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U C Wieshmann, G Baker
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine (CBZ), sodium valproate (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) using the UKAED register ( METHODS: Patients on CBZ (n=91), VPA (n=61), LTG (n=105), LEV (n=72) and healthy control subjects (CTR) on no medication (n=51) were extracted. All patients had anonymously provided information on seizure type and frequency and completed the Liverpool Adverse Event Profile (LAEP). RESULTS: The number of seizure-free patients in the last 4 weeks was overall CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=60%/79%/67%/67%, for generalized epilepsy was CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=67%/89%/65%/94%, and for localization-related epilepsy was CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=59%/71%/67%/57%...
October 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Katharina A Schindlbeck, Janek Becker, Felix Berger, Arne Mehl, Charlotte Rewitzer, Sarah Geffe, Peter M Koch, Jan C Preiß, Britta Siegmund, Jochen Maul, Frank Marzinzik
PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with neurological symptoms including restless legs syndrome. Here, we investigated the impact of restless legs syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on sleep, fatigue, mood, cognition, and quality of life. METHODS: Two groups of inflammatory bowel disease patients, with and without restless legs syndrome, were prospectively evaluated for sleep disorders, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Grace H Lee, Alejandro V Jaen-Vinuales, Jonathan T Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Giuseppe Lanza, Cornelius G Bachmann, Imad Ghorayeb, Yuping Wang, Raffale Ferri, Walter Paulus
Neurophysiological techniques have been applied in restless legs syndrome (RLS) to obtain direct and indirect measures of central and peripheral nervous system excitability, as well as to probe different neurotransmission pathways. Data converge on the hypothesis that, from a pure electrophysiological perspective, RLS should be regarded as a complex sensorimotor disorder in which cortical, subcortical, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve generators are all involved in a network disorder, resulting in an enhanced excitability and/or decreased inhibition...
August 27, 2016: Sleep Medicine
Tania Perich, Andrew Frankland, Gloria Roberts, Florence Levy, Rhoshel Lenroot, Philip B Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a newly proposed childhood disorder included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition to describe children ⩽18 years of age with chronic irritability/temper outbursts. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, severe mood dysregulation and chronic irritability in an Australian study of young people at increased familial risk of developing bipolar disorder ('HR' group) and controls ('CON' group)...
October 14, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Harry W Wright, Kathryn Bartley, John F Huntley, Alasdair J Nisbet
BACKGROUND: Dermanyssus gallinae is the most economically important haematophagous ectoparasite in commercial egg laying flocks worldwide. It infests the hens during the night where it causes irritation leading to restlessness, pecking and in extreme cases anaemia and increased cannibalism. Due to an increase in the occurrence of acaricide-resistant D. gallinae populations, new control strategies are required and vaccination may offer a sustainable alternative to acaricides. In this study, recombinant forms of D...
October 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Luana Sicuro Correa, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Danielle Martins de Souza Barros, Helenara Abadia Ferreira Alexandria, Regina Paiva Daumas, Carlos Augusto Ferreira de Andrade, Sonia Regina Lambert Passos, Patrícia Brasil
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the use of dengue warning signs by pediatric healthcare staff in the Brazilian public health care system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study (2012) with physicians, nurses, and nurse technicians assisting children in five health care facilities. Participants reported the use and importance of dengue warning signs in pediatrics clinical practice through a structured questionnaire. Differences in the use of signs (chi-square test) and in the ranking assigned to each of them (Kruskal-Wallis) were assessed according to health care occupation and level of care (p<0...
2016: PloS One
Paul J Cocker, M Tremblay, S Kaur, Catharine A Winstanley
RATIONALE: Whilst dopamine agonist therapies can successfully manage the symptoms of diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), fibromyalgia and restless leg syndrome, they can also cause impulse control and addiction disorders such as gambling disorder (GD). These compulsive behaviours seriously undermine the utility of such treatments. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to model this phenomenon using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT) in order to investigate the neurobiological basis underlying such behavioural changes...
October 6, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Zhenyang Jiang, Harriet Butler-Bowen, Teresa Rodriguez, Marie C Garcon, Melissa Hennessey Smith, Valerie Relias, Muhammad Wasif Saif
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common but devastating symptom for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) patients. To date, no proven treatment exists. Methylphenidate (MPH) showed inconsistent results in treating other cancer related fatigue. We performed a retrospective study to assess MPH in ameliorating fatigue in APC patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our clinic APC patients' records who visited from 06/2011 - 11/2014. Fatigue was assessed by Visual Analog Fatigue Scale (VAFS) and classified as grade 1 (VAFS 1-3), grade 2 (VAFS 4-6) and grade 3 (VAFS 7-10) to correspond with CTCAE V4...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Ashley Acheson, Sarah L Lake, Bethany C Bray, Yuanyuan Liang, Charles W Mathias, Stacy R Ryan, Nora E Charles, Donald M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Problem substance use often begins in adolescence. This vulnerability likely stems, at least partially, from relatively rapid increases in sensation seeking occurring in early to mid-adolescence and more gradual improvements in impulse control occurring through later adolescence. Better understanding how these processes develop in high-risk youth may lead to enhanced substance use disorder treatment and prevention strategies. METHODS: We characterized trajectories of self-reported impulsivity and sensation seeking in 305 FH+ youths who at minimum had a father with a history of alcohol or other drug use disorders and 81 youths with no family histories of substance use disorders (FH-)...
