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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328787/immune-responses-to-retroviruses
#1
Asier Saez-Cirion, Nicolas Manel
Retroviruses are genome invaders that have shared a long history of coevolution with vertebrates and their immune system. Found endogenously in genomes as traces of past invasions, retroviruses are also considerable threats to human health when they exist as exogenous viruses such as HIV. The immune response to retroviruses is engaged by germline-encoded sensors of innate immunity that recognize viral components and damage induced by the infection. This response develops with the induction of antiviral effectors and launching of the clonal adaptive immune response, which can contribute to protective immunity...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316916/malaria-programme-personnel-s-experiences-perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-malaria-elimination-strategy-in-south-africa
#2
Khumbulani Welcome Hlongwana, Benn Sartorius, Joyce Tsoka-Gwegweni
BACKGROUND: South Africa has set an ambitious goal targeting to eliminate malaria by 2018, which is consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals' call to end the epidemic of malaria by 2030 across the globe. There are conflicting views regarding the feasibility of malaria elimination, and furthermore studies investigating malaria programme personnel's perspectives on strategy implementation are lacking. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014 through a face-to-face investigator-administered semi-structured questionnaire to all eligible and consenting malaria programme personnel (team leader to senior manager levels) in three malaria endemic provinces (KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo) of South Africa...
January 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294995/experiences-of-elder-mistreatment-a-latent-profile-analysis
#3
Srinivasan Chokkanathan
Using a polyvictimization framework, this study seeks to identify profiles of older adults who are mistreated by their family members. Data were drawn from a survey ( n = 897) on the prevalence of elder mistreatment in rural India. This study involved 187 community-dwelling older adults (aged 61 years and above) with experiences of mistreatment in the year prior to the interview. Mistreatment was assessed through an adapted version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Latent profile analysis was conducted to classify older adults into empirically derived clusters...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288590/combined-electrical-stimulation-and-exercise-for-swallow-rehabilitation-post-stroke-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#4
Lise Sproson, Sue Pownall, Pam Enderby, Jenny Freeman
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is common after stroke, affecting up to 50% of patients initially. It can lead to post-stroke pneumonia, which causes 30% of stroke-related deaths, a longer hospital stay and poorer health outcomes. Dysphagia care post-stroke generally focuses on the management of symptoms, via modified oral intake textures and adapted posture, rather than direct physical rehabilitation of the swallowing function. Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a promising rehabilitation technology that can be used to stimulate swallowing; however, findings regarding efficacy have been conflicting...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287178/the-socioeconomic-factors-that-facilitate-or-constrain-restoration-management-watershed-rehabilitation-and-wet-meadow-bofedal-restoration-in-the-bolivian-andes
#5
Brett D Hartman, David A Cleveland
Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285647/spatial-and-frequency-specificity-of-the-ventriloquism-aftereffect-revisited
#6
Patrick Bruns, Brigitte Röder
Exposure to audiovisual stimuli with a consistent spatial misalignment seems to result in a recalibration of unisensory auditory spatial representations. The previous studies have suggested that this so-called ventriloquism aftereffect is confined to the trained region of space, but yielded inconsistent results as to whether or not recalibration generalizes to untrained sound frequencies. Here, we reassessed the spatial and frequency specificity of the ventriloquism aftereffect by testing whether auditory spatial perception can be independently recalibrated for two different sound frequencies and/or at two different spatial locations...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283609/-miscarried-helping-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-helping-for-health-inventory-couples
#7
Rika Tanaka, Paula M Trief, Kasandra Scales, Ruth S Weinstock
OBJECTIVE: Family-partner support has been associated with better blood glucose control, self-care adherence, and quality of life in adult patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). "Miscarried helping" has described interactions between youth with chronic diseases and their family members, in which a family member is helpful, but efforts are perceived as negative by the patient. Miscarried helping has not, however, been measured in adults with diabetes, which was the purpose of our study. METHOD: Data from a randomized clinical trial (n = 268) were analyzed to establish the psychometric properties and correlates of an adaptation of a measure of miscarried helping developed in pediatric populations, for use with adults with T2D...
December 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282805/when-structure-leads-to-sex-untangling-signals-in-population-genetic-data-sets
#8
Julian Catchen
A robust signal of population structure often provides the first glimpse into the evolutionary history of a species and its populations. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, new work from Louis Bernatchez's group (Benestan et al., ) starts with an investigation of apparent structure in two marine species and concludes with an identification of sex-linked genes, and in the process provides a model for robust analysis. Structure is the genetic signal left by natural selection as well as by neutral processes like migration and gene flow...
December 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279207/family-influences-on-the-development-of-aggression-and-violence
#9
REVIEW
Madelyn H Labella, Ann S Masten
Recent research confirms that many of the most salient risk and protective factors for the development of aggression and violence reside in the family system. Family-based risks begin before birth, encompassing genetic and epigenetic processes. Contextual stressors (e.g., poverty, conflict) may impact development directly or indirectly through disrupted parenting behavior, including high negativity, low warmth, harshness, and exposure to violence. The family can also serve as a powerful adaptive system counteracting the risk of aggression and violence...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277316/the-flexible-lifestyle-empowering-change-flex-intervention-for-self-management-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-trial-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#10
Jessica C Kichler, Michael Seid, Jamie Crandell, David M Maahs, Franziska K Bishop, Kimberly A Driscoll, Debra Standiford, Christine M Hunter, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis
The Flexible Lifestyle Empowering Change (FLEX) Intervention Study is a multi-site randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an adaptive behavioral intervention to promote self-management for youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). This paper details FLEX design, demographic characteristics of the sample, and outcome variables at baseline. Participants were randomized to either an intervention or control arm after their baseline standardized measurement visit. Baseline data for the primary (glycemic levels) and secondary outcome variables (e...
