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Attentional conflict adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899907/context-specific-proportion-congruency-effects-an-episodic-learning-account-and-computational-model
#1
James R Schmidt
In the Stroop task, participants identify the print color of color words. The congruency effect is the observation that response times and errors are increased when the word and color are incongruent (e.g., the word "red" in green ink) relative to when they are congruent (e.g., "red" in red). The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the finding that congruency effects are reduced when trials are mostly incongruent rather than mostly congruent. This PC effect can be context-specific. For instance, if trials are mostly incongruent when presented in one location and mostly congruent when presented in another location, the congruency effect is smaller for the former location...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867948/supra-therapeutic-plasma-concentrations-of-haloperidol-induce-moderate-inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-interleukin-8-release-in-human-monocytes
#2
Herbert Bosshart
BACKGROUND: The clinical use of antipsychotics and mood-stabilizing drugs with proven efficacy is largely determined by the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events and routine clinical chemistry and haematology data, which together define the safety and tolerability profile of these psychopharmaceuticals. Whereas the effects of mood-stabilizing drugs on functional properties of blood cells have been poorly investigated, the effects of antipsychotics have received more attention...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846717/-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones-at-the-tumor-cell-surface-and-in-the-extracellular-space
#3
V Brychtová, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones are stress induced proteins capable of translocation into cytosol, cell membrane or extracellular space. The chaperones are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum particularly under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions, while their constitutive extracellular expression was found in many cancers. Cell surface or extracellular endoplasmic reticulum chaperones take up distinct functions compared to their endoplasmic reticulum resident variants because they act like multifunctional receptors and thus affect cell signaling and proliferation...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769224/barriers-and-facilitators-to-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drug-use-in-patients-with-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-a-qualitative-theory-based-study
#4
Marieke Voshaar, Johanna Vriezekolk, Sandra van Dulmen, Bart van den Bemt, Mart van de Laar
BACKGROUND: Although disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the cornerstone of treatment for inflammatory rheumatic diseases, medication adherence to DMARDs is often suboptimal. Effective interventions to improve adherence to DMARDs are lacking, and new targets are needed to improve adherence. The aim of the present study was to explore patients' barriers and facilitators of optimal DMARD use. These factors might be used as targets for adherence interventions. METHODS: In a mixed method study design, patients (n = 120) with inflammatory arthritis (IA) completed a questionnaire based on an existing adapted Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify facilitators and barriers of DMARD use...
October 21, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737782/how-effortful-is-cognitive-control-insights-from-a-novel-method-measuring-single-trial-evoked-beta-adrenergic-cardiac-reactivity
#5
Mithras Kuipers, Michael Richter, Daan Scheepers, Maarten A Immink, Elio Sjak-Shie, Henk van Steenbergen
The ability to adjust attentional focus to varying levels of task demands depends on the adaptive recruitment of cognitive control processes. The present study investigated for the first time whether the mobilization of cognitive control during response-conflict trials in a flanker task is associated with effort-related sympathetic activity as measured by changes in the RZ-interval at a single-trial level, thus providing an alternative to the pre-ejection period (PEP) which can only be reliably measured in ensemble-averaged data...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729021/concerns-attitudes-beliefs-and-information-seeking-practices-with-respect-to-nutrition-related-issues-a-qualitative-study-in-french-pregnant-women
#6
Clélia M Bianchi, Jean-François Huneau, Gaëlle Le Goff, Eric O Verger, François Mariotti, Patricia Gurviez
BACKGROUND: From a life course perspective, pregnancy leads to a rise in nutrition awareness and an increase in information flow in favour of adopting healthier eating behaviours. This qualitative study was designed to better understand the determinants of eating behaviours in French pregnant women by focusing on their concerns, attitudes and beliefs and their nutrition-related information seeking practices. METHODS: Seven focus groups were conducted, involving a total of 40 French pregnant women...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585071/proportion-congruency-and-practice-a-contingency-learning-account-of-asymmetric-list-shifting-effects
