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Attentional conflict adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107773/midfrontal-theta-and-pupil-dilation-parametrically-track-subjective-conflict-but-also-surprise-during-intertemporal-choice
#1
Hause Lin, Blair Saunders, Cendri A Hutcherson, Michael Inzlicht
Many everyday choices are based on personal, subjective preferences. When choosing between two options, we often feel conflicted, especially when trading off costs and benefits occurring at different times (e.g., saving for later versus spending now). Although previous work has investigated the neurophysiological basis of conflict during inhibitory control tasks, less is known about subjective conflict resulting from competing subjective preferences. In this pre-registered study, we investigated subjective conflict during intertemporal choice, whereby participants chose between smaller immediate versus larger delayed rewards (e...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107528/understanding-family-caregiver-communication-to-provide-family-centered-cancer-care
#2
REVIEW
Elaine Wittenberg, Haley Buller, Betty Ferrell, Marianna Koczywas, Tami Borneman
OBJECTIVES: To describe a family caregiver communication typology and demonstrate identifiable communication challenges among four caregiver types: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Lone. DATA SOURCES: Case studies based on interviews with oncology family caregivers. CONCLUSION: Each caregiver type demonstrates unique communication challenges that can be identified. Recognition of a specific caregiver type will help nurses to adapt their own communication to provide tailored support...
October 26, 2017: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047315/in-the-presence-of-conflicting-gaze-cues-fearful-expression-and-eye-size-guide-attention
#3
Joshua M Carlson, Jacob Aday
Humans are social beings that often interact in multi-individual environments. As such, we are frequently confronted with nonverbal social signals, including eye-gaze direction, from multiple individuals. Yet, the factors that allow for the prioritisation of certain gaze cues over others are poorly understood. Using a modified conflicting gaze paradigm, we tested the hypothesis that fearful gaze would be favoured amongst competing gaze cues. We further hypothesised that this effect is related to the increased sclera exposure, which is characteristic of fearful expressions...
October 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045732/life-history-adaptations-to-seasonality
#4
Øystein Varpe
Seasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism's full life...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960342/temporal-dynamics-of-reactive-cognitive-control-as-revealed-by-event-related-brain-potentials
#5
Curtis D Von Gunten, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Bruce D Bartholow
Reactive cognitive control refers to a complementary set of cognitive operations by which individuals monitor for and detect the presence of goal-interfering conflict (i.e., conflict monitoring/evaluation) and, subsequently, initiate attention-focusing and response selection processes to bolster goal-directed action in the face of such conflict (regulative control). The purpose of the current study was to characterize the nature of conflict adaptation in both components of this dynamic process across sequences of trials and, more broadly, across time as participants complete a cognitive control task...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748064/publication-practices-and-responsible-authorship-a-review-article
#6
REVIEW
Elvis E Tarkang, Margaret Kweku, Francis B Zotor
Dissemination of research findings through the publication of one's work or a group of contributors is an important part of the research process, as this allows the passing on of benefits to a much wider community. In whatever evocative form this dissemination may take, the onus lies on the author(s) to ensure adherence to the code of ethics as it pertains to the integrity of the information being put out. We publish because we want our findings to be adapted into practice and application, or in some cases may be relevant to policy makers in decision-making...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722647/what-factors-are-associated-with-autonomous-and-controlled-motivation-for-hearing-help-seekers
#7
Jason Ridgway, Louise Hickson, Christopher Lind
BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment is prevalent in older adults. Motivation is important in people's choice to seek help for their hearing and whether to adopt or not adopt hearing aids. PURPOSE: To investigate associations between sociodemographic and audiometric characteristics and autonomous and controlled motivation among a sample of hearing help-seekers. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative approach was taken for this cross-sectional cohort study...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680686/cross-sensory-modulation-in-a-future-top-predator-the-young-nile-crocodile
#8
Laura Chabrolles, Gérard Coureaud, Nicolas Boyer, Nicolas Mathevon, Marilyn Beauchaud
Animals routinely receive information through different sensory channels, and inputs from a modality may modulate the perception and behavioural reaction to others. In spite of their potential adaptive value, the behavioural correlates of this cross-sensory modulation have been poorly investigated. Due to their predator life, crocodilians deal with decisional conflicts emerging from concurrent stimuli. By testing young Crocodylus niloticus with sounds in the absence or presence of chemical stimuli, we show that (i) the prandial (feeding) state modulates the responsiveness of the animal to a congruent, i...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648222/improving-care-teams-functioning-recommendations-from-team-science
#9
Kevin Fiscella, Larry Mauksch, Thomas Bodenheimer, Eduardo Salas
BACKGROUND: Team science has been applied to many sectors including health care. Yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the application of team science to developing and sustaining primary care teams. Application of team science to primary care requires adaptation of core team elements to different types of primary care teams. CORE TEAM ELEMENTS: Six elements of teams are particularly relevant to primary care: practice conditions that support or hinder effective teamwork; team cognition, including shared understanding of team goals, roles, and how members will work together as a team; leadership and coaching, including mutual feedback among members that promotes teamwork and moves the team closer to achieving its goals; cooperation supported by an emotionally safe climate that supports expression and resolution of conflict and builds team trust and cohesion; coordination, including adoption of processes that optimize efficient performance of interdependent activities among team members; and communication, particularly regular, recursive team cycles involving planning, action, and debriefing...
