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Phonological processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544439/effects-of-cognitive-impairment-on-prosodic-parameters-of-speech-production-planning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Céline De Looze, Noémie Moreau, Laurent Renié, Finnian Kelly, Alain Ghio, Audrey Rico, Bertrand Audoin, François Viallet, Jean Pelletier, Caterina Petrone
Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CI can have a negative impact on a patient's everyday activities, such as engaging in conversations. Speech production planning ability is crucial for successful verbal interactions and thus for preserving social and occupational skills. This study investigates the effect of cognitive-linguistic demand and CI on speech production planning in MS, as reflected in speech prosody. A secondary aim is to explore the clinical potential of prosodic features for the prediction of an individual's cognitive status in MS...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542396/using-stochastic-language-models-slm-to-map-lexical-syntactic-and-phonological-information-processing-in-the-brain
#2
Alessandro Lopopolo, Stefan L Frank, Antal van den Bosch, Roel M Willems
Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536551/dissociating-effects-of-scrambling-and-topicalization-within-the-left-frontal-and-temporal-language-areas-an-fmri-study-in-kaqchikel-maya
#3
Shinri Ohta, Masatoshi Koizumi, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533112/where-arithmetic-and-phonology-meet-the-meta-analytic-convergence-of-arithmetic-and-phonological-processing-in-the-brain
#4
Courtney Pollack, Nicole C Ashby
Arithmetic facts can be solved using different strategies. Research suggests that some arithmetic problems, particularly those solved by fact retrieval, are related to phonological processing ability and elicit activity in left-lateralized brain regions that support phonological processing. However, it is unclear whether common brain regions support both retrieval-based arithmetic and phonological processing, and if these regions differ across children and adults. This study used activation likelihood estimation to investigate functional neural overlap between arithmetic and phonological processing, separately for children and adults...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#5
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506807/phoneme-processing-skills-are-reflected-in-children-s-mmn-responses
#6
Tanja Linnavalli, Vesa Putkinen, Minna Huotilainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Phonological awareness (PA), the core contributor in phoneme processing abilities, has a link to later reading skills in children. However, the associations between PA and neural auditory discrimination are not clear. We used event-related potential (ERP) methodology and neuropsychological testing to monitor the neurocognitive basis of phonological awareness in typically developing children. We measured 5-6-year-old children's (N=70) phoneme processing, word completion and perceptual reasoning skills and compared their test results to their brain responses to phonemic changes, separately for each test...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506442/boosting-syntax-training-with-temporally-regular-musical-primes-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#7
N Bedoin, A-M Besombes, E Escande, A Dumont, P Lalitte, B Tillmann
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has suggested the use of rhythmic structures (implemented in musical material) to improve linguistic structure processing (i.e., syntax processing), in particular for populations showing deficits in syntax and temporal processing (e.g., children with developmental language disorders). The present study proposes a long-term training program to improve syntax processing in children with cochlear implants, a population showing syntax processing deficits in perception and production...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505273/factor-analysis-of-an-expanded-halstead-reitan-battery-and-the-structure-of-neurocognition
#8
Virginie M Patt, Gregory G Brown, Michael L Thomas, Scott C Roesch, Michael J Taylor, Robert K Heaton
Objective: The structure of neurocognition is explored by examining the neurocognitive domains underlying comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of cognitively healthy individuals. Method: Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the adult normative dataset of an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery (eHRB), comprising Caucasian and African American participants. The factor structure contributions of the original HRB, eHRB expansion, and Wechsler intelligence scales were compared...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499139/a-novel-form-of-perceptual-attunement-context-dependent-perception-of-a-native-contrast-in-14-month-old-infants
#9
Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493359/verbal-and-non-verbal-fluency-in-adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-phonological-processing-or-executive-control-problems
#10
James H Smith-Spark, Lucy A Henry, David J Messer, Adam P Zięcik
The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties...
May 11, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492716/prevalence-of-phonological-disorders-and-phonological-processes-in-typical-and-atypical-phonological-development
#11
Marizete Ilha Ceron, Marileda Barichello Gubiani, Camila Rosa de Oliveira, Marieli Barichello Gubiani, Márcia Keske-Soares
Purpose: To determine the occurrence of phonological disorders by age, gender and school type, and analyze the phonological processes observed in typical and atypical phonological development across different age groups. Methods: The sample consisted of 866 children aged between 3:0 and 8:11 years, recruited from public and private schools in the city of Santa Maria/RS. A phonological evaluation was performed to analyze the operative phonological processes. Results: 15...
