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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161401/the-evolution-of-airway-management-new-concepts-and-conflicts-with-traditional-practice
#1
A F McNarry, A Patel
In the last 25 yr, there have been several advances in the safe management of the airway. Videolaryngoscopes and supraglottic airways, now in routine use by new trainees in anaesthesia, have had their genesis in the recent past. The 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society published in 2011 a seminal report that has influenced airway management worldwide . Understanding how the report's recommendations were constructed and how clinical guidelines compliment rather than contradict them is important in understanding the tenets of safe airway management...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161394/managing-anaesthetic-provision-for-global-disasters
#2
R M Craven
The numbers of people affected by large-scale disasters has increased in recent decades. Disasters produce a huge burden of surgical morbidity at a time when the affected country is least able to respond. For this reason an international disaster response is often required. For many years this disaster response was not coordinated. The response consisted of what was available not what was needed and standards of care varied widely producing a healthcare lottery for the affected population. In recent years the World Health organisation has initiated the Emergency Medical Team programme to coordinate the response to disasters and set minimum standards for responding teams...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160176/impact-of-bedding-volume-on-physiological-and-behavioural-parameters-in-laboratory-mice
#3
Jennifer Freymann, Ping-Ping Tsai, Helge D Stelzer, Reinhard Mischke, Hansjoachim Hackbarth
The standard housing temperature in animal facilities is substantially below the lower critical temperature of mice. This does not only endanger animal welfare, it can also jeopardize scientific research as cold stress has a major impact on mouse physiology. There is some evidence that deep bedding, comparable to nesting material, can help mice to reduce heat loss. Whenever changes are applied to the cage environment, the potential impact on experimental results, including variation, needs to be assessed. An increased variation can result in a conflict between reduction and refinement, when more animals are needed for significance due to the housing design...
December 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155669/centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-public-health-response-to-humanitarian-emergencies-2007-2016
#4
Andrew T Boyd, Susan T Cookson, Mark Anderson, Oleg O Bilukha, Muireann Brennan, Thomas Handzel, Colleen Hardy, Farah Husain, Barbara Lopes Cardozo, Carlos Navarro Colorado, Cyrus Shahpar, Leisel Talley, Michael Toole, Michael Gerber
Humanitarian emergencies, including complex emergencies associated with fragile states or areas of conflict, affect millions of persons worldwide. Such emergencies threaten global health security and have complicated but predictable effects on public health. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Response and Recovery Branch (ERRB) (Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health) contributes to public health emergency responses by providing epidemiologic support for humanitarian health interventions...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154622/how-does-not-left-become-right-electrophysiological-evidence-for-a-dynamic-conflict-bound-negation-processing-account
#5
Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Human thought and language is traditionally considered as abstract, amodal, and symbolic. However, recent theories propose that high-level human cognition is directly linked to basic, modal biological systems such as sensorimotor areas. Despite this influential representational debate very little is known regarding whether the mechanisms involved in sensorimotor control are also shared with higher-level cognitive processes, such as language comprehension. We investigated negation as a universal of human language, addressing two key questions: (a) Does negation result in a conflict-like representation? (b) Does negation trigger executive control adjustments in a similar manner as standard information processing conflicts do (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145792/evaluating-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-local-psycho-educational-intervention-for-pregnant-women-with-common-mental-problems-affected-by-armed-conflict-in-swat-pakistan-a-parallel-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#6
Muhammad Naseem Khan, Mukesh Dherani, Anna Chiumento, Najia Atif, Katie Bristow, Siham Sikander, Atif Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current research was conducted in the Swat valley, where widespread conflict and militancy had been experienced prior to the field activities. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a locally developed psycho-educational intervention. METHODS: This mixed-methods study incorporated a quantitative and qualitative component. For the quantitative component, trial participants were identified from a cross-sectional study conducted in the earlier phase of the research, with Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score of ≥9...
December 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144977/birthplace-in-australia-processes-and-interactions-during-the-intrapartum-transfer-of-women-from-planned-homebirth-to-hospital
#7
Deborah Fox, Athena Sheehan, Caroline Homer
OBJECTIVE: the aim of the study was to explore the views and experiences of women, midwives and obstetricians on the intrapartum transfer of women from planned homebirth to hospital in Australia. DESIGN: a Constructivist Grounded Theory approach was taken, to conceptualise the social interactions and processes grounded in the data. SETTING: urban and regional areas in four states of south-eastern Australia. PARTICIPANTS: semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 36 women, midwives and obstetricians who had experienced an intrapartum homebirth transfer within three years prior to the interview...
