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Posterior Skull Base

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049034/hypervascular-lesions-of-the-cerebellopontine-angle-the-relevance-of-angiography-as-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool-and-the-role-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-in-management-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Yosef Laviv, Ajith Thomas, Ekkehard M Kasper
The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a narrowed skull base area, containing important cranial nerves and vessels and bordering with eloquent areas of the posterior fossa. Tumors of the CPA are a heterogeneous group and can arise extradural, intradural-extraaxial or intraaxial. Accordingly, their vascular supply changes, depending on their anatomical origin. Symptomatic, large CPA tumors require surgical resection in order to prevent irreversible, severe neurological damages. However, its tight and strategical location make surgery in the CPA very challenging and require appropriate pre-surgical planning...
December 31, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956253/surgical-treatment-of-skull-base-tumors-extending-to-craniovertebral-junction
#2
Alexey Nikolaevich Shkarubo, Dmitry Nicolaevich Andreev, Nikolai Aleksandrovich Konovalov, Petr Vladimirovich Zelenkov, Andrew Jurievich Lubnin, Ilia Valerievich Chernov, Konstantin Vladimirovich Koval
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comparative analysis of two groups of patients with skull base chordomas extending оnto the craniovertebral junction, who underwent surgical treatment using extracranial approaches with and without craniocervical fusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group included 29 patients with skull base chordomas, extending to the craniovertebral junction, who were operated on during the period from 2000 to 2015. The patients underwent the following surgical treatment: posterior craniocervical fusion followed by tumor removal using transoral and combined transoral and transnasal approaches...
December 9, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932750/-a-case-report-of-spontaneous-cerebrospinal-fluid-otorrhea
#3
Hidenori Anami, Shigeru Ikeda, Kotaro Nakaya, Makoto Sugiura, Takakazu Kawamata
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)otorrhea is less common than CSF leakage caused by trauma, and rarely occurs in adults. We report an adult case of CSF otorrhea. A 71-year-old woman with no traumatic or otologic history was hospitalized due to bacterial meningitis. After hospitalization, CSF leakage started suddenly from the left external ear canal. A high resolution CT scan with intrathecal administration of contrast material revealed CSF leakage in the left ear canal and multiple bone erosions in both the tegmen mastoideum and the posterior fossa aspect of the petrous bone...
December 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928413/a-rare-case-of-unilateral-progressive-vision-loss-and-pachymeningitis
#4
Reuben Mari Valenzuela, Bonnie Keung, John H Pula, Jorge C Kattah
We describe a 32-year-old man with presumed Vogt-Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome, whose presenting symptoms were headache and progressive loss of vision in the right eye. Neuro-ophthalmic examination showed anterior and posterior uveitis, and retinal detachment in the right eye. Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) showed extensive submacular fluid in the right eye, while the fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA) confirmed perifoveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disruption and multifocal fluorescein leakage in the right eye...
October 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911234/ventriculostomy-associated-hemorrhage-a-risk-assessment-by-radiographic-simulation
#5
Faith C Robertson, Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890180/imaging-of-the-posterior-skull-base
#6
REVIEW
Joici Job, Barton F Branstetter
The posterior skull base can be involved by a variety of pathologic processes. They can be broadly classified as: traumatic, neoplastic, vascular, and inflammatory. Pathology in the posterior skull base usually involves the lower cranial nerves, either as a source of pathology or a secondary source of symptoms. This review will categorize pathology arising in the posterior skull base and describe how it affects the skull base itself and surrounding structures.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888641/carotid-artery-and-lower-cranial-nerve-exposure-with-increasing-surgical-complexity-to-the-parapharyngeal-space
#7
Ana M Lemos-Rodriguez, Satyan B Sreenath, Rounak B Rawal, Lewis J Overton, Zainab Farzal, Adam M Zanation
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the extent of carotid artery exposure attained, including the identification of the external carotid branches and lower cranial nerves in five sequential external approaches to the parapharyngeal space, and to provide an anatomical algorithm. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomical study. METHODS: Six latex-injected adult cadaver heads were dissected in five consecutive approaches: transcervical approach with submandibular gland removal, posterior extension of the transcervical approach, transcervical approach with parotidectomy, parotidectomy with lateral mandibulotomy, and parotidectomy with mandibulectomy...