July 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610578/sub-national-assessment-of-aid-effectiveness-a-case-study-of-post-conflict-districts-in-uganda
#10
Freddie Ssengooba, Justine Namakula, Vincent Kawooya, Suzanne Fustukian
BACKGROUND: In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. METHOD: This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410395/the-role-of-temporal-predictability-for-early-attentional-adjustments-after-conflict
#11
Klaas Bombeke, Zachary D Langford, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
A frequently-studied phenomenon in cognitive-control research is conflict adaptation, or the finding that congruency effects are smaller after incongruent trials. Prominent cognitive control accounts suggest that this adaptation effect can be explained by transient conflict-induced modulations of selective attention, reducing congruency effects on the next trial. In the present study, we investigated these possible attentional modulations in four experiments using the Stroop and Flanker tasks, dissociating possible enhancements of task-relevant information from suppression of task-irrelevant information by varying when this information was presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298198/maternal-and-neonatal-service-usage-and-determinants-in-fragile-and-conflict-affected-situations-a-systematic-review-of-asia-and-the-middle-east
#12
REVIEW
Saji S Gopalan, Ashis Das, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS) in Asia and the Middle-East contribute significantly to global maternal and neonatal deaths. This systematic review explored maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services usage and determinants in FCS in Asia and the Middle-East to inform policy on health service provision in these challenging settings. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using a standardised protocol. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and selected development agency websites were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285406/leftward-oculomotor-prismatic-training-induces-a-rightward-bias-in-normal-subjects
#13
I Ronga, P Sarasso, F Raineri, J-R Duhamel, C Becchio, M Neppi-Modona
Wedge prisms shifting the visual field laterally create a mismatch between the straight ahead position signalled by vision and that encoded by extraretinal and head-on-trunk proprioceptive information. Short-term adaptation to left-deviating prisms in normal subjects results in a visuomotor attentional bias towards the right-hand side (aftereffect). Prismatic adaptation (PA) is usually induced through a training consisting in repeated ballistic movements of the dominant arm towards visual targets, while participants are wearing prismatic goggles...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261220/dual-role-of-natural-killer-cells-on-graft-rejection-and-control-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-renal-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Miguel López-Botet, Carlos Vilches, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Aura Muntasell, Aldi Pupuleku, José Yélamos, Julio Pascual, Marta Crespo
Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. Several studies have addressed the impact of this variable in kidney transplant with conflicting conclusions; yet, increasing evidence supports that alloantibody-mediated NK cell activation via FcγRIIIA (CD16) contributes to rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238420/recognizing-decision-needs-first-step-for-collaborative-deliberation-in-dementia-care-networks
#15
Leontine Groen van de Ven, Carolien Smits, Glyn Elwyn, Marijke Span, Jan Jukema, Jan Eefsting, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the process elements of decision-making for dementia, in order to enrich a model to facilitate shared decision-making for professionals working with people with dementia and their informal caregivers. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study based on secondary analysis of 117 interviews from 23 care networks consisting of people with dementia, their informal caregivers and professionals. Findings were compared to an existing model of collaborative deliberation...
February 4, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056973/conceptualizing-the-dynamics-of-workplace-stress-a-systems-based-study-of-nursing-aides
#16
Arif Jetha, Laura Kernan, Alicia Kurowski
BACKGROUND: Workplace stress is a complex phenomenon that may often be dynamic and evolving over time. Traditional linear modeling does not allow representation of recursive feedback loops among the implicated factors. The objective of this study was to develop a multidimensional system dynamics model (SDM) of workplace stress among nursing aides and conduct simulations to illustrate how changes in psychosocial perceptions and workplace factors might influence workplace stress over time...
January 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977230/time-out-for-conflict-monitoring-theory-preventing-rhythmic-biases-eliminates-the-list-level-proportion-congruent-effect
#17
James R Schmidt
The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the observation that congruency effects are smaller when most trials are incongruent rather than congruent. The list-level PC (LLPC) effect is the finding that a PC effect can transfer from biased inducer items to unbiased diagnostic items. Such effects are generally interpreted as resulting from conflict monitoring and attentional adaptation. An alternative view proposes that PC effects result from simple learning biases unrelated to conflict. The temporal learning account proposes that LLPC effects stem from a different task rhythm in the mostly congruent and mostly incongruent conditions...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977222/preserving-guilt-in-the-age-of-psychology-the-curious-career-of-o-hobart-mowrer
#18
Corbin Page
O. Hobart Mowrer had one of the most productive and curious careers of any psychologist in the 20th century, despite struggling with severe mental illness and anxiety about his sexuality. Early in his career, he was one of the country's leading experimental psychologists. During the mid-1940s, he became interested in religion and argued that anxiety was caused by repressed guilt that came from real wrongdoing. By the late 1950s, he had abandoned mainstream psychology, arguing that religion had been corrupted by its embrace of psychology and psychiatry...
February 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899907/context-specific-proportion-congruency-effects-an-episodic-learning-account-and-computational-model
#19
James R Schmidt
In the Stroop task, participants identify the print color of color words. The congruency effect is the observation that response times and errors are increased when the word and color are incongruent (e.g., the word "red" in green ink) relative to when they are congruent (e.g., "red" in red). The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the finding that congruency effects are reduced when trials are mostly incongruent rather than mostly congruent. This PC effect can be context-specific. For instance, if trials are mostly incongruent when presented in one location and mostly congruent when presented in another location, the congruency effect is smaller for the former location...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867948/supra-therapeutic-plasma-concentrations-of-haloperidol-induce-moderate-inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-interleukin-8-release-in-human-monocytes
#20
Herbert Bosshart
BACKGROUND: The clinical use of antipsychotics and mood-stabilizing drugs with proven efficacy is largely determined by the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events and routine clinical chemistry and haematology data, which together define the safety and tolerability profile of these psychopharmaceuticals. Whereas the effects of mood-stabilizing drugs on functional properties of blood cells have been poorly investigated, the effects of antipsychotics have received more attention...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
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