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Osmotic stress

Alma Botas, Rosario Pérez-Redondo, Antonio Rodríguez-García, Rubén Álvarez-Álvarez, Paula Yagüe, Angel Manteca, Paloma Liras
ArgR is a well-characterized transcriptional repressor controlling the expression of arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic genes in bacteria. In this work, the biological role of Streptomyces coelicolor ArgR was analyzed by comparing the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor Δ argR and its parental strain, S. coelicolor M145, at five different times over a 66-h period. The effect of S. coelicolor ArgR was more widespread than that of the orthologous protein of Escherichia coli , affecting the expression of 1544 genes along the microarray time series...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Muhammad Abid, Shafaqat Ali, Lei Kang Qi, Rizwan Zahoor, Zhongwei Tian, Dong Jiang, John L Snider, Tingbo Dai
Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tony L R Silveira, Gabriel B Martins, William B Domingues, Mariana H Remião, Bruna F Barreto, Ingrid M Lessa, Lucas Santos, Danillo Pinhal, Odir A Dellagostin, Fabiana K Seixas, Tiago Collares, Ricardo B Robaldo, Vinicius F Campos
Silversides are fish that inhabit marine coastal waters, coastal lagoons, and estuarine regions in southern South America. The freshwater (FW) silversides have the ability to tolerate salinity variations. Odontesthes humensis have similar habitats and biological characteristics of congeneric O. bonariensis , the most studied silverside species and with great economic importance. Studies revealed that O. bonariensis is not fully adapted to FW, despite inhabiting hyposmotic environments in nature. However, there is little information about stressful environments for cultivation of silverside O...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi
Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kengo Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Umeda, Kuniyoshi Niwa, Isao Naguro, Hidenori Ichijo
Cell volume regulation is a vital system for cellular activities. When perturbed by hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic stress, cells immediately induce the cell volume recovery system, regulatory volume decrease (RVD) or regulatory volume increase (RVI), respectively. In contrast to the knowledge about effector molecules, the molecular mechanisms linking osmosensing to RVD/RVI induction remain unknown. Additionally, few reciprocal responders in the bidirectional osmotic stress response have been identified. We previously reported that ASK3 bidirectionally switches its kinase activity under osmotic stress...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
K Hari Krishna, Muthuvel Suresh Kumar
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase (EIF2AK) proteins inhibit protein synthesis at translation initiation level, in response to various stress conditions, including oxidative stress, heme deficiency, osmotic shock, and heat shock. Origin and functional diversification of EIF2AK sequences remain ambiguous. Here we determine the origin and molecular evolution of EIF2AK proteins in lower eukaryotes and studied the molecular basis of divergence among sub-family sequences. Present work emphasized primitive origin of EIF2AK4 sub-family gene in lower eukaryotes of protozoan lineage...
2018: PloS One
Oren Akhberdi, Qian Zhang, Dan Wang, Haichuan Wang, Xiaoran Hao, Yanjie Liu, Dongsheng Wei, Xudong Zhu
The velvet family proteins have been shown to play critical roles in fungal secondary metabolism and development. However, variations of the roles have been observed in different fungi. We report here the observation on the role of three velvet complex components VeA, VelB, and LaeA in Pestalotiopsis microspora , a formerly reported taxol-producing fungus. Deletion of individual members led to the retardation of vegetative growth and sporulation and pigmentation, suggesting critical roles in these processes...
March 14, 2018: Genes
Matthew Tien, Aretha Fiebig, Sean Crosson
Cells adapt to shifts in their environment by remodeling transcription. Measuring changes in transcription at the genome scale is now routine, but defining the functional significance of individual genes within large gene expression datasets remains a major challenge. We applied a network-based algorithm to interrogate publicly available gene expression data to predict genes that serve major functional roles in Caulobacter crescentus stress survival. This approach identified GsrN, a conserved small RNA that is directly activated by the general stress sigma factor, σT , and functions as a potent post-transcriptional regulator of survival across distinct conditions including osmotic and oxidative stress...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Petra Schwendner, Maria Bohmeier, Petra Rettberg, Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Frédéric Gaboyer, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Alexandra K Perras, Pauline Vannier, Viggó T Marteinsson, Laura Garcia-Descalzo, Felipe Gómez, Moustafa Malki, Ricardo Amils, Frances Westall, Andreas Riedo, Euan P Monaghan, Pascale Ehrenfreund, Patricia Cabezas, Nicolas Walter, Charles Cockell
Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuchen Yang, Wuxia Guo, Xu Shen, Jianfang Li, Shuhuan Yang, Sufang Chen, Ziwen He, Renchao Zhou, Suhua Shi
Alternative splicing (AS), which produces multiple mRNA transcripts from a single gene, plays crucial roles in plant growth, development and environmental stress responses. Functional significances of conserved AS events among congeneric species have not been well characterized. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to characterize AS events in four common species of Sonneratia, a mangrove genus excellently adaptive to intertidal zones. 7,248 to 12,623 AS events were identified in approximately 25% to 35% expressed genes in the roots of the four species...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Jain, S Tiwary, R Gadre
Osmotic stress induced with 1 M sorbitol inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesizing activities in etiolated maize leaf segments during greening; the ALAD activity was inhibited to a greater extent than the ALA synthesis. When the leaves were exposed to light, the ALAD activity increased for the first 8 h, followed by a decrease observed at 16 and 24 h in both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaf tissues. The maximum inhibition of the enzyme activity was observed in the leaf segments incubated with sorbitol for 4 to 8 h...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Eun Byeol Lee, Jun Hyeong Kim, Chang Wan An, Yeong Jee Kim, Yun Jeong Noh, Su Jin Kim, Ju-Eun Kim, Abinash Chandra Shrestha, Ha-Neul Ham, Jae-Yoon Leem, Hyung-Kwon Jo, Dae-Sung Kim, Kwang Hyun Moon, Jeong Ho Lee, Kyung Ok Jeong, Dae Keun Kim
In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions...
