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Phonological processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331204/a-cognitive-model-for-multidigit-number-reading-inferences-from-individuals-with-selective-impairments
#1
Dror Dotan, Naama Friedmann
We propose a detailed cognitive model of multi-digit number reading. The model postulates separate processes for visual analysis of the digit string and for oral production of the verbal number. Within visual analysis, separate sub-processes encode the digit identities and the digit order, and additional sub-processes encode the number's decimal structure: its length, the positions of 0, and the way it is parsed into triplets (e.g., 314987 → 314,987). Verbal production consists of a process that generates the verbal structure of the number, and another process that retrieves the phonological forms of each number word...
November 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319358/cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-the-associations-between-inattention-and-reading-abilities
#2
Vickie Plourde, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Philippe Robaey, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
This study aims to test cognitive skills underlying the association between inattention and reading in early primary school. Teachers rated inattention symptoms when children (N = 523-962) were 6-7 years old. Children were assessed at age 7-8 on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), rapid auditory and bimodal processing, vocabulary, and reading (decoding and comprehension). Phonological awareness, RAN of numbers, and vocabulary mediated the association between inattention and both decoding and comprehension...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316015/tracking-the-effects-of-dyslexia-in-reading-and-spelling-development-a-longitudinal-study-of-greek-readers
#3
Vassiliki Diamanti, Nata Goulandris, Morag Stuart, Ruth Campbell, Athanassios Protopapas
In this study, we followed Greek children with and without dyslexia for 18 months, assessing them twice on a battery of phonological, reading, and spelling tasks, aiming to document the relative progress achieved and to uncover any specific effects of dyslexia in the development of reading and spelling beyond the longitudinal associations among variables that are observed in typical readers. A wide-ranging match was achieved between the dyslexic group and the younger reading-matched comparison group, enabling longitudinal comparisons on essentially identical initial performance profiles...
January 5, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304447/dyslexia-as-a-multi-deficit-disorder-working-memory-and-auditory-temporal-processing
#4
Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach...
January 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298550/maximising-recovery-from-aphasia-with-central-and-peripheral-agraphia-the-benefit-of-sequential-treatments
#5
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289078/native-phonological-processing-abilities-predict-post-consolidation-nonnative-contrast-learning-in-adults
#6
F Sayako Earle, Dana T Arthur
This study examined the relationship between native phonological processing ability and the learning outcome of a trained nonnative (Hindi /ɖ/ - / d̪/) contrast. Participants were perceptually trained and assessed in the evening, and reassessed early the next morning. Native phonological processing ability did not predict the learning of the nonnative contrasts on Day 1. However, after a period of post-training sleep, Blending ability predicted nonnative Discrimination performance, and Nonword Repetition predicted nonnative Identification...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283605/cognates-facilitate-switches-and-then-confusion-contrasting-effects-of-cascade-versus-feedback-on-language-selection
#7
Chuchu Li, Tamar H Gollan
The current study investigated the hypothesis that cognates (i.e., translation equivalents that overlap in form, e.g., lemon is limón in Spanish) facilitate language switches. Spanish-English bilinguals were cued to switch languages while repeatedly naming pictures with cognate versus noncognate names in separate (Experiment 1) or mixed (Experiments 2 and 3) blocks. In all 3 experiments, on the first presentation of each picture, cognates elicited significantly smaller switch costs and were produced faster than noncognates only on switch trials...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283604/orthographic-effects-in-second-language-spoken-word-recognition
#8
Qingqing Qu, Zhanling Cui, Markus F Damian
Evidence from both alphabetic and nonalphabetic languages has suggested the role of orthography in the processing of spoken words in individuals' native language (L1). Less evidence has existed for such effects in nonnative (L2) spoken-word processing. Whereas in L1 orthographic representations are learned only after phonological representations have long been established, in L2 the sound and spelling of words are often learned in conjunction; this might predict stronger orthographic effects in L2 than in L1 spoken processing...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280107/neural-response-to-working-memory-demand-predicts-neurocognitive-deficits-in-hiv
