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Conflict adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424630/hippo-pathway-and-skeletal-muscle-mass-regulation-in-mammals-a-controversial-relationship
#1
REVIEW
Olouyomi Gnimassou, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
Skeletal muscle mass reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, satellite cell inclusion may contribute to increase muscle mass while fiber loss results in a reduction of muscle mass. Since 2010, a few studies looked at the involvement of the newly discovered Hippo pathway in the regulation of muscle mass. In line with its roles in other organs, it has been hypothesized that the Hippo pathway could play a role in different regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle as well, namely proliferation and renewal of satellite cells, differentiation, death, and growth of myogenic cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423138/intimate-partner-violence-and-maternal-educational-practice
#2
Josianne Maria Mattos da Silva, Marília de Carvalho Lima, Ana Bernarda Ludermir
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and maternal educational practice directed to children at the beginning of formal education. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, carried out between 2013 and 2014, with 631 mother/child pairs, registered in the Family Health Strategy of the Health District II of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It integrates a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence in relation to the child who was born between 2005 and 2006...
April 10, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414738/barriers-and-facilitators-for-men-to-attend-prenatal-care-and-obtain-hiv-voluntary-counseling-and-testing-in-brazil
#3
Nava Yeganeh, Mariana Simon, Deborah Mindry, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Cristina Chaves, Breno Santos, Marineide Melo, Brenna Mendoza, Pamina Gorbach
BACKGROUND: Providing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to men who attend their partner's prenatal care is an intervention with potential to reduce HIV transmission to women and infants during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. Little is known about the acceptability of this intervention in global settings outside of Africa. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews to evaluate potential barriers and facilitators to prenatal care attendance for HIV VCT with 20 men who did and 15 men who did not attend prenatal care with their partners at Hospital Conceiçao in Porto Alegre, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412924/neurons-vs-germline-a-war-of-hormetic-tradeoffs
#4
Marios Kyriazis
The process of human ageing is significantly dependent upon events which are currently shaping humanity. One such event is the seemingly inexorable progress of technology, and specifically, digital communications technology. Technology and biology are tightly interconnected, and this has a direct relevance on how our own ageing mechanisms are evolving and adapting to the change. One way technology may affect biological ageing is based on the concept of information exposure which acts as a hormetic stimulus and up-regulates neuronal stress response pathways...
April 13, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410978/performance-monitoring-in-nicotine-dependence-considering-integration-of-recent-reinforcement-history
#5
Kevin Butler, Jennifer Rusted, Paul Gard, Anne Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Impaired monitoring of errors and conflict (performance monitoring; PM) is well documented in substance dependence (SD) including nicotine dependence and may contribute to continued drug use. Contemporary models of PM and complementary behavioural evidence suggest that PM works by integrating recent reinforcement history rather than evaluating individual behaviours. Despite this, studies of PM in SD have typically used indices derived from reaction to task error or conflict on individual trials...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410395/the-role-of-temporal-predictability-for-early-attentional-adjustments-after-conflict
#6
Klaas Bombeke, Zachary D Langford, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
A frequently-studied phenomenon in cognitive-control research is conflict adaptation, or the finding that congruency effects are smaller after incongruent trials. Prominent cognitive control accounts suggest that this adaptation effect can be explained by transient conflict-induced modulations of selective attention, reducing congruency effects on the next trial. In the present study, we investigated these possible attentional modulations in four experiments using the Stroop and Flanker tasks, dissociating possible enhancements of task-relevant information from suppression of task-irrelevant information by varying when this information was presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410373/parallel-reorganization-of-protein-function-in-the-spindle-checkpoint-pathway-through-evolutionary-paths-in-the-fitness-landscape-that-appear-neutral-in-laboratory-experiments
#7
Alex N Nguyen Ba, Bob Strome, Selma Osman, Elizabeth-Ann Legere, Taraneh Zarin, Alan M Moses
Regulatory networks often increase in complexity during evolution through gene duplication and divergence of component proteins. Two models that explain this increase in complexity are: 1) adaptive changes after gene duplication, such as resolution of adaptive conflicts, and 2) non-adaptive processes such as duplication, degeneration and complementation. Both of these models predict complementary changes in the retained duplicates, but they can be distinguished by direct fitness measurements in organisms with short generation times...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409713/persistent-complex-bereavement-disorder-and-culture-early-and-prolonged-grief-in-nepali-widows
#8
Jane Kim, Wietse A Tol, Abina Shrestha, Hari Maya Kafle, Rajin Rayamajhi, Nagendra P Luitel, Lily Thapa, Pamela J Surkan
OBJECTIVE: Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has not been well studied in socioculturally diverse populations. Thus, this qualitative study examined (a) how widows in Nepal understand grief, (b) whether a local construct of PCBD exists, and (c) its comparability with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), terminology. METHODS: Using an adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework, semistructured interviews with 25 widows and 12 key informants, as well as three focus-group discussions (n = 20), were conducted between October 2014 and April 2015...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406365/diagnosing-and-resolving-conflict-created-by-strategic-plans-where-outreach-strategies-and-execution-meet-at-an-academic-health-center
#9
Robert L Edwards, Samuel B Wollner, Jessica Weddle, James W Zembrodt, Mark D Birdwhistell
The imperative for strategic change at academic health centers has never been stronger. Underpinning the success of strategic change is an effective process to implement a strategy. Healthcare organizations, however, often fail to execute on strategy because they do not activate the requisite capabilities and management processes. The University of Kentucky HealthCare recently defined its 2020 strategic plan to adapt to emerging market conditions. The authors outline the strategic importance of strengthening partnership networks and the initial challenges faced in executing their strategy...
