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Phonological processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631953/a-morpho-phonological-past-tense-processing-as-a-clinical-marker-in-sli-efl-learners
#1
Elena Even-Simkin
The clinical marker in specific language impairment (SLI) population is the subject of considerable debate. SLI is the one of the frequently diagnosed atypical language phenomena found among early school-age children (McArthur et al., 2000; Spear-Swerling, 2006). For example, children with SLI have difficulty applying the Past Tense rule to verbs, even though they can accurately repeat phonologically similar forms of the words (Hoeffner & McClelland, 1993). In this study, I discuss the grammatical deficits in the SLI population by studying the generation of both 'regular' and 'irregular' English Past Tense forms and explain how the rates of the correct use of the 'irregular' versus 'regular' form may be considered as a clinical SLI marker...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631952/the-development-of-visual-speech-perception-in-mandarin-chinese-speaking-children
#2
Liang Chen, Jianghua Lei
The present study aimed to investigate the development of visual speech perception in Chinese-speaking children. Children aged 7, 13 and 16 were asked to visually identify both consonant and vowel sounds in Chinese as quickly and accurately as possible. Results revealed (1) an increase in accuracy of visual speech perception between ages 7 and 13 after which the accuracy rate either stagnates or drops; and (2) a U-shaped development pattern in speed of perception with peak performance in 13-year olds. Results also showed that across all age groups, the overall levels of accuracy rose, whereas the response times fell for simplex finals, complex finals and initials...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626438/sensitivity-to-stroke-emerges-in-kindergartners-reading-chinese-script
#3
Su Li, Li Yin
To what extent are young children sensitive to individual stroke, the smallest unit of writing in Chinese that carries no phonological or semantic information? The present study examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to stroke and the contribution of reading ability and age to stroke sensitivity. Fifty five children from Beijing, including 28 4-year-olds (Mage = 4.55 years, SD = 0.28, 16 males) and 29 5-year-olds (Mage = 5.58 years, SD = 0.30, 14 males), were administered an orthographic matching task and assessed on non-verbal IQ and Chinese word reading...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624680/the-timing-of-spontaneous-detection-and-repair-of-naming-errors-in-aphasia
#4
Julia Schuchard, Erica L Middleton, Myrna F Schwartz
This study examined the timing of spontaneous self-monitoring in the naming responses of people with aphasia. Twelve people with aphasia completed a 615-item naming test twice, in separate sessions. Naming attempts were scored for accuracy and error type, and verbalizations indicating detection were coded as negation (e.g., "no, not that") or repair attempts (i.e., a changed naming attempt). Focusing on phonological and semantic errors, we measured the timing of the errors and of the utterances that provided evidence of detection...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624595/atypical-perceptual-processing-of-faces-in-developmental-dyslexia
#5
Yafit Gabay, Eva Dundas, David Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Developmental Dyslexia (DD) is often attributed to phonological processing deficits. Recent evidence, however, indicates the need for a more general explanatory framework to account for DD's range of deficits. The current study examined the specificity versus domain generality of DD by comparing the recognition and discrimination of three visual categories (faces and words with cars as control stimuli) in typical and dyslexic readers. Relative to controls, not only did dyslexic individuals perform more poorly on word recognition, but they also matched faces more slowly, especially when the faces differed in viewpoint, and discriminated between similar faces (but not cars) more poorly...