#9
Ronald A Cohen, S Siegel, J M Gullett, E Porges, A J Woods, H Huang, Y Zhu, K Tashima, M-Z Ding
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to have adverse effects on cognition and the brain in many infected people, despite a reduced incidence of HIV-associated dementia with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Working memory is often affected, along with attention, executive control, and cognitive processing speed. Verbal working memory (VWM) requires the interaction of each of the cognitive component processes along with a phonological loop for verbal repetition and rehearsal. HIV-related functional brain response abnormalities during VWM are evident in functional MRI (fMRI), though the neural substrate underlying these neurocognitive deficits is not well understood...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278950/the-effect-of-different-speaker-accents-on-sentence-comprehension-in-children-with-speech-sound-disorder
#10
Jennifer Harte, Pauline Frizelle, Fiona Gibbon
There is substantial evidence that a speaker's accent, specifically an unfamiliar accent, can affect the listener's comprehension. In general, this effect holds true for both adults and children as well as those with typical and impaired language. Previous studies have investigated the effect of different accents on individuals with language disorders, but children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) have received little attention. The current study aims to learn more about the ability of children with SSD to process different speaker accents...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277646/convergence-of-spoken-and-written-language-processing-in-the-superior-temporal-sulcus
#11
Stephen M Wilson, Alexa Bautista, Angelica McCarron
Spoken and written language processing streams converge in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), but the functional and anatomical nature of this convergence is not clear. We used functional MRI to quantify neural responses to spoken and written language, along with unintelligible stimuli in each modality, and employed several strategies to segregate activations on the dorsal and ventral banks of the STS. We found that intelligible and unintelligible inputs in both modalities activated the dorsal bank of the STS...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258652/phonemic-feature-involvement-in-lexical-access-in-grades-3-and-5-evidence-from-visual-and-auditory-lexical-decision-tasks
#12
Karinne Sauval, Laetitia Perre, Séverine Casalis
Numerous studies have evidenced the involvement of the phonological code during visual word recognition not only in skilled adult readers but also in child readers. Moreover, in skilled adult readers, visual word processing has been shown to be sensitive to phonetic details such as phonemic features (e.g., manner of articulation, place of articulation, voicing and nasality in French) which are typically involved in phonological lexicon access during speech processing. In contrast, it is not known whether and when visual word recognition is affected by phonemic features during learning to read...
December 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258396/the-relationship-of-categorical-and-phonological-verbal-fluency-to-negative-schizotypy-and-social-functioning-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#13
Thomas J Dinzeo, Virginia Culiañez Serna, Sherry D Pujji, Eve M Sledjeski
Introduction Research suggests that levels of schizotypy are related to cognitive and social functioning, with negative schizotypy being particularly related to deficits in verbal fluency (VF) and distinct social skills. Considering the possibility that different VF tasks may involve both shared and unique underlying processes, this study sought to examine the separate contributions of categorical and phonological forms of VF to social functioning in those with varying levels of negative schizotypy. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in which 228 college students completed VF tasks, the SPQ-BR, and a social functioning questionnaire...
December 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241649/the-structure-of-the-mental-lexicon-what-primary-progressive-aphasias-reveal
#14
Clara Sanches, Alexandre Routier, Olivier Colliot, Marc Teichmann
Like recursive syntax, a structured mental lexicon is specific to the human species but its internal organization remains unclear. It is thought to contain information about the semantic, syntactic (e.g., gender) and formal (orthographic/phonological) features of a word. Previous studies suggested that these three components might be separated at the behavioral level and that they might be implemented by temporal cortices. However, the available investigations are based on case reports or small-cohort studies with patients demonstrating post-stroke aphasia, and they did not contrast the three lexical components in a directly comparable way...