November 2, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140766/the-rise-of-alternative-bread-leavening-technologies-in-the-nineteenth-century
#8
Carolyn Ann Cobbold
This article reveals how nineteenth-century chemists and health reformers tried to eradicate the use of yeast in bread, claiming they had devised healthier and more sanitary ways to raise bread. It describes the alternative technological solutions to baking bread, investigating factors that influenced their development and adaptation in the marketplace. A lack of scientific and cultural consensus surrounding yeast, what it was and what it did, fermented during this period. The conflict over yeast helped create a heterogeneous industrialization of the baking industry, changing processes and ingredients and creating new forms of bakery products...
November 15, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133999/a-review-of-the-occurrence-and-diversity-of-the-sphragis-in-butterflies-lepidoptera-papilionoidea
#9
REVIEW
Ana Paula S Carvalho, Albert G Orr, Akito Y Kawahara
Males of many butterfly species secrete long-lasting mating plugs to prevent their mates from copulating with other males, thus ensuring their sperm will fertilize all future eggs laid. Certain species have further developed a greatly enlarged, often spectacular, externalized plug, termed a sphragis. This distinctive structure results from complex adaptations in both male and female genitalia and is qualitatively distinct from the amorphous, internal mating plugs of other species. Intermediate conditions between internal plug and external sphragis are rare...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133329/involvement-of-people-with-dementia-in-making-decisions-about-their-lives-a-qualitative-study-that-appraises-shared-decision-making-concerning-daycare
#10
Leontine Groen-van de Ven, Carolien Smits, Fuusje de Graaff, Marijke Span, Jan Eefsting, Jan Jukema, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen
OBJECTIVE: To explore how people with dementia, their informal caregivers and their professionals participate in decision making about daycare and to develop a typology of participation trajectories. DESIGN: A qualitative study with a prospective, multiperspective design, based on 244 semistructured interviews, conducted during three interview rounds over the course of a year. Analysis was by means of content analysis and typology construction. SETTING: Community settings and nursing homes in the Netherlands...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126768/increased-functional-coupling-of-5-ht1a-autoreceptors-to-girk-channels-in-tph2-mice
#11
Boris Mlinar, Alberto Montalbano, Jonas Waider, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Renato Corradetti
Firing activity of serotonergic neurons is under regulatory control by somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors (5-HT1AARs). Enhanced 5-HT1AAR functioning may cause decreased serotonergic signaling in brain and has thereby been implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 knockout (Tph2(-/-)) mice exhibit sensitization of 5-HT1A agonist-induced inhibition of serotonergic neuron firing and thus represents a unique animal model of enhanced 5-HT1AAR functioning. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying 5-HT1AAR supersensitivity in Tph2(-/-) mice, we characterized the activation of G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) conductance by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine using whole-cell recordings from serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphe nucleus...
November 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126284/genetic-drift-and-indel-mutation-in-the-evolution-of-yeast-mitochondrial-genome-size
#12
Shujie Xiao, Duong T Nguyen, Baojun Wu, Weilong Hao
Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are remarkably diverse in genome size and organization, but the origins of dynamic mitogenome architectures are still poorly understood. For instance, the mutational burden hypothesis postulates that the drastic difference between large plant mitogenomes and streamlined animal mitogenomes can be driven by their different mutation rates. However, inconsistent trends between mitogenome sizes and mutation rates have been documented in several lineages. These conflicting results highlight the need of systematic and sophisticated investigations on the evolution and diversity of mitogenome architecture...
November 8, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124494/information-and-support-needs-of-young-women-regarding-breast-cancer-risk-and-genetic-testing-adapting-effective-interventions-for-a-novel-population
#13
Suzanne C O'Neill, Chalanda Evans, Rebekah J Hamilton, Beth N Peshkin, Claudine Isaacs, Sue Friedman, Kenneth P Tercyak
Young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families face a unique set of challenges in managing their HBOC risk, where obtaining essential information to inform decision making is key. Previous work suggests that this need for specific health information also comes at a time of heightened distress and greater individuation from family. In this report, we describe our adaptation of a previously-studied behavioral intervention for this population, utilizing a systematic approach outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 9, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118469/welsh-women-s-industrial-fiction-1880-1910
#14
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones
From the beginning of the genre, women writers have made a major contribution to the development of industrial writing. Although prevented from gaining first-hand experience of the coalface, Welsh women writers were amongst the first to try to fictionalize those heavy industries-coal and metal in the south, and slate in the north-which dominated the lives of the majority of the late nineteenth-century Welsh population. Treatment of industrial matter is generally fragmentary in this early women's writing; industrial imagery and metaphor may be used in novels that are not primarily "about" industry at all...