October 5, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Judith E Carroll, Michael R Irwin, Morgan Levine, Teresa E Seeman, Devin Absher, Themistocles Assimes, Steve Horvath
BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are associated with vulnerability to age-related morbidity and mortality. Cross-sectional data suggest that accelerated biological aging may be a mechanism through which sleep influences risk. A novel method for determining age acceleration using epigenetic methylation to DNA has demonstrated predictive utility as an epigenetic clock and prognostic of age-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We examined the association of epigenetic age and immune cell aging with sleep in the Women's Health Initiative study (N = 2078; mean 64...
July 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Zeyad T Sahli, Jae Jo, Shaker A Mousa, Frank I Tarazi
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder, characterized by restless and unpleasant sensations in the deep inside of legs. The symptoms of RLS are less noticeable during daytime, but more prevalent at night. Therefore, the disorder can induce low quality of life, insomnia, and impairment of daytime activity. RLS in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is especially problematic due to premature discontinuation of dialysis and increased mortality. The prevalence of RLS among dialysis patients is much higher compared to the prevalence of the same disorder in patients with normal renal functions...
October 5, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Fernando R Carvalho, Débora A Lentini-Oliveira, Lucila Bf Prado, Gilmar F Prado, Luciane Bc Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adeno-tonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbidities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems...
October 5, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Morag Allan Campbell
Puerperal insanity has been described as a nineteenth-century diagnosis, entrenched in contemporary expectations of proper womanly behaviour. Drawing on detailed study of establishment registers and patient case notes, this paper examines the puerperal insanity diagnosis at Dundee Lunatic Asylum between 1820 and 1860. In particular, the study aims to consider whether the class or social status of the patients had a bearing on how their conditions were perceived and rationalized, and how far the puerperal insanity diagnosis, coloured by the values assigned to it by the medical officers, may have been reserved for some women and not for others...
October 3, 2016: History of Psychiatry
Jennifer S Scherer, Sara A Combs, Frank Brennan
Maintenance dialysis patients experience a high burden of physical and emotional symptoms that directly affect their quality of life and health care utilization. In this review, we specifically highlight common troublesome symptoms affecting dialysis patients: insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and uremic pruritus. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and evidence-based current treatment are reviewed with the goal of providing a guide for diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we identify multiple additional areas of further study needed to improve symptom management in dialysis patients...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Jeonghun Ku, Yeong Seon Lee, HyukWon Chang, Christopher J Earley, Richard P Allen, Yong Won Cho
BACKGROUND: The unusual sensations of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) are induced by rest or a low arousal state with a circadian variation in the threshold for induction. It has been suggested that the emergence of RLS/WED symptoms relates to abnormal brain functions dealing with internally generated stimuli. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the default mode network (DMN) in RLS/WED subjects. METHODS: Sixteen drug-naïve, idiopathic, RLS/WED subjects, and 16 age-matched and gender-matched healthy subjects were scanned in an asymptomatic resting state...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Anishkumar Nair, Chakanalil Govindan Sajeev, Kader Muneer
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 50-year-old hypertensive smoker presented with a typical angina of 2 days duration. An urgent ECG revealed extensive anterior wall myocardial infarction. In view of the delayed presentation, the patient was conservatively managed with heparin. In-hospital echocardiogram showed akinesia of entire left anterior descending artery (LAD) territory with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. He was discharged with a plan for early coronary intervention. However, he presented a fortnight later with acute pulmonary oedema...
September 29, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Sylvain Fazilleau
OBJECTIVE: Early verticalization in ICU is recommended [1] but not documented in brain-damaged people. Using a verticalization table involves risks and stresses in this context. The main objective was to determine the safety and feasibility of in-bed verticalization in neurological intensive care. Secondary objectives were to study the immediate, hemodynamic, and respiratory impacts, as well as the effects on awakening. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study in a neurological intensive care unit...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
P A Geoffroy, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, I Poirot, A Brion, S Royant-Parola, B Etain
OBJECTIVES: Sleep complaints are very common in bipolar disorders (BD) both during acute phases (manic and depressive episodes) and remission (about 80 % of patients with remitted BD have poor sleep quality). Sleep complaints during remission are of particular importance since they are associated with more mood relapses and worse outcomes. In this context, this review discusses the characterization and treatment of sleep complaints in BD. METHODS: We examined the international scientific literature in June 2016 and performed a literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following headings: "bipolar disorder" and ("sleep" or "insomnia" or "hypersomnia" or "circadian" or "apnoea" or "apnea" or "restless legs")...
September 23, 2016: L'Encéphale
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