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Phonological processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095079/the-use-of-ultrasound-in-the-study-of-articulatory-properties-of-vowels-in-clear-speech
#1
Jae Yung Song
Although the acoustic properties of clear speech have been extensively studied, its underlying articulatory details have not been well understood. The purpose of the present study is twofold: To examine the specific articulatory processes of clear speech using ultrasound and to investigate whether and how the type of listener (hard of hearing, normal hearing) and the lexical property of words (frequency) interact in the production of clear speech. To this end, we examined productions of /ɑ/, /æ/ and /u/ from 16 speakers of US English...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093277/evaluating-the-relationship-between-sublexical-and-lexical-processing-in-speech-perception-evidence-from-aphasia
#2
Heather Dial, Randi Martin
Several studies have reported that aphasic patients may perform substantially better on lexical than sublexical perception tasks (e.g., Miceli, Gainotti, Caltagirone, & Masullo, 1980). These findings challenge claims made by models of speech perception which assume obligatory sublexical processing (e.g., McClelland & Elman, 1986; Norris, 1994). However, prior studies have not closely matched the phonological similarity of targets and distractors or task demands of the sublexical and lexical perception tasks...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077012/phonological-working-memory-deficits-in-adhd-revisited
#3
Joseph S Raiker, Lauren M Friedman, Sarah A Orban, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Mark D Rapport
OBJECTIVE: The current study dissociates lower level information-processing abilities (visual registration/encoding, visual-to-phonological conversion, and response output) and examines their contribution to ADHD-related phonological working memory (PHWM) deficits. METHOD: Twenty children with ADHD and 15 typically developing (TD) children completed tasks assessing PHWM, visual registration/encoding, visual-to-phonological conversion, and response output. RESULTS: Relative to TD children, children with ADHD exhibited deficient visual registration/encoding ( d = 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068353/speech-timing-deficit-of-stuttering-evidence-from-contingent-negative-variations
#4
Ning Ning, Danling Peng, Xiangping Liu, Shuang Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS). Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS) participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1) was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2) was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1) or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059462/the-infant-s-developmental-path-in-phonological-acquisition
#5
Daniel Swingley
Research on how language acquisition begins has been fragmented both in terms of scientific communities and in terms of the phenomena that are taken to characterize developmental progress. In her article, Marilyn Vihman argues for an integrative approach that takes the child's efforts at speech production as primary, and notes that infants' knowledge of how words sound may accrue over a protracted period developmentally. Here, I briefly discuss how reconceptualization of the process can help integrate perspectives previously at odds...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059459/more-evidence-of-the-linkage-between-face-processing-and-language-processing
#6
Olivier Pascalis, Marjorie Dole, Hélène Lœvenbruck
This review of the literature on the emergence of language describes two opposing views of phonological development, the sound-based versus the whole-word-based accounts. An integrative model is proposed which claims that learning sublexical speech sounds and producing wordlike vocalizations are in fact parallel processes that feed each other during language development. We argue that this model might find unexpected support from the face processing literature.
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059457/the-many-facets-of-speech-production-and-its-complex-effects-on-phonological-processing
#7
Tania S Zamuner, H Henny Yeung, Myriam Ducos
In our commentary, we discuss two additional points about developmental speech production. First, we suggest that more precision is needed to accurately describe 'speech production' processes, and we suggest that hierarchical constructs from the adult literatures on articulatory phonology and speech motor control may be applicable to infants as well. Second, we discuss the implications from data that indicate that the effects of production are subject to task-, attentional-, linguistic-, and experience-related demands...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056017/when-hearing-is-tricky-speech-processing-strategies-in-prelingually-deafened-children-and-adolescents-with-cochlear-implants-having-good-and-poor-speech-performance
#8
Magdalene Ortmann, Pienie Zwitserlood, Arne Knief, Johanna Baare, Stephanie Brinkheetker, Antoinette Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Christian Dobel
Cochlear implants provide individuals who are deaf with access to speech. Although substantial advancements have been made by novel technologies, there still is high variability in language development during childhood, depending on adaptation and neural plasticity. These factors have often been investigated in the auditory domain, with the mismatch negativity as an index for sensory and phonological processing. Several studies have demonstrated that the MMN is an electrophysiological correlate for hearing improvement with cochlear implants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of-eisenberg-et-al-2002
#9
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032308/the-effect-of-pinyin-input-experience-on-the-link-between-semantic-and-phonology-of-chinese-character-in-digital-writing
#10
Jingjun Chen, Rong Luo, Huashan Liu
With the development of ICT, digital writing is becoming much more common in people's life. Differently from keyboarding alphabets directly to input English words, keyboarding Chinese character is always through typing phonetic alphabets and then identify the glyph provided by Pinyin input-method software while in this process which do not need users to produce orthography spelling, thus it is different from traditional written language production model based on handwriting process. Much of the research in this domain has found that using Pinyin input method is beneficial to Chinese characters recognition, but only a small part explored the effects of individual's Pinyin input experience on the Chinese characters production process...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025804/investigating-executive-working-memory-and-phonological-short-term-memory-in-relation-to-fluency-and-self-repair-behavior-in-l2-speech
#11
Effrosyni Georgiadou, Karen Roehr-Brackin
This paper reports the findings of a study investigating the relationship of executive working memory (WM) and phonological short-term memory (PSTM) to fluency and self-repair behavior during an unrehearsed oral task performed by second language (L2) speakers of English at two levels of proficiency, elementary and lower intermediate. Correlational analyses revealed a negative relationship between executive WM and number of pauses in the lower intermediate L2 speakers. However, no reliable association was found in our sample between executive WM or PSTM and self-repair behavior in terms of either frequency or type of self-repair...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025589/bilingualism-and-phonological-awareness-re-examining-theories-of-cross-language-transfer-and-structural-sensitivity
#12
Li-Jen Kuo, Yuuko Uchikoshi, Tae-Jin Kim, Xinyuan Yang
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bilingualism and phonological awareness by re-evaluating structural sensitivity theory and expanding cross-language transfer theory. The study was conducted with three groups of 1(st) and 2(nd) graders matched in age, SES and non-verbal IQ: a) monolingual English-speaking children from a general education program, b) native Japanese-speaking children from a Japanese-English two-way immersion bilingual program and c) native English-speaking children from the same bilingual program...
