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Attentional conflict adaptation

Renée C Firman
Males and females rarely have identical evolutionary interests over reproduction, and when the fitness of both sexes is dependent upon paternity outcomes, sexual conflict over fertilization is inevitable. In internal fertilizers, the female tract is a formidable selective force on the number and integrity of sperm that reach the egg. Selection on sperm quality is intensified when females mate multiply and rival males are forced to compete for fertilizations. While male adaptations to sperm competition have been well documented (e...
March 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Victor Ng, Allyn Walsh, Nandani de Silva, Eleni Politi, Heather Grusauskas
While all physicians must continue to learn new knowledge through their careers, their post-training continuing professional development (CPD) has received less attention. Problems include lack of support for physicians, frequent deviations from best practices such as mandatory participation, focus on community need, and clear conflicts of interest amongst providers. Additionally, specialists from other disciplines catering to different patient populations often provide CPD for family doctors. The Working Party on Education of the World Organisation of Family Doctors (WONCA) sought to develop global standards in CPD for family doctors...
February 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
Romain Pigeault, Manon Villa
The transmission of Plasmodium within a vertebrate host population is strongly associated with the life history traits of its vector. Therefore the effect of malaria infection on mosquito fecundity and longevity has traditionally received a lot of attention. Several species of malaria parasites reduce mosquito fecundity, nevertheless almost all of the studies have focused only on the first gonotrophic cycle. Yet, during their lifetime, female mosquitoes go through several gonotrophic cycles, which raises the question of whether they are able to compensate the fecundity costs induced by the parasite...
2018: PloS One
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie J Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Anna-Maria Holfert, Denis O'Hora, Maja Dshemuchadse
Cognitive control and self-control are often used as interchangeable terms. Both terms refer to the ability to pursue long-term goals, but the types of controlled behavior that are typically associated with these terms differ, at least superficially. Cognitive control is observed in the control of attention and the overcoming of habitual responses, while self-control is observed in resistance to short-term impulses and temptations. Evidence from clinical studies and neuroimaging studies suggests that below these superficial differences, common control process (e...
January 2018: Acta Psychologica
Hause Lin, Blair Saunders, Cendri A Hutcherson, Michael Inzlicht
Many everyday choices are based on personal, subjective preferences. When choosing between two options, we often feel conflicted, especially when trading off costs and benefits occurring at different times (e.g., saving for later versus spending now). Although previous work has investigated the neurophysiological basis of conflict during inhibitory control tasks, less is known about subjective conflict resulting from competing subjective preferences. In this pre-registered study, we investigated subjective conflict during intertemporal choice, whereby participants chose between smaller immediate versus larger delayed rewards (e...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
Elaine Wittenberg, Haley Buller, Betty Ferrell, Marianna Koczywas, Tami Borneman
OBJECTIVES: To describe a family caregiver communication typology and demonstrate identifiable communication challenges among four caregiver types: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Lone. DATA SOURCES: Case studies based on interviews with oncology family caregivers. CONCLUSION: Each caregiver type demonstrates unique communication challenges that can be identified. Recognition of a specific caregiver type will help nurses to adapt their own communication to provide tailored support...
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Joshua M Carlson, Jacob Aday
Humans are social beings that often interact in multi-individual environments. As such, we are frequently confronted with nonverbal social signals, including eye-gaze direction, from multiple individuals. Yet, the factors that allow for the prioritisation of certain gaze cues over others are poorly understood. Using a modified conflicting gaze paradigm, we tested the hypothesis that fearful gaze would be favoured amongst competing gaze cues. We further hypothesised that this effect is related to the increased sclera exposure, which is characteristic of fearful expressions...