October 2, 2017: Women's Writing: the Elizabethan to Victorian Period
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115912/hyperoxia-for-performance-and-training
#15
D A Cardinale, B Ekblom
Recent technological developments have made it possible to use hyperoxia as an enhancement aid during training. Athletes wearing a mask can breathe a higher fraction of oxygen from a stationary or portable apparatus while exercising. A large body of evidence indicates that the oxygen transport capacity, lactate metabolism, power output and work tolerance (endurance) are improved when breathing hyperoxia. The physiological mechanisms underlying these performance improvements, although still not fully elucidated, are based on higher oxygen delivery and reduced central fatigue...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112809/revisiting-opls-force-field-parameters-for-ionic-liquid-simulations
#16
Brian Doherty, Xiang Zhong, Symon Gathiaka, Bin Li, Orlando Acevedo
Our OPLS-2009IL force field parameters (J. Chem. THEORY: Comput. 2009, 5, 1038-1050) were originally developed and tested on 68 unique ionic liquids featuring the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [RMIM], N-alkylpyridinium [RPyr], and choline cations. Experimental validation was limited to densities and a few, largely conflicting heat of vaporization (ΔHvap) values reported in the literature at the time. Owing to the use of Monte Carlo as our sampling technique, it was also not possible to investigate the reproduction of dynamics...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111359/role-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-explicit-and-implicit-aspects-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-socially-conflicting-situations-a-resting-state-fmri-study-using-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations
#17
Junya Fujino, Shisei Tei, Kathryn F Jankowski, Ryosaku Kawada, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
We are constantly exposed to socially conflicting situations in everyday life, and cognitive flexibility is essential for adaptively coping with such difficulties. Flexible goal choice and pursuit are not exclusively conscious, and therefore cognitive flexibility involves both explicit and implicit forms of processing. However, it is unclear how individual differences in explicit and implicit aspects of flexibility are associated with neural activity in a resting state. Here, we measured intrinsic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) as an indicator of regional brain spontaneous activity, together with explicit and implicit aspects of cognitive flexibility using the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) and Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110520/parental-concerns-and-attributions-of-food-pickiness-and-its-consequences-for-the-parent-child-relationship-a-qualitative-analysis
#18
Bérengère Rubio, Natalie Rigal
A qualitative study was conducted to identify how parents describe and attribute their toddler's food pickiness, a common pediatric problem during childhood. Parental strategies to respond to picky behaviors were also explored in this study. Focus groups were used with 38 parents of children aged 18-38 months. Results highlighted several consequences of child pickiness such as parental concerns about child's growth and health, conflicts at mealtime, and feelings of guilt. Parents attributed food pickiness mainly as a manifestation of opposition and assertiveness by their child...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107773/midfrontal-theta-and-pupil-dilation-parametrically-track-subjective-conflict-but-also-surprise-during-intertemporal-choice
#19
Hause Lin, Blair Saunders, Cendri A Hutcherson, Michael Inzlicht
Many everyday choices are based on personal, subjective preferences. When choosing between two options, we often feel conflicted, especially when trading off costs and benefits occurring at different times (e.g., saving for later versus spending now). Although previous work has investigated the neurophysiological basis of conflict during inhibitory control tasks, less is known about subjective conflict resulting from competing subjective preferences. In this pre-registered study, we investigated subjective conflict during intertemporal choice, whereby participants chose between smaller immediate versus larger delayed rewards (e...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107528/understanding-family-caregiver-communication-to-provide-family-centered-cancer-care
#20
REVIEW
Elaine Wittenberg, Haley Buller, Betty Ferrell, Marianna Koczywas, Tami Borneman
OBJECTIVES: To describe a family caregiver communication typology and demonstrate identifiable communication challenges among four caregiver types: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Lone. DATA SOURCES: Case studies based on interviews with oncology family caregivers. CONCLUSION: Each caregiver type demonstrates unique communication challenges that can be identified. Recognition of a specific caregiver type will help nurses to adapt their own communication to provide tailored support...
October 26, 2017: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
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