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Osmotic stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332275/impact-of-drought-stress-induced-by-polyethylene-glycol-on-growth-water-relations-and-cell-viability-of-norway-spruce-seedlings
#1
Ilya E Zlobin, Yury V Ivanov, Alexander V Kartashov, Vladimir V Kuznetsov
We investigated physiological responses of 7-week-old Norway spruce seedlings to water deficits of different intensities. Hydroponically grown seedlings were subjected to mild (-0.15 MPa), strong (-0.5 and -1.0 MPa) and extreme (-1.5 MPa) water deficit induced by polyethylene glycol 6000, and their growth parameters, water status and physiological activity were analyzed. Seedlings effectively restricted water loss under drought, and even under extreme water deficit, shoot relative water content did not fall below 85%...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332212/measurement-of-cl-i-unaffected-by-the-cell-volume-change-using-mqae-based-two-photon-microscopy-in-airway-ciliary-cells-of-mice
#2
Yukiko Ikeuchi, Haruka Kogiso, Shigekuni Hosogi, Saori Tanaka, Chikao Shimamoto, Toshio Inui, Takashi Nakahari, Yoshinori Marunaka
MQAE is a 'non-ratiometric' chloride ion (Cl-)-quenched fluorescent indicator that is used to determine intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i). MQAE-based two-photon microscopy is reported to be a useful method to measure [Cl-]i, but it is still controversial because a change in cell volume may alter the MQAE concentration, leading to a change in the fluorescence intensity without any change in [Cl-]i. In an attempt to elucidate the effect or lack of effect of cell volume on MQAE concentration, we studied the effects of changes in cell volume, achieved by applying different levels of osmotic stress, on the intensity of MQAE fluorescence in airway ciliary cells...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324287/expression-of-heterologous-transporters-in-saccharomyces-kudriavzevii-a-strategy-for-improving-yeast-salt-tolerance-and-fermentation-performance
#3
Hana Dibalova-Culakova, Javier Alonso-Del-Real, Amparo Querol, Hana Sychrova
S. kudriavzevii has potential for fermentations and other biotechnological applications, but is sensitive to many types of stress. We tried to increase its tolerance and performance via the expression of various transporters from different yeast species. Whereas the overexpression of Z. rouxii fructose uptake systems (ZrFfz1 and ZrFsy1) or a glycerol importer (ZrStl1) did not improve the ability of S. kudriavzevii to consume fructose and survive osmotic stress, the expression of alkali-metal-cation exporters (ScEna1, ScNha1, YlNha2) improved S...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322154/polyelectrolyte-multilayers-under-compression-concurrent-osmotic-stress-and-colloidal-probe-atomic-force-microscopy
#4
Bo Wu, Guangming Liu, Guangzhao Zhang, Vincent S J Craig
Colloidal interactions have been characterised using both osmotic stress and surface forces. Here these methods are employed concurrently to measure the interaction forces of polyelectrolyte multilayers that when cross-linked form a dextran impermeable membrane. The force data, corrected for the thickness of the polyelectrolyte multilayer film, has been expressed as pressure versus separation enabling the interaction from osmotic stress measurements to be compared to the measured interaction from the colloid probe technique...
January 11, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317286/the-a-enth-domain-containing-protein-ateca4-is-an-adaptor-protein-involved-in-cargo-recycling-from-the-trans-golgi-network-early-endosome-to-the-plasma-membrane
#5
Hong Hanh Nguyen, Myoung Hui Lee, Kyungyoung Song, Gyeongik Ahn, Jihyeong Lee, Inhwan Hwang
Endocytosis and subsequent trafficking pathways are crucial for regulating the activity of plasma membrane-localized proteins. Depending on cellular and physiological conditions, the internalized cargoes are sorted at (and transported from) the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) to the vacuole for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. How this occurs at the molecular level remains largely elusive. Here we provide evidence that the ENTH domain-containing protein AtECA4 plays a crucial role in recycling cargoes from the TGN/EE to the plasma membrane...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316727/cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-phosphoethanolamine-methyltransferase-promoter-from-maize-zea-mays-l
#6
Gai-Li Niu, Wei Gou, Xiang-Long Han, Cheng Qin, Li-Xin Zhang, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Muhammad Ashraf
Betaine, a non-toxic osmoprotectant, is believed to accumulate considerably in plants under stress conditions to maintain the osmotic pressure and promote a variety of processes involved in growth and development. Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), a key enzyme for betaine synthesis, is reported to be regulated by its upstream promoter. In the present investigation, by using the transgenic approach, a 1048 bp long promoter region of ZmPEAMT gene from Zea mays was cloned and functionally characterized in tobacco...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315021/the-global-regulatory-protein-vela-is-required-for-symbiosis-between-the-endophytic-fungus-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae-and-lolium-perenne
#7
Mostafa Rahnama, Richard Johnson, Christine Rosalie Voisey, Wayne R Simpson, Damien J Fleetwood
Epichloë species fungi form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. One of the key global regulators in fungal secondary metabolism and development is the VelA protein. In this study, velA was functionally characterised in vitro and in fungal interaction with its host perennial ryegrass. The velA gene is required for E...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306571/genomic-analyses-of-five-roseivirga-species-insights-into-marine-adaptation
#8
Chitra Selvaratnam, Suganthi Thevarajoo, Kian Mau Goh, Kok-Gan Chan, Chun Shiong Chong
To date, the genus Roseivirga consists of six species with one subspecies and is one of the least-studied genera among the family Flammeovirgaceae. In order to further explore this genus, the genome sequences of five Roseivirga spp. were compared and described in this study. The Roseivirga genomes have similar sizes in the range of 4.08-4.47Mb with an average of 4.22Mb. Several key proteins related to osmotic stress adaptation were identified in Roseivirga spp. including betaine transporter, choline dehydrogenase, and glutamate synthases...
