice. Sixteen abiotic stress responsive (AbSR) - Thr metabolite producing genes (ThrMPG), modulate metabolite levels and play a significant role determining both physiological and nutritional importance of rice. These AbSR-ThrMPG were computationally analysed for their protein properties using OryzaCyc through plant metabolic network analyser...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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