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Phonological processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319684/what-do-we-do-with-what-we-learn-statistical-learning-of-orthographic-regularities-impacts-written-word-processing
#1
Fabienne Chetail
Individuals rapidly become sensitive to recurrent patterns present in the environment and this occurs in many situations. However, evidence of a role for statistical learning of orthographic regularities in reading is mixed, and its role has peripheral status in current theories of visual word recognition. Additionally, exactly which regularities readers learn to be sensitive to is still unclear. To address these two issues, three experiments were conducted with artificial scripts. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants were exposed to a flow of artificial words (five characters) for a few minutes, with either two or four bigrams occurring very frequently...
March 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306348/differences-in-dyslexic-students-before-and-after-a-remediation-program-a-clinical-neuropsychological-and-event-related-potential-study
#2
Nikolaos C Zygouris, Elias Avramidis, Argyris V Karapetsas, George I Stamoulis
Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected specific and persistent failure to acquire efficient reading skills despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and sociocultural opportunity. This article reports the outcomes of a study that evaluated the implementation of a 4-month intervention program. The intervention consisted of structured activities aiming at improving (a) the children's phonological awareness, (b) their visual and auditory memory, (c) their visual discrimination ability, and (d) their text comprehension...
March 17, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306339/working-memory-in-school-age-children-with-and-without-a-persistent-speech-sound-disorder
#3
Kelly Farquharson, Tiffany P Hogan, John E Bernthal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). METHOD: Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301184/the-phonological-unit-of-japanese-kanji-compounds-a-masked-priming-investigation
#4
Masahiro Yoshihara, Mariko Nakayama, Rinus G Verdonschot, Yasushi Hino
Using the masked priming paradigm, we examined which phonological unit is used when naming Kanji compounds. Although the phonological unit in the Japanese language has been suggested to be the mora, Experiment 1 found no priming for mora-related Kanji prime-target pairs. In Experiment 2, significant priming was only found when Kanji pairs shared the whole sound of their initial Kanji characters. Nevertheless, when the same Kanji pairs used in Experiment 2 were transcribed into Kana, significant mora priming was observed in Experiment 3...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290103/cross-linguistic-differences-in-the-use-of-durational-cues-for-the-segmentation-of-a-novel-language
#5
Mikhail Ordin, Leona Polyanskaya, Itziar Laka, Marina Nespor
It is widely accepted that duration can be exploited as phonological phrase final lengthening in the segmentation of a novel language, i.e., in extracting discrete constituents from continuous speech. The use of final lengthening for segmentation and its facilitatory effect has been claimed to be universal. However, lengthening in the world languages can also mark lexically stressed syllables. Stress-induced lengthening can potentially be in conflict with right edge phonological phrase boundary lengthening...
March 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287166/pitch-discrimination-associated-with-phonological-awareness-evidence-from-congenital-amusia
#6
Yanan Sun, Xuejing Lu, Hao Tam Ho, William Forde Thompson
Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266332/vowels-consonants-and-lexical-tones-sensitivity-to-phonological-variation-in-monolingual-mandarin-and-bilingual-english-mandarin-toddlers
#7
Thilanga D Wewalaarachchi, Liang Hui Wong, Leher Singh
Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263923/bilingualism-modulates-the-white-matter-structure-of-language-related-pathways
#8
Sini Hämäläinen, Viljami Sairanen, Alina Leminen, Minna Lehtonen
Learning and speaking a second language (L2) may result in profound changes in the human brain. Here, we investigated local structural differences along two language-related white matter trajectories, the arcuate fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), between early simultaneous bilinguals and late sequential bilinguals. We also examined whether early exposure to two languages might lead to a more bilateral structural organization of the arcuate fasciculus. Fractional anisotropy, mean and radial diffusivities (FA, MD, and RD respectively) were extracted to analyse tract-specific changes...
March 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261133/semantic-and-syntactic-interference-in-sentence-comprehension-a-comparison-of-working-memory-models
#9
Yingying Tan, Randi C Martin, Julie A Van Dyke
This study investigated the nature of the underlying working memory system supporting sentence processing through examining individual differences in sensitivity to retrieval interference effects during sentence comprehension. Interference effects occur when readers incorrectly retrieve sentence constituents which are similar to those required during integrative processes. We examined interference arising from a partial match between distracting constituents and syntactic and semantic cues, and related these interference effects to performance on working memory, short-term memory (STM), vocabulary, and executive function tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259773/different-activity-patterns-for-action-and-language-within-their-shared-neural-areas-an-fmri-study-on-action-observation-and-language-phonology
#10
Zuo Zhang, Yaoru Sun, Glyn W Humphreys, Yalin Song
The neural processes for action and language activate shared brain regions including the left inferior frontal, parietal and temporal-occipital cortices. However, it still remains unclear how action and language are related and what neural activity patterns are elicited within these shared cortical regions. In this study we examined the neural activation for action observation and language phonology in their shared cortical regions by conducting three experiments in a single fMRI session: a mixed-task experiment involving both action and language phonological processing, and two independent experiments involving language phonology and action observation respectively...