May 8, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491042/disentangling-working-memory-functioning-in-mood-states-of-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Carolina Soraggi-Frez, Flávia H Santos, Pedro B Albuquerque, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz
Working memory (WM) deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes) and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive). This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473778/seeing-the-meaning-top-down-effects-on-letter-identification
#13
Gemma A L Evans, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Anna M Woollams
Most models of reading agree that visual word recognition is underpinned by a highly interactive network in which both bottom-up and top-down processes contribute. What remains unknown is whether evidence of top-down effects upon letter processing are restricted to word-form level information, or whether meaning-level information also plays a role. Here we sought to investigate top-down semantic influences upon letter detection using semantic manipulations of real word imageability and semantic priming, as well as a manipulation of nonword orthographic and phonological composition which varied degree of similarity to real words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470820/semantic-richness-and-word-learning-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Allison Gladfelter, Lisa Goffman
Semantically rich learning contexts facilitate semantic, phonological, and articulatory aspects of word learning in children with typical development (TD). However, because children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show differences at each of these processing levels, it is unclear whether they will benefit from semantic cues in the same manner as their typical peers. The goal of this study was to track how the inclusion of rich, sparse, or no semantic cues influences semantic, phonological, and articulatory aspects of word learning in children with ASD and TD over time...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470728/electrophysiological-characterization-of-facilitation-and-interference-in-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#15
Audrey Bürki
The picture-word interference paradigm is often used to investigate the processes underlying word production. In this paradigm, participants name pictures while ignoring distractor words. The aim of this study is to investigate the processes underlying this task and how/when they differ from those involved in simple picture naming. It examines the electrophysiological signature of general interference (longer response times with than without distractors) and facilitation (shorter response times for distractor-word stimuli overlapping in phonemes/orthography) effects...
May 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450829/musical-sophistication-and-the-effect-of-complexity-on-auditory-discrimination-in-finnish-speakers
#16
Caitlin Dawson, Daniel Aalto, Juraj Šimko, Martti Vainio, Mari Tervaniemi
Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442358/an-oscillopathic-approach-to-developmental-dyslexia-from-genes-to-speech-processing
#17
REVIEW
Miguel Jiménez-Bravo, Victoria Marrero, Antonio Benítez-Burraco
Developmental dyslexia is a heterogeneous condition entailing problems with reading and spelling. Several genes have been linked or associated to the disease, many of which contribute to the development and function of brain areas important for auditory and phonological processing. Nonetheless, a clear link between genes, the brain, and the symptoms of dyslexia is still pending. The goal of this paper is contributing to bridge this gap. With this aim, we have focused on how the dyslexic brain fails to process speech sounds and reading cues...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439565/shared-temporoparietal-dysfunction-in-dyslexia-and-typical-readers-with-discrepantly-high-iq
#18
Roeland Hancock, John D E Gabrieli, Fumiko Hoeft
It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy...
December 2016: Trends in Neuroscience and Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439144/vocabulary-size-and-auditory-word-recognition-in-preschool-children
#19
Franzo Law, Tristan Mahr, Alissa Schneeberg, Jan Edwards
Recognizing familiar words quickly and accurately facilitates learning new words, as well as other aspects of language acquisition. This study used the visual world paradigm with semantic and phonological competitors to study lexical processing efficiency in 2-5 year-old children. Experiment 1 found this paradigm was sensitive to vocabulary-size differences. Experiment 2 included a more diverse group of children who were tested in their native dialect (either African American English or Mainstream American English)...
January 2017: Applied Psycholinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436476/multiplex-lexical-networks-reveal-patterns-in-early-word-acquisition-in-children
#20
Massimo Stella, Nicole M Beckage, Markus Brede
Network models of language have provided a way of linking cognitive processes to language structure. However, current approaches focus only on one linguistic relationship at a time, missing the complex multi-relational nature of language. In this work, we overcome this limitation by modelling the mental lexicon of English-speaking toddlers as a multiplex lexical network, i.e. a multi-layered network where N = 529 words/nodes are connected according to four relationship: (i) free association, (ii) feature sharing, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) phonological similarity...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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