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Congruency sequence effect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871947/comprehensive-skin-microbiome-analysis-reveals-the-uniqueness-of-human-skin-and-evidence-for-phylosymbiosis-within-the-class-mammalia
#1
Ashley A Ross, Kirsten M Müller, J Scott Weese, Josh D Neufeld
Skin is the largest organ of the body and represents the primary physical barrier between mammals and their external environment, yet the factors that govern skin microbial community composition among mammals are poorly understood. The objective of this research was to generate a skin microbiota baseline for members of the class Mammalia, testing the effects of host species, geographic location, body region, and biological sex. Skin from the back, torso, and inner thighs of 177 nonhuman mammals was sampled, representing individuals from 38 species and 10 mammalian orders...
June 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802447/increased-cognitive-control-after-task-conflict-investigating-the-n-3-effect-in-task-switching
#2
Stefanie Schuch, James A Grange
Task inhibition is considered to facilitate switching to a new task and is assumed to decay slowly over time. Hence, more persisting inhibition needs to be overcome when returning to a task after one intermediary trial (ABA task sequence) than when returning after two or more intermediary trials (CBA task sequence). Schuch and Grange (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 41:760-767, 2015) put forward the hypothesis that there is higher task conflict in ABA than CBA sequences, leading to increased cognitive control in the subsequent trial...
May 25, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771565/memory-guided-selective-attention-single-experiences-with-conflict-have-long-lasting-effects-on-cognitive-control
#3
Nicholaus P Brosowsky, Matthew J C Crump
Adjustments in cognitive control, as measured by congruency sequence effects, are thought to be influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this dichotomy has often overshadowed the potential contribution of past experience stored in memory. Here, we examine the role of long-term episodic memory in guiding selective attention. Our aim was to demonstrate new evidence that selective attention can be modulated by long-term retrieval of stimulus-specific attentional control settings. All the experiments used a modified flanker task involving multiple unique stimuli...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669013/information-dropout-patterns-in-rad-phylogenomics-and-a-comparison-with-multilocus-sanger-data-in-a-species-rich-moth-genus
#4
Kyung Min Lee, Sami M Kivelä, Vladislav Ivanov, Axel Hausmann, Lauri Kaila, Niklas Wahlberg, Marko Mutanen
A rapid shift from traditional Sanger sequencing-based molecular methods to the phylogenomic approach with large numbers of loci is underway. Among phylogenomic methods, RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approaches have gained much attention as they enable rapid generation of up to thousands of loci randomly scattered across the genome and are suitable for non-model species. RAD data sets however suffer from large amounts of missing data and rapid locus dropout along with decreasing relatedness among taxa...
April 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550688/is-adaptive-control-in-language-production-mediated-by-learning
#5
Michael Freund, Nazbanou Nozari
Recent work using the Picture Word Interference (PWI) paradigm has revealed that language production, similar to non-verbal tasks, shows a robust Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE), defined as a decreased congruency effect following incongruent trials. Although CSE is considered an index of adaptive control, its mechanism is debated. In two experiments, we tested the predictions of a learning model of adaptive control in production, using a task-switching paradigm fully balanced to evaluate CSE on a PWI trial as a function of the congruency of a 2-back PWI trial (within-task CSE), as well as a 1-back trial belonging to a different task (cross-task CSE)...
July 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512843/neural-capacity-limits-during-unconscious-semantic-processing
#6
Kimihiro Nakamura, Michiru Makuuchi, Tatsuhide Oga, Tomomi Mizuochi-Endo, Toshiki Iwabuchi, Yasoichi Nakajima, Stanislas Dehaene
A growing body of neuroimaging data suggests that direct measurements of brain activity can reveal subliminal effects that remain invisible with behavior measures alone. We examined whether sentence comprehension processes could be triggered by a sequence of masked words. On each trial, participants viewed a rapid sequence of masked or unmasked words, including a subject noun, three adverbs and followed by a visible target verb. To probe the capacity limits of unconscious processing, we measured event-related potentials associated with the semantic congruency between the noun and the verb, while varying the subject position in each sentence...
April 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494275/the-gut-microbiota-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#7
Audrey Humphries, Adil Daud
Although immunotherapy has been remarkably effective across multiple cancer types, there continues to be a significant number of non-responding patients. A possible factor proposed to influence the efficacy of immunotherapies is the gut microbiome. We discuss the results and implications of recent research on the relationship between the gut microbiome, our immune systems, and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies including anti-CTLA-4 Ab and anti-PD-1 Ab. While the investigations all exhibit interesting results and conclusions, we find little congruence in the specific bacteria that were found favorable for antitumor responses...
