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Conflict adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633360/expression-properties-exhibit-correlated-patterns-with-the-fate-of-duplicated-genes-their-divergence-and-transcriptional-plasticity-in-saccharomycotina
#1
Florian Mattenberger, Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz, Christina Toft, Gaurav Sablok, Mario A Fares
Gene duplication is an important source of novelties and genome complexity. What genes are preserved as duplicated through long evolutionary times can shape the evolution of innovations. Identifying factors that influence gene duplicability is therefore an important aim in evolutionary biology. Here, we show that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the levels of gene expression correlate with gene duplicability, its divergence, and transcriptional plasticity. Genes that were highly expressed before duplication are more likely to be preserved as duplicates for longer evolutionary times and wider phylogenetic ranges than genes that were lowly expressed...
June 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632781/climate-change-and-marine-fisheries-least-developed-countries-top-global-index-of-vulnerability
#2
Robert Blasiak, Jessica Spijkers, Kanae Tokunaga, Jeremy Pittman, Nobuyuki Yagi, Henrik Österblom
Future impacts of climate change on marine fisheries have the potential to negatively influence a wide range of socio-economic factors, including food security, livelihoods and public health, and even to reshape development trajectories and spark transboundary conflict. Yet there is considerable variability in the vulnerability of countries around the world to these effects. We calculate a vulnerability index of 147 countries by drawing on the most recent data related to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630321/how-selective-severing-by-katanin-promotes-order-in-the-plant-cortical-microtubule-array
#3
Eva E Deinum, Simon H Tindemans, Jelmer J Lindeboom, Bela M Mulder
Plant morphogenesis requires differential and often asymmetric growth. A key role in controlling anisotropic expansion of individual cells is played by the cortical microtubule array. Although highly organized, the array can nevertheless rapidly change in response to internal and external cues. Experiments have identified the microtubule-severing enzyme katanin as a central player in controlling the organizational state of the array. Katanin action is required both for normal alignment and the adaptation of array orientation to mechanical, environmental, and developmental stimuli...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623896/with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-cooperation-can-accelerate-the-rate-of-adaptive-valley-crossing
#4
Uri Obolski, Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Eran Even-Tov, Yoav Ram, Lilach Hadany
BACKGROUND: Natural selection favors changes that lead to genotypes possessing high fitness. A conflict arises when several mutations are required for adaptation, but each mutation is separately deleterious. The process of a population evolving from a genotype encoding for a local fitness maximum to a higher fitness genotype is termed an adaptive peak shift. RESULTS: Here we suggest cooperative behavior as a factor that can facilitate adaptive peak shifts. We model cooperation in a public goods scenario, wherein each individual contributes resources that are later equally redistributed among all cooperating individuals...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621622/glossopharyngeal-neuralgia-treated-by-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-safety-and-efficacy-through-long-term-follow-up
#5
Benjamin Pommier, Gustavo Touzet, Christian Lucas, Maximilien Vermandel, Serge Blond, Nicolas Reyns
OBJECTIVE Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a rare and disabling condition. Just as for trigeminal neuralgia, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is increasingly proposed as a therapeutic option for GPN. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term safety and efficacy of GKRS for this indication. METHODS From 2007 to 2015, 9 patients (4 male and 5 female) underwent a total of 10 GKRS procedures. All of the patients presented with GPN that was refractory to all medical treatment, and all had a long history of pain...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612351/the-role-of-recombination-in-evolutionary-adaptation-of-escherichia-coli-to-a-novel-nutrient
#6
Hoi-Yee Chu, Kathleen Sprouffske, Andreas Wagner
The benefits and detriments of recombination for adaptive evolution have been studied both theoretically and experimentally, with conflicting predictions and observations. Most pertinent experiments examine recombination's effects in an unchanging environment and do not study its genome-wide effects. Here we evolved six replicate populations of either highly recombining R(+) or lowly recombining R(-) E. coli strains in a changing environment, by introducing the novel nutrients L-arabinose or indole into the environment...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610578/sub-national-assessment-of-aid-effectiveness-a-case-study-of-post-conflict-districts-in-uganda
#7
Freddie Ssengooba, Justine Namakula, Vincent Kawooya, Suzanne Fustukian
BACKGROUND: In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. METHOD: This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609904/concentrated-evolutionary-novelties-in-the-foot-musculature-of-odontophrynidae-anura-neobatrachia-with-comments-on-adaptations-for-burrowing
#8
Boris L Blotto, Martin O Pereyra, Julián Faivovich, Pedro Henrique Dos Santos Dias, Taran Grant
We studied the foot musculature of the fossorial family Odontophrynidae (composed of the genera Macrogenioglottus, Odontophrynus, and Proceratophrys) plus several outgroup taxa from Hyloidea and other burrowing taxa from across Anura. We found novel character-states supporting the monophyly of Odontophrynus, Proceratophrys, and Odontophrynus + Macrogenioglottus. The character-states observed in O. cultripes support conflicting phylogenetic positions within Odontophrynus. A comparison of some novel character-states with a diverse sample of burrowing taxa suggests that some modifications of the foot musculature might be involved in digging...