March 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257876/are-semantic-and-phonological-fluency-based-on-the-same-or-distinct-sets-of-cognitive-processes-insights-from-factor-analyses-in-healthy-adults-and-stroke-patients
#11
Charlotte S M Schmidt, Lena V Schumacher, Pia Römer, Rainer Leonhart, Lena Beume, Markus Martin, Andrea Dressing, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P Kaller
Verbal fluency for semantic categories and phonological letters is frequently applied to studies of language and executive functions. Despite its popularity, it is still debated whether measures of semantic and phonological fluency reflect the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes. Word generation in the two task variants is believed to involve different types of search processes. Findings from the lesion and neuroimaging literature further suggest a stronger reliance of phonological and semantic fluency on frontal and temporal brain areas, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256035/tracking-independence-and-merging-of-prosodic-and-phonemic-processing-across-infancy
#12
Angelika Becker, Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
Recent evidence suggests division of labor in phonological analysis underlying speech recognition. Adults and children appear to decompose the speech stream into phoneme-relevant information and into syllable stress. Here we investigate whether both speech processing streams develop from a common path in infancy, or whether there are two separate streams from early on. We presented stressed and unstressed syllables (spoken primes) followed by initially stressed early learned disyllabic German words (spoken targets)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253637/the-influence-of-lexical-characteristics-and-talker-accent-on-the-recognition-of-english-words-by-speakers-of-japanese
#13
Kiyoko Yoneyama, Benjamin Munson
Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253505/event-related-potentials-reflect-deficits-in-lexical-access-the-n200-in-prematurely-born-school-aged-children
#14
Pirjo Korpilahti, Marita Valkama, Eira Jansson-Verkasalo
OBJECTIVES: Children born preterm have a high prevalence of neurocognitive deficits early in life. We examined whether the neural correlates of lexical access are atypical in 9-year-old children born preterm, and whether the findings of acoustic mapping correlate with language- and attention-related skills. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects were fourteen 9-year-old children born preterm and 14 full-term, typically developing controls. Two auditory event-related potential (ERP) components, the N200 and the N400, were used to assess discrimination response and word recognition...
March 3, 2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252994/reading-homophone-puns-evidence-from-eye-tracking
#15
Debra Jared, Sarah Bainbridge
We investigated how readers make sense of homophone puns (e.g., The butcher was very glad we could meat up) by tracking their eye movements as they read. Comparison sentences included homophone-error sentences in which the presented homophone was also not correct (e.g., The lawyer was very glad we could meat up) and sentences in which the homophone was correct for the context (e.g., The butcher was very glad to chop meat up for the stew). An effect of the frequency of the unpresented homophone mate (e.g., meet) was found on first-pass reading times for homophones, indicating that participants activated the meaning of the homophone mate through shared phonology...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241193/lipreading-ability-and-its-cognitive-correlates-in-typically-developing-children-and-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#16
Jenni Heikkilä, Eila Lonka, Sanna Ahola, Auli Meronen, Kaisa Tiippana
Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive battery of standardized cognitive and linguistic tests. Results: Children with SLI were poorer lipreaders than their typically developing peers...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229468/time-will-tell-a-longitudinal-investigation-of-brain-behavior-relationships-during-reading-development
#17
Mallory C Stites, Sarah Laszlo
ERPs are a powerful tool for the study of reading, as they are both temporally precise and functionally specific. These are essential characteristics for studying a process that unfolds rapidly and consists of multiple, interactive subprocesses. In work with adults, clear, specific models exist linking components of the ERP with individual subprocesses of reading including orthographic decoding, phonological processing, and semantic access (e.g., Grainger & Holcomb, 2009). The relationships between ERP components and reading subprocesses are less clear in development; here, we address two questions regarding these relationships...
February 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223953/predicting-future-reading-problems-based-on-pre-reading-auditory-measures-a-longitudinal-study-of-children-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#18
Jeremy M Law, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
Purpose: This longitudinal study examines measures of temporal auditory processing in pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia. Specifically, it attempts to ascertain whether pre-reading auditory processing, speech perception, and phonological awareness (PA) reliably predict later literacy achievement. Additionally, this study retrospectively examines the presence of pre-reading auditory processing, speech perception, and PA impairments in children later found to be literacy impaired. Method: Forty-four pre-reading children with and without a family risk of dyslexia were assessed at three time points (kindergarten, first, and second grade)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213115/cross-modal-representation-of-spoken-and-written-word-meaning-in-left-pars-triangularis
#19
Antonietta Gabriella Liuzzi, Rose Bruffaerts, Ronald Peeters, Katarzyna Adamczuk, Emmanuel Keuleers, Simon De Deyne, Gerrit Storms, Patrick Dupont, Rik Vandenberghe
The correspondence in meaning extracted from written versus spoken input remains to be fully understood neurobiologically. Here, in a total of 38 subjects, the functional anatomy of cross-modal semantic similarity for concrete words was determined based on a dual criterion: First, a voxelwise univariate analysis had to show significant activation during a semantic task (property verification) performed with written and spoken concrete words compared to the perceptually matched control condition. Second, in an independent dataset, in these clusters, the similarity in fMRI response pattern to two distinct entities, one presented as a written and the other as a spoken word, had to correlate with the similarity in meaning between these entities...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201838/phonological-treatment-approaches-for-spoken-word-production-in-aphasia
#20
Elizabeth Brookshire Madden, Reva M Robinson, Diane L Kendall
This article provides an overview of phonological treatment approaches for anomia in individuals with aphasia. The role of phonology in language processing, as well as the impact of phonological impairment on communication is initially discussed. Then, traditional phonologically based treatment approaches, including phonological, orthographic, indirect, guided, and mixed cueing methods, are described. Collectively, these cueing treatment approaches aim to facilitate word retrieval by stimulating residual phonological abilities...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
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