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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150640/early-endosome-motility-mediates-%C3%AE-amylase-production-and-cell-differentiation-in-aspergillus-oryzae
#1
Yusuke Togo, Yujiro Higuchi, Yoshinori Katakura, Kaoru Takegawa
Recent research in filamentous fungi has revealed that the motility of an endocytic organelle early endosome (EE) has a versatile role in many physiological functions. Here, to further examine the motility of EEs in the industrially important fungus Aspergillus oryzae, we visualized these organelles via the Rab5 homolog AoRab5 and identified AoHok1, a putative linker protein between an EE and a motor protein. The Aohok1 disruptant showed retarded mycelial growth and no EE motility, in addition to an apical accumulation of EEs and peroxisomes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146255/haemophilus-parasuis-cpxra-two-component-system-confers-bacterial-tolerance-to-environmental-stresses-and-macrolide-resistance
#2
Qi Cao, Fenfen Feng, Huan Wang, Xiaojuan Xu, Huanchun Chen, Xuwang Cai, Xiangru Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen localized in the upper respiratory tracts of pigs, its infection begins from bacterial survival under complex conditions, like hyperosmosis, oxidative stress, phagocytosis, and sometimes antibiotics as well. The two-component signal transduction (TCST) system serves as a common stimulus-response mechanism that allows microbes to sense and respond to diverse environmental conditions via a series of phosphorylation reactions. In this study, we investigated the role of TCST system CpxRA in H...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142352/localized-pontine-uptake-in-fluorine-18-fuorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-a-case-of-hyponatremia-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Thangalakshmi Sivathapandi, Shelley Simon, Indirani Elangovan
A rare acquired demyelinating lesion of the pons central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) typically occurs after rapid correction of hyponatremia. There is disruption of blood-brain barrier due to osmotic stress allowing access for inflammatory mediators in extravascular brain tissue, which most likely attracts glial cells of the brain, attracts macrophages, and activates astrocytes. We present a case of female with a known history of inflammatory bowel disease who presented with altered sensorium and hyponatremia...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138971/carbon-source-sink-relationship-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-the-role-of-sucrose-transporters
#4
Mickaël Durand, Dany Mainson, Benoît Porcheron, Laurence Maurousset, Rémi Lemoine, Nathalie Pourtau
The regulation of source-to-sink sucrose transport is associated with AtSUC and AtSWEET sucrose transporters' gene expression changes in plants grown hydroponically under different physiological conditions. Source-to-sink transport of sucrose is one of the major determinants of plant growth. Whole-plant carbohydrates' partitioning requires the specific activity of membrane sugar transporters. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants, two families of transporters are involved in sucrose transport: AtSUCs and AtSWEETs...
November 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138484/non-canonical-activation-of-ompr-drives-acid-and-osmotic-stress-responses-in-single-bacterial-cells
#5
Smarajit Chakraborty, Ricksen S Winardhi, Leslie K Morgan, Jie Yan, Linda J Kenney
Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria undergo large changes in osmolality and cytoplasmic pH. It has been described that during acid stress, bacteria internal pH promptly acidifies, followed by recovery. Here, using pH imaging in single living cells, we show that following acid stress, bacteria maintain an acidic cytoplasm and the osmotic stress transcription factor OmpR is required for acidification. The activation of this response is non-canonical, involving a regulatory mechanism requiring the OmpR cognate kinase EnvZ, but not OmpR phosphorylation...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137778/the-use-of-ultrasound-to-reduce-internal-concentration-polarization-in-forward-osmosis
#6
Yongjun Choi, Tae-Mun Hwang, Sanghyun Jeong, Sangho Lee
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128358/plant-salt-tolerance-mechanism-a-review
#7
Wenji Liang, Xiaoli Ma, Peng Wan, Lianyin Liu
Almost all crops that are important to humans are sensitive to high salt concentration in the soil. The presence of salt in soil is one of the most significant abiotic stresses in farming. Therefore, improving plant salt tolerance and increasing the yield and quality of crops in salty land is vital. Transgenic technology is a fast and effective method to obtain salt-tolerant varieties. At present, many scholars have studied salt damage to plant and plant salt-tolerance mechanism. These scholars have cloned a number of salt-related genes and achieved high salt tolerance for transgenic plants, thereby showing attractive prospects...