March 1, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454940/perceptual-load-is-not-always-a-crucial-determinant-of-early-versus-late-selection
#8
Daniel H Weissman, Brittany Drake, Katharine Colella, Daphne Samuel
The perceptual load hypothesis posits that early and late selection occurs under conditions of high and low perceptual load, respectively. Recent work, however, suggests that the absence of a congruency effect in high-load trials - the behavioral signature of early selection in studies of perceptual load - may not provide an exhaustive index of failing to identify task-irrelevant distractors. Prior research also suggests that the congruency sequence effect (CSE) - a modulation of the congruency effect after incongruent relative to congruent trials - provides complementary information about whether participants identify distractors...
April 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431465/unconscious-conflict-adaptation-without-feature-repetitions-and-response-time-carry-over
#9
Christoph Huber-Huber, Ulrich Ansorge
Leading theories of cognition linked executive control to consciousness or awareness. Evidence from masked priming experiments questioned this link, but without addressing possible confounds. Responding to a target after a masked prime, participants are slower if prime and target present conflicting (incongruent) than nonconflicting (congruent) information. Crucially, congruence in the previous trial modulates this congruence effect, presenting a congruence-sequence effect. This has been interpreted as conflict adaptation by executive control processes, but alternative explanations through trial-to-trial feature-repetitions and response-time (RT) carry-over are possible...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324235/a-biphasic-effect-of-cross-modal-priming-on-visual-shape-recognition
#10
Sze Chai Kwok, Carlo Fantoni, Laura Tamburini, Lei Wang, Walter Gerbino
We used a cross-modal priming paradigm to evoke a biphasic effect in visual short-term memory. Participants were required to match the memorandum (a visual shape, either spiky or curvy) to a delayed probe (a shape belonging to the same category). In two-thirds of trials the sequence of shapes was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound (either tzk or upo, cross-modally correspondent to spiky and curvy shape categories, respectively). The biphasic effect occurred when a congruent vs. incongruent sound was presented 200ms after the memorandum, while it did not occur when the sound was presented 200ms before or simultaneously with it...
February 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186523/dna-based-mutation-assay-gpma-genome-profiling-based-mutation-assay-reproducibility-parts-per-billion-scale-sensitivity-and-introduction-of-a-mammalian-cell-based-approach
#11
Parmila Kumari, Sunita Ghimire Gautam, Misato Baba, Motoki Tsukiashi, Koji Matsuoka, Kiyoshi Yasukawa, Koichi Nishigaki
Genome profiling-based mutation assay (GPMA) is, to date, the only DNA sequence-based mutation assay that directly measures DNA alterations induced by mutagens. Here, the all-important congruence of mutagen assignment between DNA-based GPMA and the phenotype-based Ames test (the gold standard of mutagen assays) was confirmed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by means of 94 chemical species (including previously examined 64). The high sensitivity (on the order of 10 ppb) and reproducibility of GPMA were also corroborated by the match between virtually independent experiments conducted in the distant past (10 years ago) and recently...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116614/are-crossmodal-correspondences-relative-or-absolute-sequential-effects-on-speeded-classification
#12
Riccardo Brunetti, Allegra Indraccolo, Claudia Del Gatto, Charles Spence, Valerio Santangelo
Crossmodal correspondences have often been demonstrated using congruency effects between pairs of stimuli in different sensory modalities that vary along separate dimensions. To date, however, it is still unclear the extent to which these correspondences are relative versus absolute in nature: that is, whether they result from pre-defined values that rigidly link the two dimensions or rather result from flexible values related to the previous occurrence of the crossmodal stimuli. Here, we investigated this issue in a speeded classification task featuring the correspondence between auditory pitch and visual size (e...
February 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101661/stuck-at-the-starting-line-how-the-starting-procedure-influences-mouse-tracking-data
#13
Stefan Scherbaum, Pascal J Kieslich
Mouse-tracking is an increasingly popular method to trace cognitive processes. As is common for a novel method, the exact methodological procedures employed in an individual study are still relatively idiosyncratic and the effects of different methodological setups on mouse-tracking measures have not been explored so far. Here, we study the impact of one commonly occurring methodological variation, namely whether participants have to initiate their mouse movements to trigger stimulus presentation (dynamic starting condition) or whether the stimulus is presented automatically after a fixed delay and participants can freely decide when to initiate their movements (static starting condition)...