November 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888269/internal-carotid-artery-pseudoaneurysm-and-ischemic-stroke-secondary-to-retropharyngeal-and-parapharyngeal-abscess-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Michael W Ruff, Deena M Nasr, James P Klaas, Deborah L Renaud
Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess in children. Treatment of the pseudoaneurysm has evolved in recent years from surgical ligation to endovascular techniques. Neurologic sequelae most commonly consist of Horner's syndrome with cerebral ischemia being uncommon. The clinical course of a 2-year-old boy with retropharyngeal abscess complicated by internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm, is described and the literature is reviewed. A conventional angiogram confirmed the presence of a large pseudoaneurysm with no anterograde flow distal to the pseudoaneurysm and substantial collateral flow across the circle of Willis, with filling of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries via the anterior and posterior communicating arteries...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888089/quantitative-measurements-of-the-skull-base-and-craniovertebral-junction-in-congenital-occipitalization-of-the-atlas-a-ct-based-anatomical-study
#9
Rui Zong, Yiheng Yin, Guangyu Qiao, Yazhou Jin, Xinguang Yu
BACKGROUND: To study the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and determine the anatomical characteristics of occipitalization of the atlas (OC) by computed tomography imaging. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 80 cases of patients with OC who underwent cervical CT scanning between March 2012 and March 2014. Forty healthy subjects were recruited as a control cohort. Fusion pattern and associated osseous anomalies were recorded. Fifteen linear quantitative parameters were measured to study the outlet of the foramen magnum, angular dimension of the skull base, posterior cranial fossa, and height of the odontoid process...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857875/dual-endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-and-precaruncular-transorbital-approaches-for-clipping-of-the-cavernous-carotid-artery-a-cadaveric-simulation
#10
Jeremy Ciporen, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Aclan Dogan, Justin S Cetas, William E Cameron
Background Endoscopic skull base approaches are being used to address complicated neurovascular pathology. These approaches are safest when proximal vascular control of the cavernous carotid artery (CavCA) can be obtained. Methods We present a cadaver-based anatomic simulation study showing the feasibility of clip placement for the CavCA as it courses through the cavernous sinus. The arterial vessels were injected with red microfil (Flow Tech, Carver, Massachusetts) to enhance visibility. The endoscope was directed through a precaruncular transorbital approach and instrumentation was managed through an endonasal transsphenoidal approach...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830869/atlas-occipitalization-associated-with-other-anomalies-in-a-16th-century-skeleton-from-sardinia-italy
#11
Valentina Giuffra, Andrea Montella, Marco Milanese, Eugenia Tognotti, Davide Caramella, Pasquale Bandiera
Archaeological excavations carried out in the plague cemetery of 16th century Alghero (Sardinia) brought to light the skeleton of a male aged 35-45 years, showing anomalies of the atlas. A macroscopic and radiological study has been carried out. The first cervical vertebra is fused with the skull base, resulting in an occipitalization of the atlas. Absence of the costal element of the left foramen trasversarium, resulting in an open anterior foramen trasversarium, and posterior arch defect are also observed...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804946/-parosteal-osseous-lipoma-of-the-temporal-bone-concurrent-with-involvement-of-the-parotid-salivary-gland
#12
O V Dolzhansky, E M Pal'tseva, D V Bulanov, D N Fedorov
The paper describes a case of parosteal lipoma of the temporal bone, by simultaneously involving the parotid salivary gland. Computed tomography performed in a 48-year-old man showed that in the area of the posterior edge of the glenoid fossa of the right temporal bone there was a massive (1.5×1.7×0.9-cm) exostosis extending down from the skull base. The exostosis was surrounded by a 3.5×3.6×5.3 soft tissue mass that was located in the projection of the right parotid salivary gland with a capsule and minor calcifications...
2016: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801403/-a-technique-of-tachocomb-application-in-dura-mater-reconstruction-in-surgery-for-posterior-cranial-fossa-tumors
#13
V N Shimansky, V K Poshataev, D A Odamanov, K V Shevchenko
INTRODUCTION: Liquorrhea is a condition characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage from the cranial cavity due to injury to the integrity of the dura mater (DM) and bone structures of the skull base. Surgery for posterior cranial fossa (PCF) lesions distinguishes wound CSF leakage when CSF leaks from a surgical wound as well as basal CSF leakage (nasal liquorrhea and, less often, otoliquorrhea). The main cause of basal CSF leakage is injury (including surgical injury) resulting in a defect in the DM and bone structures (cells of the mastoid process in the case of a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach)...