May 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608004/effector-system-specific-sequential-modulations-of-congruency-effects
#9
Markus Janczyk, Hartmut Leuthold
Congruency effects in conflict tasks are reliably reduced after experiencing conflict, that is, following incongruent trials. Such sequential modulations (sometimes referred to as the Gratton effect) indicate the operation of conflict adaptation mechanisms. The influential conflict monitoring hypothesis suggested that after conflict the processing of relevant stimulus dimensions is increased. Alternatively, it was suggested that the influence of automatic response activation is suppressed following conflict...
June 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605259/is-young-age-a-limiting-factor-when-training-balance-effects-of-child-oriented-balance-training-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Michael Wälchli, Jan Ruffieux, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Wolfgang Taube
PURPOSE: Balance training studies in children reported conflicting results without evidence for improvements in children under the age of eight. The aim of this study therefore was to compare balance training adaptations in children of different age groups to clarify whether young age prevents positive training outcomes. METHOD: The effects of five weeks of child-oriented balance training were tested in 77 (38 girls; 39 boys) participants of different age groups (6-7, 11-12, and 14-15 years) and compared to age-matched controls...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600573/multisensory-perception-of-contradictory-information-in-an-environment-of-varying-reliability-evidence-for-conscious-perception-and-optimal-causal-inference
#11
Mohammad-Ali Nikouei Mahani, Saber Sheybani, Karin Maria Bausenhart, Rolf Ulrich, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi
Two psychophysical experiments examined multisensory integration of visual-auditory (Experiment 1) and visual-tactile-auditory (Experiment 2) signals. Participants judged the location of these multimodal signals relative to a standard presented at the median plane of the body. A cue conflict was induced by presenting the visual signals with a constant spatial discrepancy to the other modalities. Extending previous studies, the reliability of certain modalities (visual in Experiment 1, visual and tactile in Experiment 2) was varied from trial to trial by presenting signals with either strong or weak location information (e...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589233/altered-tuning-in-primary-motor-cortex-does-not-account-for-behavioral-adaptation-during-force-field-learning
#12
Matthew G Perich, Lee E Miller
Although primary motor cortex (M1) is intimately involved in the dynamics of limb movement, its inputs may be more closely related to higher-order aspects of movement and multi-modal sensory feedback. Motor learning is thought to result from the adaption of internal models that compute transformations between these representations. While the psychophysics of motor learning has been studied in many experiments, the particular role of M1 in the process remains the subject of debate. Studies of learning-related changes in the spatial tuning of M1 neurons have yielded conflicting results...