January 3, 2018: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305969/an-aldo-keto-reductase-bbakr1-is-involved-in-stress-response-and-detoxification-of-heavy-metal-chromium-but-not-required-for-virulence-in-the-insect-fungal-pathogen-beauveria-bassiana
#9
Huifang Wang, Zhangjiang He, Linli Luo, Xin Zhao, Zhuoyue Lu, Tingying Luo, Min Li, Yongjun Zhang
The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) belong to the NADP-dependent oxidoreductase superfamily, which play important roles in various physiological functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, many AKR superfamily members remain uncharacterized. Here, a downstream target gene of the HOG1 MAPK pathways coding for an aldo-keto reductase, named Bbakr1, was characterized in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Bbakr1 expression increased in response to osmotic and salt stressors, and oxidative and heavy metal (chromium) stress...
January 3, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305696/14-3-3-proteins-are-involved-in-growth-hyphal-branching-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-and-response-to-abiotic-stress-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#10
Tian-Jun Zhang, Liang Shi, Dong-Dong Chen, Rui Liu, Deng-Ke Shi, Chen-Gao Wu, Ze-Hua Sun, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
Ganoderma lucidum, which contains many pharmacologically active compounds, is regarded as a traditional medicinal fungus. Nevertheless, the scarcity of basic research limits the commercial value and utilization of G. lucidum. As a class of highly conserved, phosphopeptide-binding proteins present in all eukaryotes, 14-3-3 proteins play vital roles in controlling multiple physiological processes, including signal transduction, primary metabolism, and stress responses. However, knowledge of the roles of 14-3-3 proteins in Basidiomycetes is sparse...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303581/pulsatile-gating-of-giant-vesicles-containing-macromolecular-crowding-agents-induced-by-colligative-nonideality
#11
Wan-Chih Su, Douglas L Gettel, Morgan Chabanon, Padmini Rangamani, Atul N Parikh
The ability of large macromolecules to exhibit nontrivial deviations in colligative properties of their aqueous solutions is well-appreciated in polymer physics. Here, we show that this colligative nonideality subjects giant lipid vesicles containing inert macromolecular crowding agents to osmotic pressure differentials when bathed in small-molecule osmolytes at comparable concentrations. The ensuing influx of water across the semipermeable membrane induces characteristic swell-burst cycles: here, cyclical and damped oscillations in size, tension, and membrane phase separation occur en route to equilibration...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300930/-comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-plant-acclimation-to-six-different-long-term-environmental-changes
#12
Dániel Á Carrera, Sebastian Oddson, Jonas Grossmann, Christian Trachsel, Sebastian Streb
Plants are constantly challenged in their natural environment by a range of changing conditions. We investigated the acclimation processes and adaptive plant responses to various long-term mild changes and compared them directly within one experimental setup. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were grown in hydroponic culture for 10 days under controlled abiotic stress (15 °C, 25 °C, salt and osmotic) and in nutrient deficiency (nitrate and phosphate). Plant growth was monitored and proteomic experiments were performed...