November 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126879/mechanical-stretch-increases-l-type-calcium-channel-stability-in-cardiomyocytes-through-a-polycystin-1-akt-dependent-mechanism
#8
A Córdova-Casanova, I Olmedo, J A Riquelme, G Barrientos, G Sánchez, T G Gillette, S Lavandero, M Chiong, P Donoso, Z Pedrozo
The L-type calcium channel (LTCC) is an important determinant of cardiac contractility. Therefore, changes in LTCC activity or protein levels could be expected to affect cardiac function. Several studies describing LTCC regulation are available, but only a few examine LTCC protein stability. Polycystin-1 (PC1) is a mechanosensor that regulates heart contractility and is involved in mechanical stretch-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PC1 was originally described as an unconventional Gi/o protein-coupled receptor in renal cells...
November 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125673/overexpression-of-sdh-confers-tolerance-to-salt-and-osmotic-stress-but-decreases-aba-sensitivity-in-arabidopsis
#9
Xiao-Pu Shi, Jing-Jing Ren, Qin Yu, Shu-Mei Zhou, Qiu-Ping Ren, Lan-Jing Kong, Xiu-Ling Wang
Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of sorbitol, xylitol and ribitol to their corresponding ketoses. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Arabidopsis SDH in salt and osmotic stress tolerance, and abscisic acid (ABA) response. The expression patterns of SDH were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of promoter with the first intron of SDH. qRT-PCR and histochemical assay of GUS activity were used to study SDH expression regulation by ABA, salt and osmotic stress...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124876/trehalose-a-temperature-and-salt-induced-solute-with-implications-in-pathobiology-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
Sabine Zeidler, Josephine Hubloher, Kim Schabacker, Pedro Lamosa, Helena Santos, Volker Müller
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic human pathogen that has become a global threat to healthcare institutions worldwide. A major factor contributing to success of this bacterium is its outstanding ability to survive on dry surfaces. The molecular basis for desiccation resistance is not completely understood. This study focused on growth under osmotic stress and aimed to identify the pool of compatible solutes synthesized in response to these low water activity conditions. A. baumannii produced mannitol as compatible solute, but in contrast to Acinetobacter baylyi, also trehalose was accumulated in response to increasing NaCl concentrations...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123463/switchgrass-pvdreb1c-plays-opposite-roles-in-plant-cold-and-salt-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco
#11
Wuwu Wen, Zheni Xie, Guohui Yu, Chengliang Zhao, Jing Zhang, Linkai Huang, Bin Xu, Bingru Huang
Background: The C-repeat-binding factors/DRE-binding factors (CBF/DREBs) comprise a key transcription factor family involved in plant stress tolerance. Yet, there is limited information about switchgrass DREB genes and their functional roles. Results: In this study, four cold-inducible PvDREB1s were identified from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), among which PvDREB1C was the one responded to cold stress later than the other three PvDREB1s. Yet, ectopic overexpression of PvDREB1C led to significantly compromised, instead of improved cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122554/physiological-roles-of-ask-family-members-in-innate-immunity-and-their-involvement-in-pathogenesis-of-immune-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Atsushi Matsuzawa
Cells are always exposed to various types of stress, including physical, chemical, and biological stresses, and are required to sense immediately and respond appropriately to these stresses. The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) family members are stress-responsive kinases, which are activated by not only physicochemical stresses, such as oxidative stress, osmotic pressure, calcium overload, and anti-cancer drugs, but also biological stresses, such as inflammatory cytokines and pathogen infection. Recently, we found that ASK1, a member of ASK family, is activated by bacterial components, such as lipopolysaccharide, in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner, demonstrating that ASK1 is required for the innate immune response and plays a critical role in the regulation of innate immune signaling...
October 19, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121419/nitrogen-limitation-of-decomposition-and-decay-how-can-it-occur
#13
Colin Averill, Bonnie Waring
The availability of nitrogen (N) is a critical control on the cycling and storage of soil carbon (C). Yet there are conflicting conceptual models to explain how N availability influences decomposition of organic matter by soil microbial communities. Several lines of evidence suggest that N availability limits decomposition: the earliest stages of leaf litter decay are associated with a net import of N from the soil environment, and both observations and models show that high-N organic matter decomposes more rapidly...