June 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588512/temporal-changes-in-individualism-and-their-ramification-in-japan-rising-individualism-and-conflicts-with-persisting-collectivism
#13
REVIEW
Yuji Ogihara
Many studies have shown that American culture has become more individualistic over time. However, it was unclear whether other cultures, especially East Asian cultures, have also shifted toward greater individualism. Therefore, this article reviewed studies investigating temporal changes in individualism in Japan and their ramifications on psychology and behavior. Japan has experienced rapid and dramatic economic growth and urbanization and has adopted more social systems based on individualistic concepts in various contexts (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584179/zoonoses-one-health-and-complexity-wicked-problems-and-constructive-conflict
#14
REVIEW
David Waltner-Toews
Infectious zoonoses emerge from complex interactions among social and ecological systems. Understanding this complexity requires the accommodation of multiple, often conflicting, perspectives and narratives, rooted in different value systems and temporal-spatial scales. Therefore, to be adaptive, successful and sustainable, One Health approaches necessarily entail conflicts among observers, practitioners and scholars. Nevertheless, these integrative approaches have, both implicitly and explicitly, tended to marginalize some perspectives and prioritize others, resulting in a kind of technocratic tyranny...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582745/changing-perceptions-of-protected-area-benefits-and-problems-around-kibale-national-park-uganda
#15
Catrina A MacKenzie, Jonathan Salerno, Joel Hartter, Colin A Chapman, Rafael Reyna, David Mwesigye Tumusiime, Michael Drake
Local residents' changing perceptions of benefits and problems from living next to a protected area in western Uganda are assessed by comparing household survey data from 2006, 2009, and 2012. Findings are contextualized and supported by long-term data sources for tourism, protected area-based employment, tourism revenue sharing, resource access agreements, and problem animal abundance. We found decreasing perceived benefit and increasing perceived problems associated with the protected area over time, with both trends dominated by increased human-wildlife conflict due to recovering elephant numbers...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570905/the-role-of-affective-evaluation-in-conflict-adaptation-an-lrp-study
#16
Kerstin Fröber, Birgit Stürmer, Romy Frömer, Gesine Dreisbach
Conflict between incompatible response tendencies is typically followed by control adjustments aimed at diminishing subsequent conflicts, a phenomenon often called conflict adaptation. Dreisbach and Fischer (2015, 2016) recently proposed that it is not the conflict per se but the aversive quality of a conflict that originally motivates this kind of sequential control adjustment. With the present study we tested the causal role of aversive signals in conflict adaptation in a more direct way. To this end, after each trial of a vertical Simon task participants rated whether they experienced the last trial as rather pleasant or unpleasant...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549353/crowding-visual-awareness-and-their-respective-neural-loci
#17
Kilho Shin, Susana T L Chung, Bosco S Tjan
In peripheral vision, object identification can be impeded when a target object is flanked by other objects. This phenomenon of crowding has been attributed to basic processes associated with image encoding by the visual system, but the neural origin of crowding is not known. Determining whether crowding depends on subjective awareness of the flankers can provide information on the neural origin of crowding. However, recent studies that manipulated flanker awareness have yielded conflicting results. In the current study, we suppressed flanker awareness with two methods: interocular suppression (IOS) and adaptation-induced blindness (AIB)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544862/narcissistic-force-meets-systemic-resistance-the-energy-clash-model
#18
Constantine Sedikides, W Keith Campbell
This article focuses on the interplay between narcissistic leaders and organizations. It attempts to capture the gist of this interplay with a model outlining the narcissistic organizational trajectory. The Energy Clash Model borrows and adapts a phase/state physics metaphor to conceptualize narcissism as a force that enters or emerges in a stable system (i.e., organization) as a leader, destabilizes it, and stabilizes it at a different state or is expelled. The model consists of three time-contingent phases: perturbation, conflict, and resolution...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539510/sexual-conflict-and-correlated-evolution-between-male-persistence-and-female-resistance-traits-in-the-seed-beetle-callosobruchus-maculatus
#19
Liam R Dougherty, Emile van Lieshout, Kathryn B McNamara, Joe A Moschilla, Göran Arnqvist, Leigh W Simmons
Traumatic mating (or copulatory wounding) is an extreme form of sexual conflict whereby male genitalia physically harm females during mating. In such species females are expected to evolve counter-adaptations to reduce male-induced harm. Importantly, female counter-adaptations may include both genital and non-genital traits. In this study, we examine evolutionary associations between harmful male genital morphology and female reproductive tract morphology and immune function across 13 populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus We detected positive correlated evolution between the injuriousness of male genitalia and putative female resistance adaptations across populations...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534063/-the-new-law-on-radiation-protection-as-a-consequence-of-the-eu-safety-standard-of-2013
#20
REVIEW
G Layer
The transformation of a European guideline (2013/59/Euratom) from 2013 into national law requires adaptation of the national statutory regulations. This year, all areas of protection from ionizing radiation will be subject to the new radiation protection law (StrlSchG). Through this, the German X‑ray and Radiation Protection Acts will be combined to form a higher level of authority. The main parts of the StrlSchG will receive a new classification and will be organized according to the exposure scenario: radiation protection in planned exposure scenarios, radiation protection in emergency exposure scenarios, radiation protection in existing exposure scenarios, and the regulation of overall exposure scenarios...
May 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
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