December 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290360/trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-harmful-protective-or-diagnostic-marker-in-lifestyle-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Artur Nowiński, Marcin Ufnal
Diet has been considered a general health determinant for many years. Recent research shows a connection between gut microbiota composition that is shaped by our diet and lifestyle diseases. Several studies point to a positive correlation between elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut bacteria metabolite, and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, it has been suggested that TMAO is a link between the diet, gut microbiota, and illness. Emerging experimental and clinical evidence shows that TMAO may be involved in the etiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and renal failure...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286291/transcriptomic-profiling-and-physiological-analysis-of-haloxylon-ammodendron-in-response-to-osmotic-stress
#14
Hui-Juan Gao, Xin-Pei Lü, Ling Zhang, Yan Qiao, Qi Zhao, Yong-Ping Wang, Meng-Fei Li, Jin-Lin Zhang
Haloxylon ammodendron, a perennial xero-halophyte, is an essential species for investigating the effects of drought on desert tree. To gain a comprehensive knowledge on the responses of H. ammodendron to drought stress, we specially performed the molecular and physiological analysis of H. ammodendron in response to -0.75 MPa osmotic stress for six and 24 h in lab condition via RNA-seq and digital gene expression (DGE). In total, 87,109 unigenes with a mean length of 680 bp and 13,486 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were generated, and 3353 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in shoots and 4564 in roots were identified under stress...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285618/oryza-sativa-salt-induced-ring-e3-ligase-2-ossirp2-acts-as-a-positive-regulator-of-transketolase-in-plant-response-to-salinity-and-osmotic-stress
#15
Sandeep Chapagain, Yong Chan Park, Ju Hee Kim, Cheol Seong Jang
A rice gene (OsSIRP2) encoding the RING Ub E3 ligase was highly induced under salinity stress and physically interacted with a transketolase (OsTKL1). Overexpression of OsSIRP2 conferred salinity and osmotic stress tolerance in plants. The RING E3 ligases play a vital role in post transitional modification through ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation that mediate plants responses during abiotic stresses and signal transduction. In this study, we report an Oryza sativa salt induced Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger protein 2 gene (OsSIRP2) and elucidate its role under salinity and osmotic stress...
December 28, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281092/the-biosynthesis-of-quebrachitol-a-transportable-photosynthate-in-litchi-chinensis
#16
Zi-Chen Wu, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Jie-Tang Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Xu-Ming Huang, Hui-Cong Wang
Although methylated cyclitols constitute a major proportion of the carbohydrates in many plant species, their physiological roles and biosynthetic pathway were largely unknown. Quebrachitol (2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) is one of the major methylated cyclitols in some plant species. In litchi, quebrachitol represents around 50% soluble sugars in mature leaves and 40% of the total sugars in phloem exudation. In the present study, we identified bornesitol as a transient methylated intermediate of quebrachitol and measured the concentrations of methyl-inositols in different tissues and in tissues subjected to different treatments...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278770/identification-of-the-aqp-members-involved-in-abiotic-stress-responses-from-arabidopsis
#17
Zhi-Juan Feng, Sheng-Chun Xu, Na Liu, Gu-Wen Zhang, Qi-Zan Hu, Zhao-Shi Xu, Ya-Ming Gong
Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a highly diverse family of water channel proteins that play crucial biological functions in plant growth and development and stress physiology. In Arabidopsis, 35 AQPs are classified into four subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs and SIPs). However, knowledge about the roles of different subfamily AQPs remains limited. Here, we explored the chromosomal location, gene structure and expression patterns of all AQPs in different tissues or under different abiotic stresses based on available microarray data...
December 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276823/engineering-multifunctional-rnai-nanomedicine-to-concurrently-target-cancer-hallmarks-for-combinatorial-therapy
#18
Yanlan Liu, Xiaoyuan Ji, Winnie Tong, Diana Askhatova, Tingyuan Yang, Hongwei Cheng, Yuzhuo Wang, Jinjun Shi
Cancer hallmarks have been providing a logical framework for understanding the complexity and heterogeneity of tumor biology, leading to the discovery of various promising targets for cancer therapy. Herein, we report a novel amorphous iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-based RNAi strategy to co-target two cancer hallmarks. The NP technology can modulate the glycolysis pathway by silencing MCT4 to induce tumor cell acidosis, and concurrently exacerbate oxidative stress in tumor cells via the Fenton-like reaction...
December 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276506/escherichia-coli-o157-h7-converts-plant-derived-choline-to-glycine-betaine-for-osmoprotection-during-pre-and-post-harvest-colonization-of-injured-lettuce-leaves
#19
Russell A Scott, Roger Thilmony, Leslie A Harden, Yaguang Zhou, Maria T Brandl
Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275430/the-histone-acetyltransferase-mst2-sustains-the-biological-control-potential-of-a-fungal-insect-pathogen-through-transcriptional-regulation
#20
Juan-Juan Wang, Qing Cai, Lei Qiu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Histone lysine acetylation orchestrates transcriptional activity essential for diverse cellular events across organisms, but it remains poorly understood how an acetylated lysine affects cellular functions in filamentous fungal pathogens. Here, we show the functions of a histone acetyltransferase that is phylogenetically close to Mst2 in fission yeast and specifically acetylates histone H3K14 in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen widely applied in arthropod pest management. Deletion of mst2 in B. bassiana resulted in moderate growth defects on rich and minimal media, delayed conidiation, and drastic reduction (75%) in conidiation capacity under normal culture conditions...
December 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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