October 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Øystein Varpe
Seasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism's full life...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Curtis D Von Gunten, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Bruce D Bartholow
Reactive cognitive control refers to a complementary set of cognitive operations by which individuals monitor for and detect the presence of goal-interfering conflict (i.e., conflict monitoring/evaluation) and, subsequently, initiate attention-focusing and response selection processes to bolster goal-directed action in the face of such conflict (regulative control). The purpose of the current study was to characterize the nature of conflict adaptation in both components of this dynamic process across sequences of trials and, more broadly, across time as participants complete a cognitive control task...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Elvis E Tarkang, Margaret Kweku, Francis B Zotor
Dissemination of research findings through the publication of one's work or a group of contributors is an important part of the research process, as this allows the passing on of benefits to a much wider community. In whatever evocative form this dissemination may take, the onus lies on the author(s) to ensure adherence to the code of ethics as it pertains to the integrity of the information being put out. We publish because we want our findings to be adapted into practice and application, or in some cases may be relevant to policy makers in decision-making...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Jason Ridgway, Louise Hickson, Christopher Lind
BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment is prevalent in older adults. Motivation is important in people's choice to seek help for their hearing and whether to adopt or not adopt hearing aids. PURPOSE: To investigate associations between sociodemographic and audiometric characteristics and autonomous and controlled motivation among a sample of hearing help-seekers. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative approach was taken for this cross-sectional cohort study...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Laura Chabrolles, Gérard Coureaud, Nicolas Boyer, Nicolas Mathevon, Marilyn Beauchaud
Animals routinely receive information through different sensory channels, and inputs from a modality may modulate the perception and behavioural reaction to others. In spite of their potential adaptive value, the behavioural correlates of this cross-sensory modulation have been poorly investigated. Due to their predator life, crocodilians deal with decisional conflicts emerging from concurrent stimuli. By testing young Crocodylus niloticus with sounds in the absence or presence of chemical stimuli, we show that (i) the prandial (feeding) state modulates the responsiveness of the animal to a congruent, i...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Kevin Fiscella, Larry Mauksch, Thomas Bodenheimer, Eduardo Salas
BACKGROUND: Team science has been applied to many sectors including health care. Yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the application of team science to developing and sustaining primary care teams. Application of team science to primary care requires adaptation of core team elements to different types of primary care teams. CORE TEAM ELEMENTS: Six elements of teams are particularly relevant to primary care: practice conditions that support or hinder effective teamwork; team cognition, including shared understanding of team goals, roles, and how members will work together as a team; leadership and coaching, including mutual feedback among members that promotes teamwork and moves the team closer to achieving its goals; cooperation supported by an emotionally safe climate that supports expression and resolution of conflict and builds team trust and cohesion; coordination, including adoption of processes that optimize efficient performance of interdependent activities among team members; and communication, particularly regular, recursive team cycles involving planning, action, and debriefing...
July 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Freddie Ssengooba, Justine Namakula, Vincent Kawooya, Suzanne Fustukian
BACKGROUND: In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. METHOD: This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
Klaas Bombeke, Zachary D Langford, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
A frequently-studied phenomenon in cognitive-control research is conflict adaptation, or the finding that congruency effects are smaller after incongruent trials. Prominent cognitive control accounts suggest that this adaptation effect can be explained by transient conflict-induced modulations of selective attention, reducing congruency effects on the next trial. In the present study, we investigated these possible attentional modulations in four experiments using the Stroop and Flanker tasks, dissociating possible enhancements of task-relevant information from suppression of task-irrelevant information by varying when this information was presented...
2017: PloS One
Saji S Gopalan, Ashis Das, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS) in Asia and the Middle-East contribute significantly to global maternal and neonatal deaths. This systematic review explored maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services usage and determinants in FCS in Asia and the Middle-East to inform policy on health service provision in these challenging settings. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using a standardised protocol. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and selected development agency websites were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
I Ronga, P Sarasso, F Raineri, J-R Duhamel, C Becchio, M Neppi-Modona
Wedge prisms shifting the visual field laterally create a mismatch between the straight ahead position signalled by vision and that encoded by extraretinal and head-on-trunk proprioceptive information. Short-term adaptation to left-deviating prisms in normal subjects results in a visuomotor attentional bias towards the right-hand side (aftereffect). Prismatic adaptation (PA) is usually induced through a training consisting in repeated ballistic movements of the dominant arm towards visual targets, while participants are wearing prismatic goggles...
June 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Miguel López-Botet, Carlos Vilches, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Aura Muntasell, Aldi Pupuleku, José Yélamos, Julio Pascual, Marta Crespo
Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. Several studies have addressed the impact of this variable in kidney transplant with conflicting conclusions; yet, increasing evidence supports that alloantibody-mediated NK cell activation via FcγRIIIA (CD16) contributes to rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Leontine Groen van de Ven, Carolien Smits, Glyn Elwyn, Marijke Span, Jan Jukema, Jan Eefsting, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the process elements of decision-making for dementia, in order to enrich a model to facilitate shared decision-making for professionals working with people with dementia and their informal caregivers. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study based on secondary analysis of 117 interviews from 23 care networks consisting of people with dementia, their informal caregivers and professionals. Findings were compared to an existing model of collaborative deliberation...
February 4, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
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