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Phonological processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436476/multiplex-lexical-networks-reveal-patterns-in-early-word-acquisition-in-children
#1
Massimo Stella, Nicole M Beckage, Markus Brede
Network models of language have provided a way of linking cognitive processes to language structure. However, current approaches focus only on one linguistic relationship at a time, missing the complex multi-relational nature of language. In this work, we overcome this limitation by modelling the mental lexicon of English-speaking toddlers as a multiplex lexical network, i.e. a multi-layered network where N = 529 words/nodes are connected according to four relationship: (i) free association, (ii) feature sharing, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) phonological similarity...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433347/phonological-and-semantic-processing-during-comprehension-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-an-n400-and-phonological-mapping-negativity-study
#2
Holly Robson, Emma Pilkington, Louise Evans, Vincent Deluca, James L Keidel
Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430974/using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-undamaged-brain-to-identify-lesion-sites-that-predict-language-outcome-after-stroke
#3
Diego L Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Mohamed L Seghier, Alexander P Leff, Varun Sethi, Susan Prejawa, Thomas M H Hope, Joseph T Devlin, Cathy J Price
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430531/phonological-development-of-danish-speaking-children-a-normative-cross-sectional-study
#4
Marit Carolin Clausen, Annette Fox-Boyer
Detailed knowledge about speech development in children acquiring different languages provides important information from a clinical and a theoretical perspective: First, it provides a baseline for the evaluation of whether a child shows typical, delayed or deviant speech development. Further, differences in speech development across languages can help to understand how the phonological systems of ambient languages affects children's speech acquisition. To date, little is known about Danish. It was suggested, however, that the acquisition process might be slower for Danish-speaking children due to the "blurry" sound structure of Danish...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425563/differences-in-interregional-brain-connectivity-in-children-with-unilateral-hearing-loss
#5
Matthew E Jung, Miranda Colletta, Rebecca Coalson, Bradley L Schlaggar, Judith E C Lieu
OBJECTIVES: To identify functional network architecture differences in the brains of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: Children (7 to 17 years of age) with severe to profound hearing loss in one ear, along with their normal hearing (NH) siblings, were recruited and imaged using rs-fcMRI. Eleven children had right UHL; nine had left UHL; and 13 had normal hearing...
April 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424650/the-role-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe-for-unpredictable-and-complex-mappings-in-word-reading
#6
Marilyne Joyal, Simona M Brambati, Robert J Laforce, Maxime Montembeault, Mariem Boukadi, Isabelle Rouleau, Joël Macoir, Sven Joubert, Shirley Fecteau, Maximiliano A Wilson
The anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) have been consistently associated with semantic processing which, in turn, has a key role in reading aloud single words. This study aimed to investigate (1) the reading abilities in patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and (2) the relationship between gray matter (GM) volume of the left ATL and word reading performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Three groups of participants (svPPA, Alzheimer's Disease, AD and healthy elderly adults) performed a reading task with exception words, regular words and pseudowords, along with a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424400/-brodmann-areas-39-and-40-human-parietal-association-area-and-higher-cortical-function
#7
Yasuhisa Sakurai
The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421858/multi-step-treatment-for-acquired-alexia-and-agraphia-part-i-efficacy-generalisation-and-identification-of-beneficial-treatment-steps
#8
Jeffrey P Johnson, Katrina Ross, Swathi Kiran
Reading and writing impairments are common in individuals with post-stroke aphasia. Treatment typically aims to improve the function of one of these modalities by strengthening aspects of either lexical or sublexical processing. In the present study, eight adults with acquired alexia and agraphia were administered a comprehensive treatment targeting specific lexical and sublexical processes underlying reading and/or writing. Two participants were trained in reading and six were trained in writing. Throughout treatment, reading and writing accuracy were monitored for trained items, as well as untrained but orthographically and semantically related items...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417214/neural-processes-associated-with-vocabulary-and-vowel-length-differences-in-a-dialect-an-erp-study-in-pre-literate-children
#9
Jessica C Bühler, Franziska Waßmann, Daniela Buser, Flutra Zumberi, Urs Maurer
Although familiarity with a language impacts how phonology and semantics are processed at the neural level, little is known how these processes are affected by familiarity with a dialect. By measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in kindergarten children we investigated neural processing related to familiarity with dialect-specific pronunciation and lexicality of spoken words before literacy acquisition in school. Children speaking one of two German dialects were presented with spoken word-picture pairings, in which congruity (or the lack thereof) was defined by dialect familiarity with pronunciation or vocabulary...