#7
James R Schmidt
Performance is impaired when a distracting stimulus is incongruent with the target stimulus (e.g., "green" printed in red). This congruency effect is decreased when the proportion of incongruent trials is increased, termed the proportion congruent effect. This effect is typically interpreted in terms of the adaptation of attention in response to conflict. In contrast, the contingency account argues that the effect is driven by the learning of predictive relationships between words and responses. In a recent report, Abrahamse, Duthoo, Notebaert, and Risko (2013) demonstrated larger changes in the magnitude of the proportion congruent effect when switching from a mostly congruent list to a mostly incongruent list, relative to the reverse order...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511746/social-exclusion-modulates-priorities-of-attention-allocation-in-cognitive-control
#8
Mengsi Xu, Zhiai Li, Liuting Diao, Lijie Zhang, Jiajin Yuan, Cody Ding, Dong Yang
Many studies have investigated how exclusion affects cognitive control and have reported inconsistent results. However, these studies usually treated cognitive control as a unitary concept, whereas it actually involved two main sub-processes: conflict detection and response implementation. Furthermore, existing studies have focused primarily on exclusion's effects on conscious cognitive control, while recent studies have shown the existence of unconscious cognitive control. Therefore, the present study investigated whether and how exclusion affects the sub-processes underlying conscious and unconscious cognitive control differently...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445036/disentangling-cognition-and-emotion-in-older-adults-the-role-of-cognitive-control-and-mental-health-in-emotional-conflict-adaptation
#9
Nathan C Hantke, Anett Gyurak, Katie Van Moorleghem, Jill D Waring, Maheen M Adamson, Ruth O'Hara, Sherry A Beaudreau
OBJECTIVE: Recent research suggests cognition has a bidirectional relationship with emotional processing in older adults, yet the relationship is still poorly understood. We aimed to examine a potential relationship between late-life cognitive function, mental health symptoms, and emotional conflict adaptation. We hypothesized that worse cognitive control abilities would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. We further hypothesized that a higher severity of mental health symptoms would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation...
July 22, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389032/eating-behaviour-associated-with-differences-in-conflict-adaptation-for-food-pictures
#10
Margaret Husted, Adrian P Banks, Ellen Seiss
OBJECTIVE: The goal conflict model of eating (Stroebe, Mensink, Aarts, Schut, & Kruglanski, 2008) proposes differences in eating behaviour result from peoples' experience of holding conflicting goals of eating enjoyment and weight maintenance. However, little is understood about the relationship between eating behaviour and the cognitive processes involved in conflict. This study aims to investigate associations between eating behaviour traits and cognitive conflict processes, specifically the application of cognitive control when processing distracting food pictures...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317307/bergmann-s-rule-adaptation-and-thermoregulation-in-arctic-animals-conflicting-perspectives-from-physiology-evolutionary-biology-and-physical-anthropology-after-world-war-ii
#11
Joel B Hagen
Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists...
June 17, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295071/the-interaction-between-emotion-and-executive-control-comparison-between-visual-auditory-and-tactile-modalities
#12
Tom Fruchtman-Steinbok, Yael Salzer, Avishai Henik, Noga Cohen
The reciprocal connections between emotion and attention are vital for adaptive behaviour. Previous results demonstrated that the behavioural effects of emotional stimuli on performance are attenuated when executive control is recruited. The current research studied whether this attenuation is modality dependent. In two experiments, negative and neutral pictures were presented shortly before a visual, tactile, or auditory target in a Simon task. All three modalities demonstrated a Simon effect, a conflict adaptation effect and an emotional interference effect...
June 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265562/achieving-research-impact-through-co-creation-in-community-based-health-services-literature-review-and-case-study
#13
Trisha Greenhalgh, Claire Jackson, Sara Shaw, Tina Janamian
POLICY POINTS: Co-creation-collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders-is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development. It has potential for "moving beyond the ivory towers" to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community-academic partnerships. Principles of successful co-creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process...
