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Conflict adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#1
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929018/inferring-weak-spots-in-phylogenetic-trees-application-to-mosasauroid-nomenclature
#2
Daniel Madzia, Andrea Cau
Mosasauroid squamates represented the apex predators within the Late Cretaceous marine and occasionally also freshwater ecosystems. Proper understanding of the origin of their ecological adaptations or paleobiogeographic dispersals requires adequate knowledge of their phylogeny. The studies assessing the position of mosasauroids on the squamate evolutionary tree and their origins have long given conflicting results. The phylogenetic relationships within Mosasauroidea, however, have experienced only little changes throughout the last decades...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924678/gender-opportunities-in-psychosocial-oncology
#3
Matthew Loscalzo, Karen Clark
So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917188/assessing-the-factor-structure-of-the-childhood-trauma-questionnaire-and-cumulative-effect-of-abuse-and-neglect-on-mental-health-among-adolescents-in-conflict-affected-burundi
#4
Ruby Charak, J T V M de Jong, Lidewyde H Berckmoes, Herman Ndayisaba, Ria Reis
The present study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), highlight rates of abuse and neglect among Burundian adolescents, compare these rates with those found in high-income nations, and examine the cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect on depression and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 231 adolescents and youth (M=14.9, SD=1.99, 58.4% female) from five provinces of Burundi, a country in Central Africa affected by war and political violence...
September 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913717/after-deployment-adaptive-parenting-tools-1-year-outcomes-of-an-evidence-based-parenting-program-for-military-families-following-deployment
#5
Abigail H Gewirtz, David S DeGarmo, Osnat Zamir
Despite significant stressors facing military families over the past 15 years of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, no parenting programs adapted or developed for military families with school-aged children have been rigorously tested. We present outcome data from the first randomized controlled trial of a behavioral parent training program for families with a parent deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. In the present study, 336 primarily National Guard and Reserve families with 4-12-year-old children were recruited from a Midwestern state...
September 15, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913663/effects-of-a-program-to-promote-high-quality-parenting-by-divorced-and-separated-fathers
#6
Irwin Sandler, Heather Gunn, Gina Mazza, Jenn-Yun Tein, Sharlene Wolchik, Cady Berkel, Sarah Jones, Michele Porter
This paper reports on the effects on parenting and on children's mental health problems and competencies from a randomized trial of a parenting program for divorced and separated fathers. The program, New Beginnings Program-Dads (NBP-Dads), includes ten group sessions (plus two phone sessions) which promote parenting skills to increase positive interactions with children, improve father-child communication, use of effective discipline strategies, and skills to protect children from exposure to interparental conflict...
September 15, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910125/threat-of-shock-and-aversive-inhibition-induced-anxiety-modulates-pavlovian-instrumental-interactions
#7
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
Anxiety can be an adaptive response to potentially threatening situations. However, if experienced in inappropriate contexts, it can also lead to pathological and maladaptive anxiety disorders. Experimentally, anxiety can be induced in healthy individuals using the threat of shock (ToS) paradigm. Accumulating work with this paradigm suggests that anxiety promotes harm-avoidant mechanisms through enhanced inhibitory control. However, the specific cognitive mechanisms underlying anxiety-linked inhibitory control are unclear...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904106/diversity-in-spatial-scope-of-contrast-adaptation-among-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cells
#8
Mohammad Hossein Khani, Tim Gollisch
Retinal ganglion cells adapt to changes in visual contrast by adjusting their response kinetics and sensitivity. While much work has focused on the time scales of these adaptation processes, less is known about the spatial scale of contrast adaptation. For example, do small, localized contrast changes affect a cell's signal processing across its entire receptive field? Previous investigations have provided conflicting evidence, suggesting either that contrast adaptation occurs locally within subregions of a ganglion cell's receptive field or globally over the receptive field in its entirety...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903657/when-wanting-the-best-goes-right-or-wrong-distinguishing-between-adaptive-and-maladaptive-maximization
#9
Jeffrey Hughes, Abigail A Scholer
Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies...