April 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413708/neural-evidence-for-phonologically-based-language-production-deficits-in-older-adults-an-fmri-investigation-of-age-related-differences-in-picture-word-interference
#10
Avery A Rizio, Karlee J Moyer, Michele T Diaz
INTRODUCTION: Older adults often show declines in phonological aspects of language production, particularly for low-frequency words, but maintain strong semantic systems. However, there are different theories about the mechanism that may underlie such age-related differences in language (e.g., age-related declines in transmission of activation or inhibition). METHODS: This study used fMRI to investigate whether age-related differences in language production are associated with transmission deficits or inhibition deficits...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408898/from-lexical-tone-to-lexical-stress-a-cross-language-mediation-model-for-cantonese-children-learning-english-as-a-second-language
#11
William Choi, Xiuli Tong, Leher Singh
This study investigated how Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity contributed to English lexical stress sensitivity among Cantonese children who learned English as a second language (ESL). Five-hundred-and-sixteen second-to-third grade Cantonese ESL children were tested on their Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, general auditory sensitivity, and working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity contributed to English lexical stress sensitivity both directly, and indirectly through the mediation of general auditory sensitivity, in which the direct pathway had a larger relative contribution to English lexical stress sensitivity than the indirect pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408872/social-interaction-affects-neural-outcomes-of-sign-language-learning-as-a-foreign-language-in-adults
#12
Noriaki Yusa, Jungho Kim, Masatoshi Koizumi, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407502/connections-are-not-enough-for-membership-letter-non-letter-distinction-persists-through-phonological-association-learning
#13
Andreas Schmitt, Cees van Leeuwen, Thomas Lachmann
In compound, hierarchical stimuli (also known as Navon figures), a Global Precedence Effect (GPE) can reliably be observed for both letters and non-letters. However, when presentation conditions sufficiently resemble those of reading, the GPE for letters has occasionally been found to disappear. We corroborate this effect in a study with a large group of participants. In addition, in-between two sessions, participants were trained in associating the non-letters with either phonological or non-phonological sounds...
April 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405908/how-orthographic-specific-characteristics-shape-letter-position-coding-the-case-of-thai-script
#14
Manuel Perea, Heather Winskel, Pablo Gomez
A central question for any model of visual word identification is the representation of the position at which letters are encoded (e.g., calm vs. clam). In this article, we examine whether the orthographic-specific characteristics of a writing system-namely, Thai-shape the process of letter position coding. Thai is an alphabetic script that lacks interword spaces and has an orthographic order that does not necessarily correspond to the phonological order for initial vowels. This implies that the initial letter position coding in Thai needs to be flexible enough that readers can successfully encode the letter positions of words...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400089/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia
#15
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print-speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399528/phonological-process-occurrence-in-typically-developing-toddlers
#16
Kakia Petinou, Spyros Armostis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study examined the phonological development in Cypriot Greek (CG)-speaking, typically developing (TD) toddlers for the purpose of observing occurrences of initial consonant deletion (ICD), regressive assimilation (RAS), and their interactive relationship as a function of time. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Subjects were 8 CG-speaking TD toddlers assessed longitudinally at ages 24-28 and 32-36 months. Word targets from spontaneously produced utterances via language sample collection were analyzed for the percentage of occurrence of ICD and RAS...
April 12, 2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398115/the-use-and-nature-of-grapheme-coding-during-sub-lexical-processing-and-lexical-access
#17
Eva Commissaire, Séverine Casalis
This work aimed to investigate grapheme coding during sub-lexical processing and lexical access. Using the letter detection task in Experiment 1, we compared letter pairs that could be considered as a grapheme unit or not depending on context (referred to as weakly cohesive complex, e.g. an in chant vs. cane) to real two-letter graphemes (highly cohesive complex, e.g. au in chaud) and single-letter graphemes (simple, e.g. a in place). Three experimental conditions were used, one of which was designed to prevent phonological influences...
April 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395153/auditory-morphological-processing-evidence-from-phonological-priming
#18
Hezekiah Akiva Bacovcin, Amy Goodwin Davies, Robert J Wilder, David Embick
Using an auditory lexical decision task, we find evidence of a facilitatory priming effect for morphologically complex targets (e.g., snow-ed) preceded by primes which rhyme with the target's stem (e.g., dough). By using rhyme priming, we are able to probe for morphological processing in a way that avoids confounds arising from semantic relatedness that are inherent to morphological priming (snow/snow-ed). Phonological control conditions (e.g., targets code and grove for prime dough) are used to rule out alternative interpretations of the effect that are based on partial rhyme or phonological embedding of the stem...
April 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393676/deficit-in-phonological-processes-a-characteristic-of-the-neuropsychological-profile-of-children-with-nf1
#19
Yves Chaix, Valérie Lauwers-Cancès, Nathalie Faure-Marie, Catherine Gentil, Sandrine Lelong, Elisabeth Schweitzer, Diana Rodriguez, Stéphanie Iannuzzi, Isabelle Kemlin, Nathalie Dorison, François Rivier, Maryline Carniero, Elodie Preclaire, Sébastien Barbarot, Laurence Lion-François, Pierre Castelnau
Learning disabilities are one of the most frequent complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in children. Studies of the effects of the neurocognitive deficit on academic performance are relatively rare, owing to the small size of the populations concerned. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation programs. In the present study, we explored the impact of a possible phonological deficit on the reading abilities of children with NF1. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in France on two groups of 75 children with or without NF1 aged 8-12 years, matched for age, sex, handedness, and reading level...
April 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391135/the-residual-protective-effects-of-enactment
#20
Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Research has demonstrated the importance of the quality of initial retrieval events (Test 1) for performance on later memory tests (Test 2). We explored whether enacting words at encoding, relative to simply reading them, provided protection against the detrimental effects of a degraded retrieval experience, through the addition of motor processing to the extant memory representation. Participants encoded a mixed list of enacted and read words, then completed Test 1, and a later Test 2. Encoding and Test 2 were always completed under full attention (FA)...
April 6, 2017: Cognition
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