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Osmotic stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774830/frequent-implication-of-multistress-tolerant-campylobacter-jejuni-in-human-infections
#1
Euna Oh, Linda Chui, Junghee Bae, Vincent Li, Angela Ma, Steven K Mutschall, Eduardo N Taboada, Lynn M McMullen, Byeonghwa Jeon
Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses, is considered highly susceptible to environmental stresses. In this study, we extensively investigated the stress tolerance of 121 clinical strains of C. jejuni against 5 stress conditions (aerobic stress, disinfectant exposure, freeze-thaw, heat treatment, and osmotic stress) that this pathogenic bacterium might encounter during foodborne transmission to humans. In contrast to our current perception about high stress sensitivity of C. jejuni, a number of clinical strains of C...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774204/non-canonical-activities-of-hog1-control-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-to-killer-toxins-from-debaryomyces-hansenii
#2
Ana Morales-Menchén, Federico Navarro-García, José P Guirao-Abad, Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Ioana V Coman, Jesús Pla, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
Certain yeasts secrete peptides known as killer toxins or mycocins with a deleterious effect on sensitive yeasts or filamentous fungi, a common phenomenon in environmental species. In a recent work, different Debaryomyces hansenii ( Dh ) strains isolated from a wide variety of cheeses were identified as producing killer toxins active against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis . We have analyzed the killer activity of these toxins in C. albicans mutants defective in MAPK signaling pathways and found that the lack of the MAPK Hog1 (but not Cek1 or Mkc1) renders cells hypersensitive to Dh mycocins while mutants lacking other upstream elements of the pathway behave as the wild type strain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774038/altered-expression-of-the-malate-permeable-anion-channel-osalmt4-reduces-the-growth-of-rice-under-low-radiance
#3
Jie Liu, Muyun Xu, Gonzalo M Estavillo, Emmanuel Delhaize, Rosemary G White, Meixue Zhou, Peter R Ryan
We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ABA, IAA, and salicylic acid...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774015/comparative-proteomic-and-morphological-change-analyses-of-staphylococcus-aureus-during-resuscitation-from-prolonged-freezing
#4
Biao Suo, Hua Yang, Yuexia Wang, Haipeng Lv, Zhen Li, Chao Xu, Zhilu Ai
When frozen, Staphylococcus aureus survives in a sublethally injured state. However, S. aureus can recover at a suitable temperature, which poses a threat to food safety. To elucidate the resuscitation mechanism of freezing survived S. aureus , we used cells stored at -18°C for 90 days as controls. After resuscitating the survived cells at 37°C, the viable cell numbers were determined on tryptic soy agar with 0.6% yeast extract (TSAYE), and the non-injured-cell numbers were determined on TSAYE supplemented with 10% NaCl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773844/identification-of-differentially-accumulated-proteins-involved-in-regulating-independent-and-combined-osmosis-and-cadmium-stress-response-in-brachypodium-seedling-roots
#5
Ziyan Chen, Dong Zhu, Jisu Wu, Zhiwei Cheng, Xing Yan, Xiong Deng, Yueming Yan
In this study, we aimed to identify differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) involved in PEG mock osmotic stress, cadmium (Cd2+ ) stress, and their combined stress responses in Brachypodium distachyon seedling roots. The results showed that combined PEG and Cd2+ stresses had more significant effects on Brachypodium seedling root growth, physiological traits, and ultrastructures when compared with each individual stress. Totally, 106 DAPs were identified that are responsive to individual and combined stresses in roots...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773745/prospects-for-harnessing-biocide-resistance-for-bioremediation-and-detoxification
#6
REVIEW
Siavash Atashgahi, Irene Sánchez-Andrea, Hermann J Heipieper, Jan R van der Meer, Alfons J M Stams, Hauke Smidt
Prokaryotes in natural environments respond rapidly to high concentrations of chemicals and physical stresses. Exposure to anthropogenic toxic substances-such as oil, chlorinated solvents, or antibiotics-favors the evolution of resistant phenotypes, some of which can use contaminants as an exclusive carbon source or as electron donors and acceptors. Microorganisms similarly adapt to extreme pH, metal, or osmotic stress. The metabolic plasticity of prokaryotes can thus be harnessed for bioremediation and can be exploited in a variety of ways, ranging from stimulated natural attenuation to bioaugmentation and from wastewater treatment to habitat restoration...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772493/tissue-physiological-metabolic-adaptability-in-young-and-old-leaves-of-reed-phragmites-communis-in-songnen-grassland
#7
Rui Guo, Zhenzi Bai, Ji Zhou, XiuLi Zhong, FengXue Gu, Qi Liu, HaoRu Li
Common reed (Phragmites communis) is widely distributed as the dominant plant species in the Songnen Plain of China. The aim of this study was to investigate different physiological adaptive mechanisms to salinity tolerance between young and old leaves. The profiles of 68 metabolites were measured and studied in reed leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The nitrogen, carbon, and pigment contents showed stronger growth inhibition for older leaves with salinity stress. In young leaves, high K+ contents not only promoted cell growth, but also prevented influx of superfluous Na+ ions in cells; the Ca2+ accumulation in old leaves implied that Ca2+ triggered the SOS-Na+ exclusion system and reduced Na+ toxicity...
