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Conflict adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777687/physiological-stress-responses-in-wild-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-in-the-western-ghats-southern-india
#1
Sreedhar Vijayakrishnan, Mavatur Ananda Kumar, G Umapathy, Vinod Kumar, Anindya Sinha
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769646/long-term-impacts-of-prenatal-synthetic-glucocorticoids-exposure-on-functional-brain-correlates-of-cognitive-monitoring-in-adolescence
#2
Liesa Ilg, Manousos Klados, Nina Alexander, Clemens Kirschbaum, Shu-Chen Li
The fetus is highly responsive to the level of glucocorticoids in the gestational environment. Perturbing glucocorticoids during fetal development could yield long-term consequences. Extending prior research about effects of prenatally exposed synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) on brain structural development during childhood, we investigated functional brain correlates of cognitive conflict monitoring in term-born adolescents, who were prenatally exposed to sGC. Relative to the comparison group, behavioral response consistency (indexed by lower reaction time variability) and a brain correlate of conflict monitoring (the N2 event-related potential) were reduced in the sGC exposed group...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765144/mind-wandering-and-task-focused-attention-erp-correlates
#3
Óscar F Gonçalves, Gabriel Rêgo, Tatiana Conde, Jorge Leite, Sandra Carvalho, Olívia Morgan Lapenta, Paulo S Boggio
Previous studies looking at how Mind Wandering (MW) impacts performance in distinct Focused Attention (FA) systems, using the Attention Network Task (ANT), showed that the presence of pure MW thoughts did not impact the overall performance of ANT (alert, orienting and conflict) performance. However, it still remains unclear if the lack of interference of MW in the ANT, reported at the behavioral level, has a neurophysiological correspondence. We hypothesize that a distinct cortical processing may be required to meet attentional demands during MW...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762876/constant-conflict-between-gypsy-ltr-retrotransposons-and-chh-methylation-within-a-stress-adapted-mangrove-genome
#4
Yushuai Wang, Weiqi Liang, Tian Tang
The evolutionary dynamics of the conflict between transposable elements (TEs) and their host genome remain elusive. This conflict will be intense in stress-adapted plants as stress can often reactivate TEs. Mangroves reduce TE load convergently in their adaptation to intertidal environments and thus provide a unique opportunity to address the host-TE conflict and its interaction with stress adaptation. Using the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata as a model, we investigated methylation and short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting patterns in relation to the abundance and age of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons...
May 15, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759920/dysphonia-perceived-control-and-psychosocial-distress-a-qualitative-study
#5
Stephanie Misono, Caroline Haut, Liza Meredith, Patricia A Frazier, Ali Stockness, Deirdre D Michael, Lisa Butcher, Eileen M Harwood
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine relationships between psychological factors, particularly perceived control, and voice symptoms in adults seeking treatment for a voice problem. METHODS: Semistructured interviews of adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia were conducted and transcribed. Follow-up interviews were conducted as needed for further information or clarification. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview content using inductive techniques...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756794/neurodevelopment-of-conflict-adaptation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#6
Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753459/infant-handling-in-bonobos-pan-paniscus-exploring-functional-hypotheses-and-the-relationship-to-oxytocin
#7
Klaree Boose, Frances White, Colin Brand, Audra Meinelt, Josh Snodgrass
Infant handling describes interactions between infants and non-maternal group members and is widespread across mammalian taxa. The expression of infant handling behaviors, defined as any affiliative or agonistic interaction between a group member and an infant, varies considerably among primate species. Several functional hypotheses may explain the adaptive value of infant handling including the Kin Selection hypothesis, which describes handling as a mechanism through which indirect fitness is increased and predicts a bias in handling behaviors directed toward related (genetic) infants; the Alliance Formation hypothesis, which describes handling as a social commodity and predicts females with infants will support handlers during conflict; and the Learning-to-Mother hypothesis, which describes handling as a mechanism through which handlers learn species-specific maternal behaviors and predicts that handling will occur most frequently in immature and nulliparous females...