June 15, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618823/effects-of-rhythm-and-phrase-final-lengthening-on-word-spotting-in-korean
#6
Hae-Sung Jeon, Amalia Arvaniti
A word-spotting experiment was conducted to investigate whether rhythmic consistency and phrase-final lengthening facilitate performance in Korean. Listeners had to spot disyllabic and trisyllabic words in nonsense strings organized in phrases with either the same or variable syllable count; phrase-final lengthening was absent, or occurring either in all phrases or only in the phrase immediately preceding the target. The results show that, for disyllabic targets, inconsistent syllable count and lengthening before the target led to fewer errors...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614847/using-network-science-measures-to-predict-the-lexical-decision-performance-of-adults-who-stutter
#7
Nichol Castro, Kristin M Pelczarski, Michael S Vitevitch
Purpose: Methods from network science have examined various aspects of language processing. Clinical populations may also benefit from these novel analyses. Phonological and lexical factors have been examined in adults who stutter (AWS) as potential contributing factors to stuttering, although differences reported are often subtle. We reexamined the performance of AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) from a previously conducted lexical decision task in an attempt to determine if network science measures would provide additional insight into the phonological network of AWS beyond traditional psycholinguistic measures...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608732/beyond-auditory-sensory-processing-deficits-lexical-tone-perception-deficits-in-chinese-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#8
Xiuhong Tong, Xiuli Tong, Fung King Yiu
Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of speech rhythm, such as rise time and intensity. This study set out to investigate to what extent suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., Cantonese lexical tone perception) and rise time sensitivity could distinguish Chinese children with dyslexia from typically developing children...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602921/the-shared-neural-basis-of-music-and-language
#9
Mengxia Yu, Miao Xu, Xueting Li, Zhencai Chen, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
Human musical ability is proposed to play a key phylogenetical role in the evolution of language, and the similarity of hierarchical structure in music and language has led to considerable speculation about their shared mechanisms. While behavioral and electrophysioglocial studies have revealed associations between music and linguistic abilities, results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on their relations are contradictory, possibly because these studies usually treat music or language as single entities without breaking down to their components...
June 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601572/corpus-callosum-atrophy-as-a-marker-of-clinically-meaningful-cognitive-decline-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-impact-on-employment-status
#10
Athanasios Papathanasiou, Lambros Messinis, Petros Zampakis, Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos
Cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more frequent and pronounced in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Cognitive decline is an important predictor of employment status in patients with MS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers have been used to associate tissue damage with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to designate the MRI marker that predicts cognitive decline in SPMS and explore its effect on employment status. 30 SPMS patients and 30 healthy participants underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, semantic and phonological verbal fluency task and a computerized cognitive screening battery (Central Nervous System Vital Signs)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600717/reading-and-lexical-decision-tasks-generate-different-patterns-of-individual-variability-as-a-function-of-condition-difficulty
#11
Pierluigi Zoccolotti, Maria De Luca, Gloria Di Filippo, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Donatella Spinelli
We reanalyzed previous experiments based on lexical-decision and reading-aloud tasks in children with dyslexia and control children and tested the prediction of the difference engine model (DEM) that mean condition reaction times (RTs) and standard deviations (SDs) would be linearly related (Myerson et al., 2003). Then we evaluated the slope and the intercept with the x-axis of these linear functions in comparison with previously reported values (i.e., slope of about 0.30 and intercept of about 300 ms). In the case of lexical decision, the parameters were close to these values; by contrast, in the case of reading aloud, a much steeper slope (0...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597131/applied-problem-solving-in-children-with-adhd-the-mediating-roles-of-working-memory-and-mathematical-calculation
#12
Lauren M Friedman, Mark D Rapport, Sarah A Orban, Samuel J Eckrich, Catrina A Calub
The difficulties children with ADHD experience solving applied math problems are well documented; however, the independent and/or interactive contributions of cognitive processes underlying these difficulties are not fully understood and warrant scrutiny. The current study examines two primary cognitive processes integral to children's ability to solve applied math problems: working memory (WM) and math calculation skills (i.e., the ability to utilize specific facts, skills, or processes related to basic math operations stored in long-term memory)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595599/designing-persuasive-health-materials-using-processing-fluency-a-literature-review
#13
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
BACKGROUND: Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word...
