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Anterior Skull Base

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911234/ventriculostomy-associated-hemorrhage-a-risk-assessment-by-radiographic-simulation
#1
Faith C Robertson, Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906848/calculation-of-an-optic-nerve-injury-risk-profile-before-sphenoid-sinus-surgery
#2
Erdem Atalay Cetinkaya, Koray Koc, Mehmet Fatih Kucuk, Pinar Koc, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Cemal Cingi
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to analyze variations in the optic nerve (ON) course and surrounding structures in an effort to construct an optic nerve injury risk profile before endoscopic intranasal sphenoidal, or endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal, skull-base surgery, and eventually to construct and formulate a common classification by combining the known classes. The authors used computed tomography (CT) toward this end. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive CT scans (400 sides) of the paranasal sinuses...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890190/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region
#3
REVIEW
John L Go, Anandh G Rajamohan
The sella and parasellar region, found between the anterior and central skull base, represents the central aspect of the skull base. Given the location of the pituitary gland in this location, small lesions in this location may have major physiologic effects on the human body. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and pathologic processes that may involve this region.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890187/imaging-of-paranasal-sinuses-and-anterior-skull-base-and-relevant-anatomic-variations
#4
REVIEW
Estushi Iida, Yoshimi Anzai
This article reviews the normal anatomy and variants of the anterior skull base and sinonasal cavities that are relevant to endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Radiologists should be aware of sinonasal anatomy that can be impediments to surgical access and increase risk of vascular or cranial nerve injury during surgery. Imaging features of the paranasal sinuses and anterior skull base pathologies are also discussed.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888269/internal-carotid-artery-pseudoaneurysm-and-ischemic-stroke-secondary-to-retropharyngeal-and-parapharyngeal-abscess-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Michael W Ruff, Deena M Nasr, James P Klaas, Deborah L Renaud
Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess in children. Treatment of the pseudoaneurysm has evolved in recent years from surgical ligation to endovascular techniques. Neurologic sequelae most commonly consist of Horner's syndrome with cerebral ischemia being uncommon. The clinical course of a 2-year-old boy with retropharyngeal abscess complicated by internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm, is described and the literature is reviewed. A conventional angiogram confirmed the presence of a large pseudoaneurysm with no anterograde flow distal to the pseudoaneurysm and substantial collateral flow across the circle of Willis, with filling of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries via the anterior and posterior communicating arteries...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885953/targeted-sequencing-of-smo-and-akt1-in-anterior-skull-base-meningiomas
#6
Matthew R Strickland, Corey M Gill, Naema Nayyar, Megan R D'Andrea, Christian Thiede, Tareq A Juratli, Gabriele Schackert, Darrell R Borger, Sandro Santagata, Matthew P Frosch, Daniel P Cahill, Priscilla K Brastianos, Fred G Barker
OBJECTIVE Meningiomas located in the skull base are surgically challenging. Recent genomic research has identified oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations in a small subset of meningiomas. METHODS The authors performed targeted sequencing in a large cohort of patients with anterior skull base meningiomas (n = 62) to better define the frequency of SMO and AKT1 mutations in these tumors. RESULTS The authors found SMO mutations in 7 of 62 (11%) and AKT1 mutations in 12 of 62 (19%) of their cohort. Of the 7 meningiomas with SMO mutations, 6 (86%) occurred in the olfactory groove...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879303/smooth-muscle-tumour-of-uncertain-malignant-potential-smtump-in-the-nasal-cavity-an-incidental-finding
#7
Dipak Ranjan Nayak, Asheesh Dora Ghanpur, Apoorva N Reddy, Swati Sharma