May 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770550/improved-robustness-of-an-ethanologenic-yeast-strain-through-adaptive-evolution-in-acetic-acid-is-associated-with-its-enzymatic-antioxidant-ability
#8
N Gurdo, G F Novelli Poisson, Á B Juárez, M C Ríos de Molina, M A Galvagno
AIMS: To investigate multiple tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained through a laboratory strategy of adaptive evolution in acetic acid, its relation with enzymatic ROS detoxification and bioethanol 2G production. METHODS AND RESULTS: After adaptive evolution in acetic acid, a clone (Y8A) was selected for its tolerance to high acetic acid concentrations (13 g l-1 ) in batch cultures. Y8A was resistant to multiple stresses: osmotic, thermic, oxidative, saline, ethanol, organic acid, phenolic compounds and slow freeze-thawing cycles...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767758/turgor-maintenance-by-osmotic-adjustment-40-years-of-progress
#9
Neil C Turner
Osmotic adjustment (OA), the accumulation of solutes in higher plant cells in response to water deficits, was first reported more than four decades ago. Since then, variation in OA among genotypes/cultivars in response to drought has been reported in many crop plants, but its role in maintaining growth and yield in water-limited environments has been questioned. The role of OA in the physiological and agronomic adaptation to water stress of crops, the methods of reliably measuring the degree of OA among genotypes or species, the range of OA in many studies and its impact on grain yield in water-limited environments are reviewed...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765379/-vitis-vinifera-l-fruit-diversity-to-breed-varieties-anticipating-climate-changes
#10
Antoine Bigard, Dargie T Berhe, Eleonora Maoddi, Yannick Sire, Jean-Michel Boursiquot, Hernan Ojeda, Jean-Pierre Péros, Agnès Doligez, Charles Romieu, Laurent Torregrosa
The wine industry is facing critical issues due to climate changes since production is established on very tight Genotype × Environment interaction bases. While, some cultivation practices may reduce adverse effects of abiotic stresses on the vines, e.g., the use of irrigation to mitigate drought, the deleterious impacts of warming on fruit development are difficult to manage. Elevated temperature alters grapevine fruit growth and composition, with a critical increase of the sugars/organic acids ratio. Select grapes with improved metabolite balances to offset high temperature effects is a valuable option to sustain viticulture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762248/vascular-delivery-of-intraperitoneal-evans-blue-dye-into-the-blood-brain-barrier-intact-and-disrupted-rat-brains
#11
Hwai-Lee Wang, Eva Yuhua Kuo, Ted Weita Lai
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity can be determined by tracer infusion into the circulation followed by measurements of its penetration into the brain parenchyma. Tracer injection through the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route (rather than intravascular injection) avoids confounding effects of animal anesthesia or immobilization/surgical stress. Evans blue dye (EBD) can be administered by i.p. injection, and once in circulation, it binds to plasma albumin to become an endogenous protein tracer. Here, we investigated whether a similar level of EBD is extravasated into the brain following i...
May 14, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761697/identification-of-proteins-using-itraq-and-vigs-reveals-three-bread-wheat-proteins-involved-in-the-response-to-combined-osmotic-cold-stress
#12
Ning Zhang, Lingran Zhang, Chaonan Shi, Lei Zhao, Dangqun Cui, Feng Chen
Crops are often subjected to a combination of stresses in the field. To date, studies on the physiological and molecular responses of common wheat to a combination of osmotic and cold stresses, however, remain unknown. In this study, wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress for 24 h showed inhibited growth, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, relative electrolyte leakage, and soluble sugar contents. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were employed to determine the proteomic profiles of the roots and leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress conditions...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761494/control-of-xylem-na-loading-and-transport-to-the-shoot-in-rice-and-barley-as-a-determinant-of-differential-salinity-stress-tolerance
#13
Tetsuya Ishikawa, Sergey Shabala
Control of xylem Na+ loading has often been named as the essential components of salinity tolerance mechanism. However, it is less clear to what extent the difference in this trait may determine differential salinity tolerance between species. In this study barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. CM72) and rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Dongjin) plants were grown under two levels of salinity. Na+ and K+ concentrations in the xylem sap, and shoot and root tissues were measured at different time points after stress onset. Salt-exposed rice plants prevented xylem Na+ loading for several days, but failed to control this process in the longer term, ultimately resulting in a massive Na+ shoot loading...