June 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590881/effects-of-irrelevant-background-speech-on-eye-movements-during-reading
#14
Guoli Yan, Zhu Meng, Nina Liu, Liyuan He, Kevin B Paterson
The irrelevant speech effect (ISE) refers to the impairment of visual information processing by background speech. Prior research on the ISE has focused on short-term memory for visually-presented word lists. The present research extends this work by using measurements of eye movements to examine effects of irrelevant background speech during Chinese reading. This enabled an examination of the ISE for a language in which access to semantic representations is not strongly mediated by phonology. Participants read sentences while exposed to meaningful irrelevant speech, meaningless speech (scrambled meaningful speech) or silence...
June 7, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585056/time-course-of-syllabic-and-sub-syllabic-processing-in-mandarin-word-production-evidence-from-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#15
Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Hsuan-Chih Chen
The time course of phonological encoding in Mandarin monosyllabic word production was investigated by using the picture-word interference paradigm. Participants were asked to name pictures in Mandarin while visual distractor words were presented before, at, or after picture onset (i.e., stimulus-onset asynchrony/SOA = -100, 0, or +100 ms, respectively). Compared with the unrelated control, the distractors sharing atonal syllables with the picture names significantly facilitated the naming responses at -100- and 0-ms SOAs...
June 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577444/auditory-processing-deficits-are-sometimes-necessary-and-sometimes-sufficient-for-language-difficulties-in-children-evidence-from-mild-to-moderate-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#16
Lorna F Halliday, Outi Tuomainen, Stuart Rosen
There is a general consensus that many children and adults with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment display deficits in auditory processing. However, how these deficits are related to developmental disorders of language is uncertain, and at least four categories of model have been proposed: single distal cause models, risk factor models, association models, and consequence models. This study used children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) to investigate the link between auditory processing deficits and language disorders...
May 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570928/cross-situational-word-learning-in-aphasia
#17
Claudia Peñaloza, Daniel Mirman, Pedro Cardona, Montserrat Juncadella, Nadine Martin, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Human learners can resolve referential ambiguity and discover the relationships between words and meanings through a cross-situational learning (CSL) strategy. Some people with aphasia (PWA) can learn word-referent pairings under referential uncertainty supported by online feedback. However, it remains unknown whether PWA can learn new words cross-situationally and if such learning ability is supported by statistical learning (SL) mechanisms. The present study examined whether PWA can learn novel word-referent mappings in a CSL task without feedback...
May 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569544/novel-reading-index-for-identifying-disordered-reading-skill-development-a-preliminary-study
#18
Brianne Mohl, Noa Ofen, Lara L Jones, Joseph E Casey, Jeffrey A Stanley
Children with ADHD are at high risk of developing a Reading Disability (RD), although the reasons remain unclear. ADHD-associated impairments, including processing speed, can complicate clinical evaluation for a co-occurring RD diagnosis. We propose a novel metric to (a) assess reading development and (b) provide an alternative method to classifying readers that may aid investigations for etiologies of RD in ADHD. Specifically, as both phonological decoding and word recognition skills are important precursors of reading fluency, we propose a new quantitative method comparing these skills after accounting for variations in perception, motor response, or processing speeds...
June 1, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555097/training-on-movement-figure-ground-discrimination-remediates-low-level-visual-timing-deficits-in-the-dorsal-stream-improving-high-level-cognitive-functioning-including-attention-reading-fluency-and-working-memory
#19
Teri Lawton, John Shelley-Tremblay
The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549538/processing-of-word-stress-related-acoustic-information-a-multi-feature-mmn-study
#20
Ferenc Honbolygó, Orsolya Kolozsvári, Valéria Csépe
In the present study, we investigated the processing of word stress related acoustic features in a word context. In a passive oddball multi-feature MMN experiment, we presented a disyllabic pseudo-word with two acoustically similar syllables as standard stimulus, and five contrasting deviants that differed from the standard in that they were either stressed on the first syllable or contained a vowel change. Stress was realized by an increase of f0, intensity, vowel duration or consonant duration. The vowel change was used to investigate if phonemic and prosodic changes elicit different MMN components...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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