December 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241588/reanalyzing-neurocognitive-data-on-the-role-of-the-motor-system-in-speech-perception-within-cosmo-a-bayesian-perceptuo-motor-model-of-speech-communication
#15
Marie-Lou Barnaud, Pierre Bessière, Julien Diard, Jean-Luc Schwartz
While neurocognitive data provide clear evidence for the involvement of the motor system in speech perception, its precise role and the way motor information is involved in perceptual decision remain unclear. In this paper, we discuss some recent experimental results in light of COSMO, a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech communication. COSMO enables us to model both speech perception and speech production with probability distributions relating phonological units with sensory and motor variables. Speech perception is conceived as a sensory-motor architecture combining an auditory and a motor decoder thanks to a Bayesian fusion process...
December 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234050/a-different-vision-of-dyslexia-local-precedence-on-global-perception
#16
Sandro Franceschini, Sara Bertoni, Tiziana Gianesini, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Individuals perceive the wor(l)d hierarchically. Firsty, the global visual scene is processed by the right hemisphere, and later, the local features are perceived by the left hemisphere. Based on this hierarchical analysis, humans evolved unique communication ability: reading. However, for about 10% of people reading acquisition is extremely difficult, they are affected by a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia. Differences in perceiving the wor(l)d might be one of the causes of reading disabilities...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233717/the-influence-of-visual-and-phonological-features-on-the-hemispheric-processing-of-hierarchical-navon-letters
#17
Marilena Aiello, Sheila Merola, Stefano Lasaponara, Mario Pinto, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fabrizio Doricchi
The possibility of allocating attentional resources to the "global" shape or to the "local" details of pictorial stimuli helps visual processing. Investigations with hierarchical Navon letters, that are large "global" letters made up of small "local" ones, consistently demonstrate a right hemisphere advantage for global processing and a left hemisphere advantage for local processing. Here we investigated how the visual and phonological features of the global and local components of Navon letters influence these hemispheric advantages...
December 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233080/mathematics-ability-and-related-skills-in-preschoolers-born-very-preterm
#18
Holly M Hasler, Natacha Akshoomoff
Children born very preterm (VPT) are at risk for academic, behavioral, and/or emotional problems. Mathematics is a particular weakness and better understanding of the relationship between preterm birth and early mathematics ability is needed, particularly as early as possible to aid in early intervention. Preschoolers born VPT (n = 58) and those born full term (FT; n = 29) were administered a large battery of measures within 6 months of beginning kindergarten. A multiple-mediation model was utilized to characterize the difference in skills underlying mathematics ability between groups...
December 12, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227852/relationships-between-early-literacy-and-nonlinguistic-rhythmic-processes-in-kindergarteners
#19
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Maryanne Wolf, Aniruddh D Patel
A growing number of studies report links between nonlinguistic rhythmic abilities and certain linguistic abilities, particularly phonological skills. The current study investigated the relationship between nonlinguistic rhythmic processing, phonological abilities, and early literacy abilities in kindergarteners. A distinctive aspect of the current work was the exploration of whether processing of different types of rhythmic patterns is differentially related to kindergarteners' phonological and reading-related abilities...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214551/keeping-it-together-semantic-coherence-stabilizes-phonological-sequences-in-short-term-memory
#20
Nicola Savill, Rachel Ellis, Emma Brooke, Tiffany Koa, Suzie Ferguson, Elena Rojas-Rodriguez, Dominic Arnold, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Our ability to hold a sequence of speech sounds in mind, in the correct configuration, supports many aspects of communication, but the contribution of conceptual information to this basic phonological capacity remains controversial. Previous research has shown modest and inconsistent benefits of meaning on phonological stability in short-term memory, but these studies were based on sets of unrelated words. Using a novel design, we examined the immediate recall of sentence-like sequences with coherent meaning, alongside both standard word lists and mixed lists containing words and nonwords...
December 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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