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Congruency sequence effect

Bart Aben, Tom Verguts, Eva Van den Bussche
The idea that adaptation to stimulus or response conflict can operate over different time scales takes a prominent position in various theories and models of cognitive control. The mechanisms underlying temporal variations in control are nevertheless poorly understood, which is partly due to a lack of appropriate empirical measures. Inspired by reinforcement learning models, we developed a method to quantify the time scale of control behaviorally, by computing trial-by-trial effects that go beyond the preceding trial...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Richard C Hallgren, Steven J Pierce, Dhruv B Sharma, Jacob J Rowan
CONTEXT: Rectus capitis posterior (RCP) muscles have physical attachments to the pain-sensitive spinal dura. Atrophy of these muscles is associated with chronic headache in some patients. The authors suspect that the significance of atrophy in the RCP muscles has been undervalued because the functional role of these muscles is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a statistically significant change in normalized levels of electromyographic activity in RCP muscles occurs when the head is voluntarily moved from a self-selected neutral head position to a protruded head position...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Thorsten O Zander, Laurens R Krol, Niels P Birbaumer, Klaus Gramann
The effectiveness of today's human-machine interaction is limited by a communication bottleneck as operators are required to translate high-level concepts into a machine-mandated sequence of instructions. In contrast, we demonstrate effective, goal-oriented control of a computer system without any form of explicit communication from the human operator. Instead, the system generated the necessary input itself, based on real-time analysis of brain activity. Specific brain responses were evoked by violating the operators' expectations to varying degrees...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jens Göttler, Mathias Lukas, Anne Kluge, Stephan Kaczmarz, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Mona Mustafa, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Markus Schwaiger, Stefan Förster, Christine Preibisch, Thomas Pyka
PURPOSE: (18)F-fluorethyltyrosine-(FET)-PET and MRI-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) have both been used to characterize gliomas. Recently, inter-individual correlations between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV have been reported. Herein, we assess the local intra-lesional relation between FET-PET parameters and rCBV. METHODS: Thirty untreated glioma patients (27 high-grade) underwent simultaneous PET/MRI on a 3 T hybrid scanner obtaining structural and dynamic susceptibility contrast sequences...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Christoph Huber-Huber, Ulrich Ansorge
The present study disentangles 2 sources of the congruence sequence effect with masked primes: congruence and response time of the previous trial (reaction time [RT] carry-over). Using arrows as primes and targets and a metacontrast masking procedure we found congruence as well as congruence sequence effects. In addition, congruence sequence effects decreased when RT carry-over was accounted for in a mixed model analysis, suggesting that RT carry-over contributes to congruence sequence effects in masked priming...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse, Matthias Rudolf, Rico Fischer
Cognitive control processes enable us to act flexibly in a world posing ever-changing demands on our cognitive system. To study cognitive control, conflict tasks and especially congruency sequence effects have been regarded as a fruitful tool. However, for the last decade a dispute has arisen whether or not congruency sequence effects are indeed a valid measure of cognitive control processes. This debate has led to the development of increasingly complex paradigms involving numerous, intricately designed experimental conditions which are aimed at excluding low-level, associative learning mechanisms like feature binding as an alternative explanation for the emergence of congruency sequence effects...
November 7, 2016: Psychological Research
Harun Karimpur, Kai Hamburger
Spatial representations are a result of multisensory information integration. More recent findings suggest that the multisensory information processing of a scene can be facilitated when paired with a semantically congruent auditory signal. This congruency effect was taken as evidence that audio-visual integration occurs for complex scenes. As navigation in our environment consists of a seamless integration of complex sceneries, a fundamental question arises: how is human landmark-based wayfinding affected by multimodality? In order to address this question, two experiments were conducted in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jieyu Wu, Yunen Lin, Xinming He, Haihong Yang, Ping He, Xinge Fu, Guangqiu Li, Xia Gu
BACKGROUND: The screening of ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase(ROS1) fusion rearrangement might be potentially beneficial for an effective therapy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the three main ROS1 rearrangement detection methods have limitations, and no routine protocol for the detection of ROS1 rearrangement in NSCLC is available. In this study, our aims were to compare immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in their ability to detect ROS1 rearrangement in NSCLC, and discuss the clinical characteristics and histopathology of the patients with ROS1 rearrangement...
2016: BMC Cancer
John M Vasudevan, Andrew Logan, Rebecca Shultz, Jeffrey J Koval, Eugene Y Roh, Michael Fredericson
Aim. The purpose of this pilot study is to use surface electromyography to determine an individual athlete's typical muscle onset activation sequence when performing a golf or tennis forward swing and to use the method to assess to what degree the sequence is reproduced with common conditioning exercises and a machine designed for this purpose. Methods. Data for 18 healthy male subjects were collected for 15 muscles of the trunk and lower extremities. Data were filtered and processed to determine the average onset of muscle activation for each motion...