May 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751059/the-relationship-between-conflict-awareness-and-behavioral-and-oscillatory-signatures-of-immediate-and-delayed-cognitive-control
#8
Jun Jiang, Camile M Correa, Jesse Geerts, Simon van Gaal
Cognitive control over conflict, mediated by the prefrontal cortex, is an important skill for successful decision-making. Although it has been shown that cognitive control may operate unconsciously, it has recently been proposed that control operations may be driven by the metacognitive awareness of conflict, e.g. arising from the feeling of task difficulty or the ease of action selection, and therefore crucially depends on conflict awareness. Behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) data are presented from 64 subjects performing a masked priming paradigm to test this hypothesis...
May 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750199/the-baltic-sea-as-a-time-machine-for-the-future-coastal-ocean
#9
REVIEW
Thorsten B H Reusch, Jan Dierking, Helen C Andersson, Erik Bonsdorff, Jacob Carstensen, Michele Casini, Mikolaj Czajkowski, Berit Hasler, Klaus Hinsby, Kari Hyytiäinen, Kerstin Johannesson, Seifeddine Jomaa, Veijo Jormalainen, Harri Kuosa, Sara Kurland, Linda Laikre, Brian R MacKenzie, Piotr Margonski, Frank Melzner, Daniel Oesterwind, Henn Ojaveer, Jens Christian Refsgaard, Annica Sandström, Gerald Schwarz, Karin Tonderski, Monika Winder, Marianne Zandersen
Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750022/longer-term-quality-of-life-following-major-trauma-age-only-significantly-affects-outcome-after-the-age-of-80-years
#10
Thomas Gross, Sabrina Morell, Felix Amsler
Aim: Against the background of conflicting data on the topic, this study aimed to determine the differences in longer-term patient outcomes following major trauma with regard to age. Materials and methods: A prospective trauma center survey of survivors of trauma (≥16 years) was carried out employing a New Injury Severity Score (NISS) ≥8 to investigate the influence of age on working capacity and several outcome scores, such as the trauma medical outcomes study Short Form-36 (physical component [PCS] and mental component [MCS]), the Euro Quality of Life (EuroQoL), or the Trauma Outcome Profile (TOP) at least 1 year following injury...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742490/prenatal-treatment-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-long-term-effects-of-excess-glucocorticoid-exposure
#11
Svetlana Lajic, Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström
Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone (DEX) has been in use since the mid-1980s and has proven effective at reducing virilization of external genitalia in affected girls. However, multiple experimental studies on animals and clinical studies on humans show that prenatal administration of glucocorticoids may cause unwanted adverse effects which have raised concerns about the long-term safety of the treatment. The long-term outcome of prenatal DEX treatment on cognition has been investigated, but the results are still conflicting...
May 9, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740348/could-sodium-chloride-be-an-environmental-trigger-for-immune-mediated-diseases-an-overview-of-the-experimental-and-clinical-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Eric Toussirot, Matthieu Béreau, Charline Vauchy, Philippe Saas
Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739337/colliding-ideals-an-interview-study-of-how-intervention-researchers-address-adherence-and-adaptations-in-replication-studies
#13
Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrika Förberg, Knut Sundell, Henna Hasson
BACKGROUND: For an intervention to be considered evidence-based, findings need to be replicated. When this is done in new contexts (e.g., a new country), adaptations may be needed. Yet, we know little about how researchers approach this. This study aims to explore how researchers reason about adaptations and adherence when conducting replication studies, describe what adaptations they make and how these are reported in scientific journals. METHODS: This was an interview study conducted in 2014 with principal investigators of Swedish replication studies reporting adaptations to an intervention from another country...