March 14, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jun You, Yanyan Wang, Yujuan Zhang, Komivi Dossa, Donghua Li, Rong Zhou, Linhai Wang, Xiurong Zhang
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop. However, multiple abiotic stresses severely affect sesame growth and production. Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), such as raffinose and stachyose, play an important role in desiccation tolerance of plants and developing seeds. In the present study, three types of key enzymes, galactinol synthase (GolS), raffinose synthase (RafS) and stachyose synthase (StaS), responsible for the biosynthesis of RFOs were identified at the genome-wide scale in sesame...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christine M Hustmyer, Chelsea A Simpson, Stephen G Olney, Matthew L Bochman, Julia C van Kessel
Experimental studies of transcriptional regulation in bacteria require the ability to precisely measure changes in gene expression, often accomplished through the use of reporter genes. However, the boundaries of promoter sequences required for transcription are often unknown, thus complicating construction of reporters and genetic analysis of transcriptional regulation. Here, we analyze reporter libraries to define the promoter boundaries of the luxCDABE bioluminescence operon and the betIBA-proXWV osmotic stress operon in Vibrio harveyi We describe a new method called RAIL (<u>R</u>apid<u>A</u>rbitrary PCR<u>I</u>nsertion<u>L</u>ibraries) that combines the power of arbitrary PCR and isothermal DNA assembly to rapidly clone promoter fragments of various lengths upstream of reporter genes to generate large libraries...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Rakshak Kumar, Vishal Acharya, Srijana Mukhia, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis ERDD5:01 is a psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from the glacial stream flowing from East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalaya. The strain showed survivability at high altitude stress conditions like freezing, frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-C radiations. The complete genome of 5,746,824 bp circular chromosome and a plasmid of 371,027 bp was sequenced to understand the genetic basis of its survival strategy. Multiple copies of cold-associated genes encoding cold active chaperons, general stress response, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, membrane/cell wall alteration, carbon storage/starvation and, DNA repair mechanisms supported its survivability at extreme cold and radiations corroborating with the bacterial physiological findings...
March 9, 2018: Genomics
Hao Ji, Xinyao Lu, Hong Zong, Bin Zhuge
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important non-protein amino acid involved in the response to various environmental stresses in plant cells. The objectives of this study was to test the hypothesis that intracellular accumulation of GABA improves osmotic tolerance in the unconventional yeast Candida glycerinogenes. In C. glycerinogenes, the expression of UGA4 encoding GABA-specific permease is highly induced by hyperosmotic stress. Exogenous GABA application enhanced intracellular GABA accumulation and promoted cell growth under hyperosmotic conditions...
March 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Joaquín Cicotello, Irma V Wolf, Luisa D'Angelo, Daniela M Guglielmotti, Andrea Quiberoni, Viviana B Suárez
The ability of twelve strains belonging to three Leuconostoc species (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc lactis and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides) to grow under diverse sub-lethal technological stress conditions (cold, acidic, alkaline and osmotic) was evaluated in MRS broth. Two strains, Leuconostoc lactis Ln N6 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides Ln MB7, were selected based on their growth under sub-lethal conditions, and volatile profiles in RSM (reconstituted skim milk) at optimal and under stress conditions were analyzed...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Shengli Wang, Liang Shi, Yanru Hu, Rui Liu, Ang Ren, Jing Zhu, Mingwen Zhao
The transcription factor Skn7 is a highly conserved fungal protein that participates in a variety of processes, including oxidative stress adaptation, fungicide sensitivity, cell wall biosynthesis, cell cycle, and sporulation. In this study, a homologous gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Skn7 was cloned from Ganoderma lucidum. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the functions of Skn7, and the two knockdown strains Skn7i-5 and Skn7i-7 were obtained in G. lucidum. The knockdown of GlSkn7 resulted in hypersensitivity to oxidative and cell wall stresses...
March 7, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Shang-Jun Yin, Linmeng Zhang, Lili Zhang, Jiaxin Wan, Wei Song, Xiamin Jiang, Yong-Doo Park, Yue-Xiu Si
The pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis is particularly sensitive to environmental changes in its breeding environment. The breeding of S. pharaonis larvae was carried out in different salinities for 48 h, and the changes in survival rate, histological structure, energy metabolism, and anti-oxidative stress parameters were investigated and correlated with arginine kinase (AK) expression changes in muscle and liver tissues. The suitable salinity for larvae cultivation ranged from 24 to 30‰, and the survival rate showed a significant decline at 21‰ salinity...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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