2016: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780157/the-geometric-effects-of-a-woodpecker-s-hyoid-apparatus-for-stress-wave-mitigation
#14
Nayeon Lee, M F Horstemeyer, R Prabhu, Jun Liao, Hongjoo Rhee, Youssef Hammi, Robert D Moser, Lakiesha N Williams
In this study a woodpecker's hyoid apparatus was characterized to determine its impact mitigation mechanism using finite element (FE) analysis. The woodpecker's hyoid apparatus, comprising bone and muscle, has a unique geometry compared to those of other birds. The hyoid starts at the beak tip, surrounds the woodpecker's skull, and ends at the upper beak/front head intersection while being surrounded by muscle along the whole length. A FE model of the hyoid apparatus was created based on the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties garnered from our experimental measurements...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755457/posterior-fossa-spontaneous-cerebrospinal-fluid-leaks
#15
Cameron C Wick, Daniel E Killeen, Michael Clark, Joe Walter Kutz, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: Describe the diagnosis and management of spontaneous lateral skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks that originate from the posterior fossa. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS: Adult patients from 2005 to 2015 who underwent surgical repair of a spontaneous lateral skull base CSF leak with intraoperative confirmation of a posterior fossa leak source...
January 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752754/visualization-of-anatomy-in-normal-and-pathologic-middle-ears-by-cone-beam-ct
#16
Christian Güldner, Isabell Diogo, Eva Bernd, Stephanie Dräger, Magis Mandapathil, Afshin Teymoortash, Hesham Negm, Thomas Wilhelm
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, syn. digital volume tomography = DVT) was introduced into ENT imaging more than 10 years ago. The main focus was on imaging of the paranasal sinuses and traumatology of the mid face. In recent years, it has also been used in imaging of chronic ear diseases (especially in visualizing middle and inner ear implants), but an exact description of the advantages and limitations of visualizing precise anatomy in a relevant number of patients is still missing. The data sets of CBCT imaging of the middle and inner ear of 204 patients were analyzed regarding the visualization of 18 different anatomic structures...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741416/utility-of-superiorly-based-masseter-muscle-flap-for-postablative-retromaxillary-reconstruction
#17
Chandrashekhar R Bande, Akshay Mishra, M K Gupta, Manu Goel, Mayur J Gawande
PURPOSE: Resections in the posterior component of the oral cavity usually lead to severe functional compromise and lower quality of life for patients. Notable advances in reconstruction of the posterior part of the mouth and of the oropharynx have occurred in recent decades. The anatomic and physiologic rehabilitation of the defect to a reasonable outcome with low morbidity and mortality remains the founding basis of any surgical reconstruction, which also holds true for oral oropharyngeal and retromaxillary reconstructions...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729135/mastoid-fascia-kite-flap-for-cryptotia-correction
#18
François Simon, Charlotte Celerier, Erea-Noël Garabedian, Françoise Denoyelle
OBJECTIVE: Cryptotia is one of the most common malformations of the upper auricle with aesthetic and functional consequences, however there is no standard treatment. We present the surgical technique and results of a kite flap procedure which can be used in the different cryptotia subtypes. METHODS: We reviewed all patients treated in our department from 2010 to 2015, using a mastoid fascia kite flap technique. The incision of this local flap follows the retro-auricular sulcus along the rim of the helix superiorly and drawing a skin paddle inferiorly...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726243/simultaneous-total-intracranial-volume-and-posterior-fossa-volume-estimation-using-multi-atlas-label-fusion
#19
Yuankai Huo, Andrew J Asman, Andrew J Plassard, Bennett A Landman
Total intracranial volume (TICV) is an essential covariate in brain volumetric analyses. The prevalent brain imaging software packages provide automatic TICV estimates. FreeSurfer and FSL estimate TICV using a scaling factor while SPM12 accumulates probabilities of brain tissues. None of the three provide explicit skull/CSF boundary (SCB) since it is challenging to distinguish these dark structures in a T1-weighted image. However, explicit SCB not only leads to a natural way of obtaining TICV (i.e., counting voxels inside the skull) but also allows sub-definition of TICV, for example, the posterior fossa volume (PFV)...
February 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718340/a-trend-toward-smaller-optical-angles-and-medial-ocular-distance-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-but-not-in-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorders
#20
Yi Wang, Yi Deng, Zhi Li, Xu Li, Chen-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Jin, Ming-Xia Fan, Michael T Compton, Eric F C Cheung, Kelvin O Lim, Raymond C K Chan
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are subtle signs of fetal developmental abnormalities that have been considered to be among the most replicated risk markers for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. However, quantitative approaches are needed to measure craniofacial MPAs. The present study adopted an imaging-based quantitative approach to examine craniofacial MPAs across the spectrum of schizophrenia and affective disorders, to address their sensitivity and specificity. We sampled 31 patients with schizophrenia, 30 of their unaffected relatives, and 30 individuals with schizotypal personality traits, as well as 37 non-schizotypal controls...
December 2016: PsyCh Journal
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