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117702/charge-regularized-swelling-kinetics-of-polyelectrolyte-gels-elasticity-and-diffusion
#14
Swati Sen, Arindam Kundagrami
We apply a recently developed method [S. Sen and A. Kundagrami, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224904 (2015)], using a phenomenological expression of osmotic stress, as a function of polymer and charge densities, hydrophobicity, and network elasticity for the swelling of spherical polyelectrolyte (PE) gels with fixed and variable charges in a salt-free solvent. This expression of stress is used in the equation of motion of swelling kinetics of spherical PE gels to numerically calculate the spatial profiles for the polymer and free ion densities at different time steps and the time evolution of the size of the gel...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109799/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-biosurfactant-producing-bacillus-aquimaris-strain-samm-mcc-3014-isolated-from-indian-arabian-coastline-sea-water
#15
Samadhan Waghmode, Laxmikant Dama, Tejashri Hingamire, Nidhi Bharti, Swapnil Doijad, Mangesh Suryavanshi
Bacillus aquimaris strain SAMM, a biosurfactant producing moderately halophilic marine bacterium was isolated from Indian Arabian coastline sea water. The strain was found to tolerate up to 2.7 M NaCl indicating osmotic stress sustainable physiological systems. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. aquimaris SAMM, as a candidate bacterium for bioactive surfactant producer. The whole genome sequence with 161 scaffolds, 4,414,932 bp and 44.8% of G+C content for SAMM was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology...
2017: Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109733/plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-amelioration-of-salinity-stress-a-systems-biology-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Donald L Smith
Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104579/high-ambient-temperature-represses-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-through-degradation-of-hy5
#17
Sara Kim, Geonhee Hwang, Seulgi Lee, Jia-Ying Zhu, Inyup Paik, Thom Thi Nguyen, Jungmook Kim, Eunkyoo Oh
Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds that protect plant tissues from many environmental stresses including high light irradiance, freezing temperatures, and pathogen infection. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is intimately associated with environmental changes to enhance plant survival under stressful environmental conditions. Various factors, such as UV, visible light, cold, osmotic stress, and pathogen infection, can induce anthocyanin biosynthesis. In contrast, high temperatures are known to reduce anthocyanin accumulation in many plant species, even drastically in the skin of fruits such as grape berries and apples...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104571/identification-of-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline-as-a-compatible-solute-and-its-biosynthesis-and-molecular-characterization-in-halobacillus-halophilus
#18
Kyung Hyun Kim, Baolei Jia, Che Ok Jeon
Halobacillus halophilus, a moderately halophilic bacterium, accumulates a variety of compatible solutes including glycine betaine, glutamate, glutamine, proline, and ectoine to cope with osmotic stress. Non-targeted analysis of intracellular organic compounds using (1)H-NMR showed that a large amount of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp), which has not been reported as a compatible solute in H. halophilus, was accumulated in response to high NaCl salinity, suggesting that Hyp may be an important compatible solute in H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102627/the-anti-stresses-capability-of-grp78-in-penaeus-monodon-evidence-from-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#19
Lili Li, Pengfei Wang, Chao Zhao, Lihua Qiu
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is an important member of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which plays important roles in the response to stimulation from various external environmental stimuli. In this study, the full-length cDNA of GRP78 (PmGRP78) was cloned from Penaeus monodon. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that PmGRP78 was ubiquitously expressed in all the tested shrimp tissues, and the expression pattern of PmGRP78 in the gill and hepatopancreas tissues after a pH challenge, osmotic stress, and heavy metal exposure was also detected...
November 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101191/tinkering-with-osmotically-controlled-transcription-allows-enhanced-production-and-excretion-of-ectoine-and-hydroxyectoine-from-a-microbial-cell-factory
#20
Laura Czech, Sebastian Poehl, Philipp Hub, Nadine Stoeveken, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are widely synthesized by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea as potent osmostress protectants. We have studied the salient features of the osmostress-responsive promoter directing the transcription of the ectoine/hydroxyectoine biosynthetic gene cluster from the plant-roots-associated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri by transferring it into Escherichia coli, an enterobacterium that does not produce ectoines naturally. Using ect-lacZ reporter fusions, we found that the heterologous ect promoter reacted with exquisite sensitivity in its transcriptional profile to graded increases in sustained high salinity, responded to a true osmotic signal, and required the build-up of an osmotically effective gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for its induction...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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