November 3, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981310/dealing-with-interference-chimpanzees-respond-to-conflicting-cues-in-a-food-choice-memory-task
#14
Audrey E Parrish, Anamaria Otalora-Garcia, Michael J Beran
Interference effects emerge when responding on the basis of task-relevant features is directly pitted against task-irrelevant cues that could lead to errors. To study potential interference effects in a food-choice memory test, 3 chimpanzees were presented with conflicting information in a magnitude judgment task. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees were presented with an ordinal series of colored containers that they sequenced on the basis of relative preference for the different foods that were consistently hidden under the containers...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886035/temporal-causal-inference-with-stochastic-audiovisual-sequences
#15
Shannon M Locke, Michael S Landy
Integration of sensory information across multiple senses is most likely to occur when signals are spatiotemporally coupled. Yet, recent research on audiovisual rate discrimination indicates that random sequences of light flashes and auditory clicks are integrated optimally regardless of temporal correlation. This may be due to 1) temporal averaging rendering temporal cues less effective; 2) difficulty extracting causal-inference cues from rapidly presented stimuli; or 3) task demands prompting integration without concern for the spatiotemporal relationship between the signals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860659/insect-bacteria-parallel-evolution-in-multiple-co-obligate-aphid-association-a-case-in-lachninae-hemiptera-aphididae
#16
Rui Chen, Zhe Wang, Jing Chen, Li-Yun Jiang, Ge-Xia Qiao
Parallel phylogenies between aphid and its obligate symbiont Buchnera are hot topics which always focused on aphid lower taxonomic levels. Symbionts in the subfamily Lachninae are special. Buchnera in many lachnine species has undergone functional and genome size reduction that was replaced by other co-obligate symbionts. In this study, we constructed the phylogenetic relationships of Lachninae with a combined dataset of five genes sequenced from Buchnera to estimate the effects of a dual symbiotic system in the aphid-Buchnera cospeciation association...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852323/close-congruence-between-barcode-index-numbers-bins-and-species-boundaries-in-the-erebidae-lepidoptera-noctuoidea-of-the-iberian-peninsula
#17
Antonio S Ortiz, Rosa M Rubio, Juan J Guerrero, Manuel J Garre, Jose Serrano, Paul D N Hebert, Axel Hausmann
The DNA barcode reference library for Lepidoptera holds much promise as a tool for taxonomic research and for providing the reliable identifications needed for conservation assessment programs. We gathered sequences for the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from 160 of the 176 nominal species of Erebidae moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) known from the Iberian Peninsula. These results arise from a research project which constructing a DNA barcode library for the insect species of Spain...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783572/conflict-adaptation-in-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia
#18
Elger Abrahamse, Marit Ruitenberg, Sarah Boddewyn, Edith Oreel, Maarten de Schryver, Manuel Morrens, Jean-Philippe van Dijck
Cognitive control impairments may contribute strongly to the overall cognitive deficits observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In the current study we explore a specific cognitive control function referred to as conflict adaptation. Previous studies on conflict adaptation in schizophrenia showed equivocal results, and, moreover, were plagued by confounded research designs. Here we assessed for the first time conflict adaptation in schizophrenia with a design that avoided the major confounds of feature integration and stimulus-response contingency learning...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683927/cognitive-control-during-a-spatial-stroop-task-comparing-conflict-monitoring-and-prediction-of-response-outcome-theories
#19
Luís Pires, José Leitão, Chiara Guerrini, Mário R Simões
Cognitive control allows information processing and behaviour to vary adaptively from moment to moment depending on current goals. Two of the most prominent theories that have been proposed to account for the processing of cognitive control are the Conflict Monitoring Theory (CMT) and the Prediction of Response-Outcome Theory (PRO). According to both theories, the implementation of cognitive control during a trial in a conflict task reflects processing events that occurred in the preceding trial. Both CMT and PRO advocate that the detection of conflict situations leads to the recruitment of cognitive control, but they differ regarding the processing underpinnings of cognitive control during conflict resolution...
July 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504525/introspection-of-subjective-feelings-is-sensitive-and-specific
#20
Laurence Questienne, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Conversely to behaviorist ideas, recent studies suggest that introspection can be accurate and reliable. However, an unresolved question is whether people are able to report specific aspects of their phenomenal experience, or whether they report more general nonspecific experiences. To address this question, we investigated the sensitivity and validity of our introspection for different types of conflict. Taking advantage of the congruency sequence effect, we dissociated response conflict while keeping visual conflict unchanged in a Stroop and in a priming task...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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