July 2016: Contemporary Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025016/negative-induced-mood-influences-word-production-an-event-related-potentials-study-with-a-covert-picture-naming-task
#13
J A Hinojosa, U Fernández-Folgueiras, J Albert, G Santaniello, M A Pozo, A Capilla
The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigated the effects of mood on phonological encoding processes involved in word generation. For this purpose, negative, positive and neutral affective states were induced in participants during three different recording sessions using short film clips. After the mood induction procedure, participants performed a covert picture naming task in which they searched letters. The negative compared to the neutral mood condition elicited more negative amplitudes in a component peaking around 290ms...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011436/phonological-abilities-in-literacy-impaired-children-brain-potentials-reveal-deficient-phoneme-discrimination-but-intact-prosodic-processing
#14
Claudia Männel, Gesa Schaadt, Franziska K Illner, Elke van der Meer, Angela D Friederici
Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands...
November 27, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008804/alveolar-and-velarized-laterals-in-albanian-and-in-the-viennese-dialect
#15
Sylvia Moosmüller, Carolin Schmid, Christian H Kasess
A comparison of alveolar and velarized lateral realizations in two language varieties, Albanian and the Viennese dialect, has been performed. Albanian distinguishes the two laterals phonemically, whereas in the Viennese dialect, the velarized lateral was introduced by language contact with Czech immigrants. A categorical distinction between the two lateral phonemes is fully maintained in Albanian. Results are not as straightforward in the Viennese dialect. Most prominently, female speakers, if at all, realize the velarized lateral in word-final position, thus indicating the application of a phonetically motivated process...
December 2016: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997952/algorithmic-classification-of-five-characteristic-types-of-paraphasias
#16
Gerasimos Fergadiotis, Kyle Gorman, Steven Bedrick
Purpose: This study was intended to evaluate a series of algorithms developed to perform automatic classification of paraphasic errors (formal, semantic, mixed, neologistic, and unrelated errors). Method: We analyzed 7,111 paraphasias from the Moss Aphasia Psycholinguistics Project Database (Mirman et al., 2010) and evaluated the classification accuracy of 3 automated tools. First, we used frequency norms from the SUBTLEXus database (Brysbaert & New, 2009) to differentiate nonword errors and real-word productions...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992586/neurophysiological-modulations-of-non-verbal-and-verbal-dual-tasks-interference-during-word-planning
#17
Raphaël Fargier, Marina Laganaro
Running a concurrent task while speaking clearly interferes with speech planning, but whether verbal vs. non-verbal tasks interfere with the same processes is virtually unknown. We investigated the neural dynamics of dual-task interference on word production using event-related potentials (ERPs) with either tones or syllables as concurrent stimuli. Participants produced words from pictures in three conditions: without distractors, while passively listening to distractors and during a distractor detection task...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990060/the-structure-of-working-memory-in-young-children-and-its-relation-to-intelligence
#18
Shelley Gray, Samuel Green, Mary Alt, Tiffany P Hogan, Trudy Kuo, Shara Brinkley, Nelson Cowan
This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7-9 year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan's three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) three-factor model (specified according to Baddeley, 1986) and decisively better than Baddeley's (2000) four-factor model that included an episodic buffer...
February 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984068/age-related-differences-in-resolving-semantic-and-phonological-competition-during-receptive-language-tasks
#19
Jie Zhuang, Micah A Johnson, David J Madden, Deborah M Burke, Michele T Diaz
Receptive language (e.g., reading) is largely preserved in the aging brain, and semantic processes in particular may continue to develop throughout the lifespan. We investigated the neural underpinnings of phonological and semantic retrieval in older and younger adults during receptive language tasks (rhyme and semantic similarity judgments). In particular, we were interested in the role of competition on language retrieval and varied the similarities between a cue, target, and distractor that were hypothesized to affect the mental process of competition...
October 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965527/lexical-specification-of-prosodic-information-in-swedish-evidence-from-mismatch-negativity
#20
Hatice Zora, Tomas Riad, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Mattias Heldner
Like that of many other Germanic languages, the stress system of Swedish has mainly undergone phonological analysis. Recently, however, researchers have begun to recognize the central role of morphology in these systems. Similar to the lexical specification of tonal accent, the Swedish stress system is claimed to be morphologically determined and morphemes are thus categorized as prosodically specified and prosodically unspecified. Prosodically specified morphemes bear stress information as part of their lexical representations and are classified as tonic (i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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