April 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901787/medication-management-strategies-used-by-older-adults-with-heart-failure-a-systems-based-analysis
#10
Robin S Mickelson, Richard J Holden
BACKGROUND: Older adults with heart failure use strategies to cope with the constraining barriers impeding medication management. Strategies are behavioral adaptations that allow goal achievement despite these constraining conditions. When strategies do not exist, are ineffective or maladaptive, medication performance and health outcomes are at risk. While constraints to medication adherence are described in literature, strategies used by patients to manage medications are less well-described or understood...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893996/evolution-of-flexibility-and-rigidity-in-retaliatory-punishment
#11
Adam Morris, James MacGlashan, Michael L Littman, Fiery Cushman
Natural selection designs some social behaviors to depend on flexible learning processes, whereas others are relatively rigid or reflexive. What determines the balance between these two approaches? We offer a detailed case study in the context of a two-player game with antisocial behavior and retaliatory punishment. We show that each player in this game-a "thief" and a "victim"-must balance two competing strategic interests. Flexibility is valuable because it allows adaptive differentiation in the face of diverse opponents...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890939/adaptive-modulation-of-antibiotic-resistance-through-intragenomic-coevolution
#12
Michael J Bottery, A Jamie Wood, Michael A Brockhurst
Bacteria gain antibiotic resistance genes by horizontal acquisition of mobile genetic elements (MGE) from other lineages. Newly acquired MGEs are often poorly adapted causing intragenomic conflicts, resolved by compensatory adaptation of the chromosome, the MGE or reciprocal coadaptation. The footprints of such intragenomic coevolution are present in bacterial genomes, suggesting an important role promoting genomic integration of horizontally acquired genes, but direct experimental evidence of the process is limited...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890399/activated-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-trkb-signaling-in-rat-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampi-following-10-day-electroconvulsive-seizure-treatment
#13
Shingo Enomoto, Kunio Shimizu, Masashi Nibuya, Eiji Suzuki, Kiyoshi Nagata, Takashi Kondo
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still the most effective strategy to treat severe and drug-resistant depressive disorders. Electroconvulsive seizure (ECS), which induces neuroplastic structural alterations and resilient behavioral changes in experimental animals, is the model of the ECT for human depression. ECT is typically administered three times per week for up to 4 weeks, while ECS treatments are administered daily for 10days. The increased expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induced by antidepressive ECS treatment in experimental animals has been well documented...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888498/parental-expectations-of-support-from-healthcare-providers-during-pediatric-life-threatening-illness-a-secondary-qualitative-analysis
#14
Kim Mooney-Doyle, Maiara Rodrigues Dos Santos, Regina Szylit, Janet A Deatrick
PURPOSES: To explain parental expectations of support from healthcare providers for their parenting roles and goals during a child's life-threatening illness (LTI). DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative interpretive study guided by the Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response Model. Thematic analyses were conducted with data from 31 semi-structured interviews of parents of children with LTI using systematic strategies to ensure rigor including audit trails and prolonged engagement...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878682/experience-related-changes-in-place-cell-responses-to-new-sensory-configuration-that-does-not-occur-in-the-natural-environment-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#15
Dan Zou, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The hippocampal formation (HF) is implicated in a comparator that detects sensory conflict (mismatch) among convergent inputs. This suggests that new place cells encoding the new configuration with sensory mismatch develop after the HF learns to accept the new configuration as a match. To investigate this issue, HF CA1 place cell activity in rats was analyzed after the adaptation of the rats to the same sensory mismatch condition. The rats were placed on a treadmill on a stage that was translocated in a figure 8-shaped pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873257/deep-uncertainties-in-sea-level-rise-and-storm-surge-projections-implications-for-coastal-flood-risk-management
#16
Perry C Oddo, Ben S Lee, Gregory G Garner, Vivek Srikrishnan, Patrick M Reed, Chris E Forest, Klaus Keller
Sea levels are rising in many areas around the world, posing risks to coastal communities and infrastructures. Strategies for managing these flood risks present decision challenges that require a combination of geophysical, economic, and infrastructure models. Previous studies have broken important new ground on the considerable tensions between the costs of upgrading infrastructure and the damages that could result from extreme flood events. However, many risk-based adaptation strategies remain silent on certain potentially important uncertainties, as well as the tradeoffs between competing objectives...
September 5, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861904/equity-trade-offs-in-conservation-decision-making
#17
Elizabeth A Law, Nathan J Bennett, Christopher D Ives, Rachel Friedman, Katrina J Davis, Carla Archibald, Kerrie A Wilson
Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation...
September 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860514/delay-discounting-is-associated-with-the-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-late-adolescence
#18
Song Wang, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Qiyong Gong
As a component of self-regulation, delay discounting (DD) refers to an individual's tendency to prefer smaller-but-sooner rewards over larger-but-later rewards and plays an essential role in many aspects of human behavior. Although numerous studies have examined the neural underpinnings of DD in adults, there are far fewer studies focusing on the neurobiological correlates underlying DD in adolescents. Here, we investigated the associations between individual differences in DD and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in 228 high school students using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859415/performance-tradeoffs-ontogenetic-conflict-and-multisport-athletes-how-is-an-ironman-triathlete-like-a-frog
#19
Ryan Calsbeek, Debora Goedert
Life-history theory is a cornerstone of modern evolutionary biology that addresses myriad phenomena ranging from demography and population structure to the evolution of aging and senescence. Trade-offs may arise in a number of contexts, from allocation-based (e.g., egg size vs. egg number) to genomic conflicts (e.g., intralocus sexual conflict in which genes that perform well in males perform poorly in females). Here we test for performance tradeoffs in human athletes. We show that in Ironman triathletes, swimming performance trades off with cycling and running performance...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858888/acceptability-of-an-opioid-relapse-prevention-text-message-intervention-for-emergency-department-patients
#20
Brian Suffoletto, Joseph Yanta, Ryan Kurtz, Gerald Cochran, Antoine Douaihy, Tammy Chung
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether a text message-based relapse prevention intervention (Preventing and Interrupting Early Relapse [PIER]1) is acceptable to treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) after Emergency Department (ED) discharge using mixed-methods design. METHODS: Adults seeking care in an urban ED for OUD (n = 20; mean age 22; 55% female; 75% white race) completed a baseline survey, and were invited to enroll in PIER1, which was delivered in 7-day blocks, with the option to re-enroll at the end of each block, up to 4 blocks...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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