December 22, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262438/autoimmune-encephalitis-in-critical-care-optimizing-immunosuppression
#11
Daniel B Rubin, Ayush Batra, Ivana Vodopivec, Henrikas Vaitkevicius
Autoimmune diseases affecting the nervous systems are a common cause of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Although there exist several well-described clinical syndromes, patients more commonly present with progressive neurologic dysfunction and laboratory and radiographic evidence of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. In the critical care setting, the urgency to intervene to prevent permanent damage to the nervous system and secondary injury from the systemic manifestations of these syndromes often conflicts with diagnostic uncertainty...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249050/a-fuzzy-logic-expert-system-for-evaluating-policy-progress-towards-sustainability-goals
#12
Andrés M Cisneros-Montemayor, Gerald G Singh, William W L Cheung
Evaluating progress towards environmental sustainability goals can be difficult due to a lack of measurable benchmarks and insufficient or uncertain data. Marine settings are particularly challenging, as stakeholders and objectives tend to be less well defined and ecosystem components have high natural variability and are difficult to observe directly. Fuzzy logic expert systems are useful analytical frameworks to evaluate such systems, and we develop such a model here to formally evaluate progress towards sustainability targets based on diverse sets of indicators...
December 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245998/effects-of-levosimendan-on-mortality-in-patients-with-septic-shock-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#13
Benji Wang, Rujie Chen, Xianyang Guo, Wenwu Zhang, Jianjian Hu, Yuqiang Gong, Bihuan Cheng
Object: Several studies have investigated a survival benefit for levosimendan treatment in patients with septic shock. However, data are conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of levosimendan treatment on mortality in patients with septic shock. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Databases up to March 27, 2017, without language restrictions. We searched for terms related to septic shock, levosimendan, randomized clinical trial...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244106/psychosocial-support-for-adolescent-girls-in-post-conflict-settings-beyond-a-health-systems-approach
#14
Fiona Samuels, Nicola Jones, Bassam Abu Hamad
Adaptive and adequately resourced health systems are necessary to achieve good health outcomes in post-conflict settings, however domains beyond the health system are also critical to ensure broader wellbeing. This paper focuses on the importance of psychosocial support services for adolescent girls in fragile contexts. Its starting point is that adolescence is a pivotal time in the life course but given the physical, cognitive and emotional changes triggered by the onset of puberty, it can also be a period of heightened sensitivity and vulnerability to trauma, social isolation, bullying by peers, a lack of supportive adults and gender-based and sexual violence...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239746/stepping-reaction-time-and-gait-adaptability-are-significantly-impaired-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-implications-for-fall-risk
#15
Maria Joana D Caetano, Stephen R Lord, Natalie E Allen, Matthew A Brodie, Jooeun Song, Serene S Paul, Colleen G Canning, Jasmine C Menant
BACKGROUND: Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. METHODS: Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults...
November 22, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238970/the-consequences-of-sexual-selection-in-well-adapted-and-maladapted-populations-of-bean-beetles
#16
Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Uroš Savković, Mirko Đorđević, Göran Arnqvist, Biljana Stojković, David Berger
Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modelling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation when it is most needed...
December 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237298/passion-relational-mobility-and-proof-of-commitment-a-comparative-socio-ecological-analysis-of-an-adaptive-emotion-in-a-sexual-market
#17
Junko Yamada, Mie Kito, Masaki Yuki
Although monogamy, the exclusive bonding with a specific partner, is one characteristic of modern human mating, long-term romantic relationships inherently possess the commitment problem, which is the conflict between maintaining a relationship with a certain partner and seeking attractive alternatives. Frank has argued that love and passion help solve this problem because they make individuals commit voluntarily to the relationship, leading the other party to also be committed with less concern over being cheated on or rejected...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237297/the-evolutionary-psychology-of-war-offense-and-defense-in-the-adapted-mind
#18
Anthony C Lopez
The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231906/simulation-of-cellular-energy-restriction-in-quiescence-eriq-a-theoretical-model-for-aging
#19
David Alfego, Andres Kriete
Cellular responses to energy stress involve activation of pro-survival signaling nodes, compensation in regulatory pathways and adaptations in organelle function. Specifically, energy restriction in quiescent cells (ERiQ) through energetic perturbations causes adaptive changes in response to reduced ATP, NAD+ and NADP levels in a regulatory network spanned by AKT, NF-κB, p53 and mTOR. Based on the experimental ERiQ platform, we have constructed a minimalistic theoretical model consisting of feedback motifs that enable investigation of stress-signaling pathways...
December 12, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229932/neutral-fitness-outcomes-contradict-inferences-of-sexual-coercion-derived-from-male-s-damaging-mating-tactic-in-a-widow-spider
#20
Luciana Baruffaldi, Maydianne C B Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed 'coercive' and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive for females...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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