2016: Journal of Sports Medicine (Hindawi Publishing Corporation)
Natália S Costa, Tatiana C A Pinto, Vânia L C Merquior, Luciana F S Castro, Filomena S P da Rocha, Jaqueline M Morais, José M Peralta, Lúcia M Teixeira
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains as an important cause of community-acquired bacterial infections, and the nasopharynx of asymptomatic carriers is the major reservoir of this microorganism. Pneumococcal strains of serotype 14 and serogroup 9 are among the most frequently isolated from both asymptomatic carriers and patients with invasive disease living in Brazil. Internationally disseminated clones belonging to such serotypes have been associated with the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in our setting, highlighting the need for epidemiological tracking of these isolates...
2016: PloS One
Wally Smith, Frank Dignum, Liz Sonenberg
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have long drawn insights and evidence from stage magic about human perceptual and attentional errors. We present a complementary analysis of conjuring tricks that seeks to understand the experience of impossibility that they produce. Our account is first motivated by insights about the constructional aspects of conjuring drawn from magicians' instructional texts. A view is then presented of the logical nature of impossibility as an unresolvable contradiction between a perception-supported belief about a situation and a memory-supported expectation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel R Westfall, Shih-Chun Kao, Mark R Scudder, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Karen S Sarkisyan, Dmitry A Bolotin, Margarita V Meer, Dinara R Usmanova, Alexander S Mishin, George V Sharonov, Dmitry N Ivankov, Nina G Bozhanova, Mikhail S Baranov, Onuralp Soylemez, Natalya S Bogatyreva, Peter K Vlasov, Evgeny S Egorov, Maria D Logacheva, Alexey S Kondrashov, Dmitry M Chudakov, Ekaterina V Putintseva, Ilgar Z Mamedov, Dan S Tawfik, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Fyodor A Kondrashov
Fitness landscapes depict how genotypes manifest at the phenotypic level and form the basis of our understanding of many areas of biology, yet their properties remain elusive. Previous studies have analysed specific genes, often using their function as a proxy for fitness, experimentally assessing the effect on function of single mutations and their combinations in a specific sequence or in different sequences. However, systematic high-throughput studies of the local fitness landscape of an entire protein have not yet been reported...
19, 2016: Nature
Lucas R Forti, William P Costa, Lucas B Martins, Carlos H L Nunes-de-Almeida, Luís Felipe Toledo
BACKGROUND: Many amphibian species are negatively affected by habitat change due to anthropogenic activities. Populations distributed over modified landscapes may be subject to local extinction or may be relegated to the remaining-likely isolated and possibly degraded-patches of available habitat. Isolation without gene flow could lead to variability in phenotypic traits owing to differences in local selective pressures such as environmental structure, microclimate, or site-specific species assemblages...
2016: PeerJ
Elger Abrahamse, Marit Ruitenberg, Wout Duthoo, Bernard Sabbe, Manuel Morrens, Jean-Philippe van Dijck
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive control impairments have been suggested to be a critical component in the overall cognitive deficits observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Here, we zoom in on a specific function of cognitive control, conflict adaptation. Abnormal neural activity patterns have been observed for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in core conflict adaptation areas such as anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex. On the one hand, this strongly indicates that conflict adaptation is affected...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Ningxin Wang, Sisi Jia, Heng Xu, Yong Liu, Dawei Huang
Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carlo Fantoni, Sara Rigutti, Walter Gerbino
Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions...
2016: PeerJ
Michael J Larson, Peter E Clayson, C Brock Kirwan, Daniel H Weissman
The congruency effect in Stroop-like tasks (i.e., increased response time and reduced accuracy in incongruent relative to congruent trials) is often smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent. This congruency sequence effect (CSE) is thought to reflect cognitive control processes that shift attention to the target and/or modulate the response engendered by the distracter differently after incongruent relative to congruent trials. The neural signatures of CSEs are therefore usually attributed to cognitive control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli...
June 2016: Psychophysiology
Michael J Larson, Peter E Clayson, Cierra M Keith, Isaac J Hunt, Dawson W Hedges, Brent L Nielsen, Vaughn R A Call
Older adults display alterations in neural reflections of conflict-related processing. We examined response times (RTs), error rates, and event-related potential (ERP; N2 and P3 components) indices of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects) a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency influences current-trial performance, along with post-error slowing, correct-related negativity (CRN), error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in 65 healthy older adults and 94 healthy younger adults...
March 2016: Biological Psychology
Julia Englert, Dirk Wentura
According to several recent articles, attentional processing seems to be modulated by the proximity of one's own hand to a stimulus. Weidler and Abrams (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 462-469, 2014) found a significant reduction of the Eriksen flanker effect when the stimuli were presented close to the participants' hands. They interpreted this as evidence for stronger cognitive control near the hands. Using a near-by hands manipulation intended to vary distance while keeping posture of the hands constant, we found a modulation of the congruency sequence effect (CSE or Gratton effect), i...
January 19, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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