May 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761061/transcriptomic-studies-reveal-a-key-metabolic-pathway-contributing-to-a-well-maintained-photosynthetic-system-under-drought-stress-in-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica-l
#14
Weiping Shi, Jingye Cheng, Xiaojie Wen, Jixiang Wang, Guanyan Shi, Jiayan Yao, Liyuan Hou, Qian Sun, Peng Xiang, Xiangyang Yuan, Shuqi Dong, Pingyi Guo, Jie Guo
Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting crop productivity. A better understanding of the effects of drought on millet ( Setaria italica L.) production, a model crop for studying drought tolerance, and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for drought stress responses is vital to improvement of agricultural production. In this study, we exposed the drought resistant F1 hybrid, M79, and its parental lines E1 and H1 to drought stress. Subsequent physiological analysis demonstrated that M79 showed higher photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency and drought tolerance than its parents...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758379/a-differential-tolerance-to-mild-salt-stress-conditions-among-six-italian-rice-genotypes-does-not-rely-on-na-exclusion-from-shoots
#15
Michele Bertazzini, Gian Attilio Sacchi, Giuseppe Forlani
Rice is very sensitive to salt stress at the seedling level, with consequent poor crop establishment. A natural variability in susceptibility to moderate saline environments was found in a group of six Italian temperate japonica rice cultivars, and the physiological determinants for salt tolerance were investigated. Cation (Na+ , K+ and Mg++ ) levels were determined in shoots from individual rice plantlets grown in the absence or in the presence of inhibitory, yet sublethal salt levels, and at increasing time after salt treatments...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755521/cataract-as-early-ocular-complication-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Marko Šimunović, Martina Paradžik, Roko Škrabić, Ivana Unić, Kajo Bućan, Veselin Škrabić
Cataract is a rare manifestation of ocular complication at an early phase of T1DM in the pediatric population. The pathophysiological mechanism of early diabetic cataract has not been fully understood; however, there are many theories about the possible etiology including osmotic damage, polyol pathway, and oxidative stress. The prevalence of early diabetic cataract in the population varies between 0.7 and 3.4% of children and adolescents with T1DM. The occurrence of diabetic cataract in most pediatric patients is the first sign of T1DM or occurs within 6 months of diagnosis of T1DM...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755419/the-fusarium-graminearum-histone-acetyltransferases-are-important-for-morphogenesis-don-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity
#17
Xiangjiu Kong, Anne D van Diepeningen, Theo A J van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk, Jingsheng Xu, Jin Xu, Hao Zhang, Wanquan Chen, Jie Feng
Post-translational modifications of chromatin structure by histone acetyltransferase (HATs) play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in eukaryotes. Although HAT genes have been studied in many fungi, few of them have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized four putative HATs ( FgGCN5, FgRTT109, FgSAS2, FgSAS3 ) in the plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium graminearum , the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751673/expression-of-ahdreb1-an-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-gene-from-peanut-is-affected-by-histone-acetylation-and-increases-abscisic-acid-sensitivity-and-tolerance-to-osmotic-stress-in-arabidopsis
#18
Baihong Zhang, Liangchen Su, Bo Hu, Ling Li
Drought stress negatively affects plant growth and development. An increasing number of reports have revealed the involvement of APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factors (TFs) in biotic and abiotic stress regulation in plants. However, research on these TFs in the peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) has been limited. Here, we isolated a full-length coding sequence (CDS) of the AP2/ERF family gene AhDREB1 from the peanut plant and showed that its expression was induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000 and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751252/drought-induced-changes-of-leaf-to-root-relationships-in-two-tomato-genotypes
#19
Tommaso Michele Moles, Lorenzo Mariotti, Leandro Federico De Pedro, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, Piero Picciarelli, Andrea Scartazza
Water deficit triggers a dynamic and integrated cross-talk between leaves and roots. Tolerant plants have developed several physiological and molecular mechanisms to establish new cell metabolism homeostasis, avoiding and/or escaping from permanent impairments triggered by drought. Two tomato genotypes (a Southern Italy landrace called Ciettaicale and the well-known commercial cultivar Moneymaker) were investigated at vegetative stage to assess leaf and root metabolic strategies under 20 days of water deficit...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748980/coordinated-plasticity-maintains-hydraulic-safety-in-sunflower-leaves
#20
Amanda A Cardoso, Timothy J Brodribb, Christopher J Lucani, Fábio M DaMatta, Scott A M McAdam
The air-seeding threshold water potential establishes a hydraulic limit on the ability of woody species to survive in water-limiting environments, but herbs may be more plastic in terms of their ability to adapt to drying conditions. Here we examined the capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves to adapt to reduced water availability by modifying the sensitivity of xylem and stomata to soil water deficit. We found that sunflower plants grown under water-limited conditions significantly adjusted leaf osmotic potential, which was linked to a prolongation of stomatal opening as soil dried and a reduced sensitivity of photosynthesis to water-stress induced damage...
May 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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