Sino-nasal smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (SMTUMP) are very rare neoplasms of mesenchymal origin with features in between a benign leiomyoma and a leiomyosarcoma. We report a rare case of SMTUMP in a 44-year-old woman, who presented with vague symptoms of pharyngitis. Nasal endoscopy revealed a smooth mass in left nasal cavity. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI scans showed features likely to be inverted papilloma or olfactory neuroblastoma or meningioma. Excision was planned and intraoperatively, frozen section revealed a probable spindle cell lesion...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875509/osseous-repair-in-minimally-invasive-reconstruction-of-anterior-skull-base-defects
#8
Vijay R Ramakrishnan, Adam M Terella, Seerat Poonia, Alexander G Chiu, James N Palmer
Management of anterior skull base defects is an area of continued innovation for skull base surgeons. Various grafting materials have been advocated for the repair of skull base defects depending on needs, availability, harvest site morbidity, and surgeon preference. Spontaneous bony closure of small skull defects is known to occur in animal models without bone grafts, but this phenomenon has been unexplored in the human skull base. The objective of this study was to evaluate osseous skull base closure in patients undergoing endoscopic repair of skull base defects...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870353/eye-size-and-set-in-small-bodied-fossil-primates-a-three-dimensional-method
#9
Alfred L Rosenberger, Tim D Smith, Valerie B DeLeon, Anne M Burrows, Robert Schenck, Lauren B Halenar
We introduce a new method to geometrically reconstruct eye volume and placement in small-bodied primates based on the three-dimensional contour of the intraorbital surface. We validate it using seven species of living primates, with dry skulls and wet dissections, and test its application on seven species of Paleogene fossils of interest. The method performs well even when the orbit is damaged and incomplete, lacking the postorbital bar and represented only by the orbital floor. Eye volume is an important quantity for anatomic and metabolic reasons, which due to differences in eye set, or position within (or outside) the bony orbit, can be underestimated in living and fossil forms when calculated from aperture diameter...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858381/fatal-rupture-of-dissecting-anterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-aneurysm-as-an-unexpected-complication-after-anterior-skull-base-surgery-a-case-report
#10
Eyyub S Al-Beyati, Ihsan Dogan, Agahan Ünlü, Melih Bozkurt
Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is a very rare entity and the manifestation and manipulation of such aneurysms remain contentious. In this paper, we report a case where a successful surgery for an olfactory groove meningioma was performed and the patient discharged but readmitted to hospital with loss of consciousness and subsequently passed away three hours after re-admission. The patient was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The cause of the fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage was rupture of a new onsetting AICA dissecting aneurysm which had provided neither clinical nor radiological signs before the operation...
October 13, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857877/anterior-skull-base-defects-reconstructed-using-three-layer-method-78-consecutive-cases-with-long-term-follow-up
#11
Murat Geyik, Ibrahim Erkutlu, Mehmet Alptekin, Inan Gezgin, Ayse Mizrak, Mehmet Dokur, Abdulvahap Gok
Objectives Anterior skull base defects are potentially lethal and surgical treatment must be performed as soon as possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether our technique is effective or not in long-term period. Design Retrospective chart review of all patients whose data were entered into the Hospital Registry System between 1995 and 2015. Setting/Participants This study was performed at the Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey, in 2015 and included 78 patients who in the past 20 years underwent three-layer reconstruction surgery for anterior skull base defects at the same university...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833887/endoscopic-management-of-congenital-intranasal-meningocele-in-3-month-old-infant
#12
Gaurav Khandelwal, Manoj Sharma, Priyanka Gupta
Fronto-ethmoidal meningocoele is a rare congenital condition with protrusion of meninges through anterior cranial fossa into the facial skeleton, surgical repair should be done in order to resolve nasal obstruction, provide a watertight division between sino-nasal and intra-cranial cavities and minimise injury to any CNS contents (Maddalozzo in Issue Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2015). Open approaches may be required but endoscopic endo-nasal repairs can be done in paediatric skull-base defects. A 3 month-old infant with fronto-ethmoidal meningocele operated with endo-nasal approach...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830869/atlas-occipitalization-associated-with-other-anomalies-in-a-16th-century-skeleton-from-sardinia-italy