May 8, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738076/from-cacti-to-carnivores-improved-phylotranscriptomic-sampling-and-hierarchical-homology-inference-provide-further-insight-into-the-evolution-of-caryophyllales
#14
Joseph F Walker, Ya Yang, Tao Feng, Alfonso Timoneda, Jessica Mikenas, Vera Hutchison, Caroline Edwards, Ning Wang, Sonia Ahluwalia, Julia Olivieri, Nathanael Walker-Hale, Lucas C Majure, Raúl Puente, Gudrun Kadereit, Maximilian Lauterbach, Urs Eggli, Hilda Flores-Olvera, Helga Ochoterena, Samuel F Brockington, Michael J Moore, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Caryophyllales contain ~12,500 species and are known for their cosmopolitan distribution, convergence of trait evolution, and extreme adaptations. Some relationships within the Caryophyllales, like those of many large plant clades, remain unclear, and phylogenetic studies often recover alternative hypotheses. We explore the utility of broad and dense transcriptome sampling across the order for resolving evolutionary relationships in Caryophyllales. METHODS: We generated 84 transcriptomes and combined these with 224 publicly available transcriptomes to perform a phylogenomic analysis of Caryophyllales...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736275/use-of-verbal-autopsy-and-social-autopsy-in-humanitarian-crises
#15
Lisa-Marie Thomas, Lucia D'Ambruoso, Dina Balabanova
Introduction: Two billion people live in countries affected by conflict, violence and fragility. These are exceptional situations in which mortality shifts dramatically and in which civil registration and vital statistics systems are often weakened or cease to function. Verbal autopsy and social autopsy (VA and SA) are methods used to assign causes of death and understand the contexts in which these occur, in settings where information is otherwise unavailable. This review sought to explore the use of VA and SA in humanitarian crises, with a focus on how these approaches are used to inform policy and programme responses...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730870/effects-of-gender-reassignment-on-quality-of-life-and-mental-health-in-people-with-gender-dysphoria
#16
Berna Özata Yıldızhan, Şahika Yüksel, Mirella Avayu, Handan Noyan, Eren Yıldızhan
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the life style, family and social relationships (social adaptation) and the quality of life in people with gender dysphoria with and without history of sex reassignment surgery. METHOD: Twenty  individuals (SR group) who were earlier followed   in Istanbul University Psychiatry Department Psychoneurosis and Psychotherapy Unit with gender dysphoria diagnosis in  order  to  have confirmative reports for the sex reassignment (SR) surgery were interviewed at least one year after the surgery...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730847/effect-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-on-er-protein-export-a-potential-new-mechanism-to-relieve-er-stress
#17
REVIEW
Alaa Shaheen
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive cellular response that aims to relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via several mechanisms, including inhibition of protein synthesis and enhancement of protein folding and degradation. There is a controversy over the effect of the UPR on ER protein export. While some investigators suggested that ER export is inhibited during ER stress, others suggested the opposite. In this article, their conflicting studies are analyzed and compared in attempt to solve this controversy...
May 5, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730591/equilibrium-approach-towards-water-resource-management-and-pollution-control-in-coal-chemical-industrial-park
#18
Jiuping Xu, Shuhua Hou, Heping Xie, Chengwei Lv, Liming Yao
In this study, an integrated water and waste load allocation model is proposed to assist decision makers in better understanding the trade-offs between economic growth, resource utilization, and environmental protection of coal chemical industries which characteristically have high water consumption and pollution. In the decision framework, decision makers in a same park, each of whom have different goals and preferences, work together to seek a collective benefit. Similar to a Stackelberg-Nash game, the proposed approach illuminates the decision making interrelationships and involves in the conflict coordination between the park authority and the individual coal chemical company stockholders...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717980/5-ht2a-receptor-in-mpfc-influences-context-guided-reconsolidation-of-object-memory-in-perirhinal-cortex
#19
Juan Facundo Morici, Magdalena Miranda, Francisco Tomás Gallo, Belén Zanoni, Pedro Bekinschtein, Noelia V Weisstaub
Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Retrieval can be triggered by partial and shared cues. When the cue is presented, the most relevant memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories. We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats...
May 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709644/performance-monitoring-in-the-medial-frontal-cortex-and-related-neural-networks-from-monitoring-self-actions-to-understanding-others-actions
#20
REVIEW
Taihei Ninomiya, Atsushi Noritake, Markus Ullsperger, Masaki Isoda
Action is a key channel for interacting with the outer world. As such, the ability to monitor actions and their consequences - regardless as to whether they are self-generated or other-generated - is of crucial importance for adaptive behavior. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has long been studied as a critical node for performance monitoring in nonsocial contexts. Accumulating evidence suggests that the MFC is involved in a wide range of functions necessary for one's own performance monitoring, including error detection, and monitoring and resolving response conflicts...
April 27, 2018: Neuroscience Research
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