June 2016: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256933/factors-of-depressive-symptoms-among-elementary-middle-and-high-school-students
#14
Hyo Jin Lim, Sung Suk Chung, Kyoung Hwa Joung
Little attention has been paid to the individual, family, friends, and school profiles of depressed children during the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study aimed to describe the evolution of factors associated with depressive symptoms among elementary, middle, and high school students. This was a secondary analytic study using three datasets of a cohort of Korean children or adolescents. Children or adolescents with depressed symptoms reported lower self-esteem, peer attachment, academic performance, and adaptability in school...
June 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149295/contextual-within-trial-adaptation-of-cognitive-control-evidence-from-the-combination-of-conflict-tasks
#15
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade
It is assumed that we recruit cognitive control (i.e., attentional adjustment and/or inhibition) to resolve 2 conflicts at a time, such as driving toward a red traffic light and taking care of a near-by ambulance car. A few studies have addressed this issue by combining a Simon task (that required responding with left or right key-press to a stimulus presented on the left or right side of the screen) with either a Stroop task (that required identifying the color of color words) or a Flanker task (that required identifying the target character among flankers)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148628/grounding-cognitive-control-in-associative-learning
#16
Elger Abrahamse, Senne Braem, Wim Notebaert, Tom Verguts
Cognitive control covers a broad range of cognitive functions, but its research and theories typically remain tied to a single domain. Here we outline and review an associative learning perspective on cognitive control in which control emerges from associative networks containing perceptual, motor, and goal representations. Our review identifies 3 trending research themes that are shared between the domains of conflict adaptation, task switching, response inhibition, and attentional control: Cognitive control is context-specific, can operate in the absence of awareness, and is modulated by reward...
July 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073974/state-anxiety-impairs-attentional-control-when-other-sources-of-control-are-minimal
#17
Robert W Booth, Müjde Peker
Research suggests anxiety impairs attentional control; however, this effect has been unreliable. We argue that anxiety's impairment of attentional control is subtle, and can be obscured by other non-emotional sources of control. We demonstrate this by examining conflict adaptation, an enhancement in attentional control following a trial with high conflict between distracter and target stimuli. Participants completed a Stroop task featuring incongruent (e.g. RED in green font; high-conflict) and control (e.g...
April 13, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972824/emotional-modulation-of-interval-timing-and-time-perception
#18
REVIEW
Jessica I Lake, Kevin S LaBar, Warren H Meck
Like other senses, our perception of time is not veridical, but rather, is modulated by changes in environmental context. Anecdotal experiences suggest that emotions can be powerful modulators of time perception; nevertheless, the functional and neural mechanisms underlying emotion-induced temporal distortions remain unclear. Widely accepted pacemaker-accumulator models of time perception suggest that changes in arousal and attention have unique influences on temporal judgments and contribute to emotional distortions of time perception...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963846/helping-motivation-and-well-being-of-chronic-pain-couples-a-daily-diary-study
#19
Sara Kindt, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Tom Loeys, Liesbet Goubert
Receiving support from a romantic partner may yield benefits for individuals with chronic pain (ICPs), but may also carry unintended side effects. The conditions under which partner support provision yields (mal)adaptive effects deserve greater attention. Grounded in Self-determination theory, partners may provide help for autonomous or volitional (eg, enjoyment, full commitment) or rather controlled or pressured (eg, avoiding guilt and criticism) motives. This study examined associations between day-to-day fluctuations in partners' type of helping motivation and several outcomes, among partners and ICPs...
July 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941618/beyond-the-medial-regions-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-regulation-of-fear-and-anxiety
#20
REVIEW
Yoshiro Shiba, Andrea M Santangelo, Angela C Roberts
Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses but if left unregulated, or inappropriately regulated, they become biologically and socially maladaptive. Dysregulated emotions are manifest in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions but the external expression gives little indication of the underlying causes, which are inevitably multi-determined. To go beyond the overt phenotype and begin to understand the causal mechanisms leading to conditions characterized by anxiety and disorders of mood, it is necessary to identify the base psychological processes that have become dysregulated, and map them on to their associated neural substrates...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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