#13
Valentina Giuffra, Andrea Montella, Marco Milanese, Eugenia Tognotti, Davide Caramella, Pasquale Bandiera
Archaeological excavations carried out in the plague cemetery of 16th century Alghero (Sardinia) brought to light the skeleton of a male aged 35-45 years, showing anomalies of the atlas. A macroscopic and radiological study has been carried out. The first cervical vertebra is fused with the skull base, resulting in an occipitalization of the atlas. Absence of the costal element of the left foramen trasversarium, resulting in an open anterior foramen trasversarium, and posterior arch defect are also observed...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812324/big-cat-coalitions-a-comparative-analysis-of-regional-brain-volumes-in-felidae
#14
Sharleen T Sakai, Bradley M Arsznov, Ani E Hristova, Elise J Yoon, Barbara L Lundrigan
Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780157/the-geometric-effects-of-a-woodpecker-s-hyoid-apparatus-for-stress-wave-mitigation
#15
Nayeon Lee, M F Horstemeyer, R Prabhu, Jun Liao, Hongjoo Rhee, Youssef Hammi, Robert D Moser, Lakiesha N Williams
In this study a woodpecker's hyoid apparatus was characterized to determine its impact mitigation mechanism using finite element (FE) analysis. The woodpecker's hyoid apparatus, comprising bone and muscle, has a unique geometry compared to those of other birds. The hyoid starts at the beak tip, surrounds the woodpecker's skull, and ends at the upper beak/front head intersection while being surrounded by muscle along the whole length. A FE model of the hyoid apparatus was created based on the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties garnered from our experimental measurements...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773560/surgical-resection-of-sinonasal-hemangiopericytoma-involving-anterior-skull-base-case-reports-and-literature-review
#16
Jonathan C Simmonds, Elie E Rebeiz
Hemangiopericytomas are soft tissue tumors composed of pericytic cells that are characterized by their "staghorn" vascular branching and their variable clinical presentation. Fifteen to 25% of all HPC occur in the head and neck, with only 5% found in the nose or paranasal sinuses. Sinonasal hemangiopericytoma (SNHPC) is considered distinct from its soft tissue counterpart - the former showing a more uniform cellular organization, has convincing pericytic differentiation and is associated with a far better prognosis...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771110/image-guided-transoral-approach-in-severe-craniovertebral-junction-malformations-at-the-golden-age-of-endoscopy-regarding-2%C3%A2-cases
#17
E Mazerand, N Karmani, L Le Fournier, L Laccourreye, H-D Fournier
INTRODUCTION: The image-guided transoral approach (IGTOA) provides a safe exposure to skull base midline lesions and the ventral aspect of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). The IGTOA has several advantages: the head being placed in the extended position, it decreases the brainstem angulation during surgery; the approach being done through the avascular median pharyngeal raphe, not only lowers the bleeding risk but also provides a direct access to the bony pathology and granulation tissue accessible only via the ventral route...
October 19, 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767958/noncavernous-arteriovenous-shunts-mimicking-carotid-cavernous-fistulae
#18
Chai Kobkitsuksakul, Pakorn Jiarakongmun, Ekachat Chanthanaphak, Sirintara Pongpech
PURPOSE: The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages...
November 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763982/review-of-life-quality-of-patients-with-benign-tumors-of-the-anterior-and-middle-part-of-the-skull-base-after-surgery-and-during-follow-up-in-russian-by-kadasheva-ab-cherekaev-va-shifrin-ma-kozlov-av-golbin-da-tsukanova-tv-galkin-mv-belov-ai-radchenkov-ns-in
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762178/role-of-targeted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-sequences-in-the-surgical-management-of-anterior-skull-base-pathology
#20
S Chawla, J Bowman, M Gandhi, B Panizza
BACKGROUND: The skull base is a highly complex anatomical region that provides passage for important nerves and vessels as they course into and out of the cranial cavity. Key to the management of pathology in this region is a thorough understanding of the anatomy, with its variations, and the relationship of various neurovascular structures to the pathology in question. Targeted high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging on high field strength magnets can enable the skull base surgeon to understand this intricate relationship and deal with the pathology from a position of relative advantage...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
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