April 13, 2017: Hospital Topics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403302/moral-sensitivity-in-primary-health-care-nurses
#10
Carlise Rigon Dalla Nora, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone Zoboli, Margarida M Vieira
OBJECTIVE: to characterize the profile and describe the moral sensitivity of primary health care nurses. METHOD: this is a quantitative, transversal, exploratory, descriptive study. The data were collected through the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire translated and adapted to Brazil. 100 primary health care nurses participated, from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data collection took place during the months of March and July 2016, in an online form. The analysis of the data occurred through descriptive statistical analysis...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391322/evolutionary-thrift-mycobacteria-repurpose-plasmid-diversity-during-adaptation-of-type-vii-secretion-systems
#11
Tatum D Mortimer, Alexandra M Weber, Caitlin S Pepperell
Mycobacteria have a distinct secretion system, termed type VII (T7SS), which is encoded by paralogous chromosomal loci (ESX) and associated with pathogenesis, conjugation, and metal homeostasis. Evolution of paralogous gene families is of interest because duplication is an important mechanism by which novel genes evolve, but there are potential conflicts between adaptive forces that stabilize duplications and those that enable evolution of new functions. Our objective was to delineate the adaptive forces underlying diversification of T7SS...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386447/ambidextrous-ungulates-have-more-flexible-behaviour-bolder-personalities-and-migrate-less
#12
R Found, C C St Clair
Studies of wildlife have shown consistent individual variation in behavioural plasticity, which affects the rate of adaptation to changing environments. More flexible individuals may thus be more prone to habituation and conflict behaviour, but these applications of personality to wildlife management are little explored. Behavioural lateralization reflects cerebral specialization that may predict diverse expressions of behavioural plasticity. We recorded front-limb biases (i.e. handedness) in wild elk (Cervus canadensis), a species with facultative migration and high rates of habituation inside protected areas...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382795/prognostic-significance-of-preoperative-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-uterine-leiomyosarcoma
#13
Jeong Yeol Park, Jeong Won Lee, Hyun Ju Lee, Jong Jin Lee, Seung Hwan Moon, Seo Young Kang, Gi Jeong Cheon, Hyun Hoon Chung
OBJECTIVE: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare and aggressive disease with poor outcome. Due to its rarity and conflict of data, investigation on finding prognostic factor is challenging. The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic significance of preoperative ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in uterine LMS. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study in 3 tertiary referral hospitals...
May 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374448/-i-call-it-stinkin-thinkin-a-qualitative-analysis-of-metacognition-in-people-with-chronic-low-back-pain-and-elevated-catastrophizing
#14
Robert Schütze, Clare Rees, Helen Slater, Anne Smith, Peter O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Pain catastrophizing is widely studied in quantitative pain research because of its strong link with poor pain outcomes, although the exact nature of this construct remains unclear. Focusing on its ruminative dimension, the present qualitative study aimed to explore a nascent aspect of pain catastrophizing - metacognition - by documenting people's attitudes towards rumination and examining how these metacognitions might influence the course it takes. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370754/differences-and-commonalities-of-plant-responses-to-single-and-combined-stresses
#15
Haina Zhang, Uwe Sonnewald
In natural or agricultural environments, plants are constantly exposed to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Given the forecasted global climate changes plants will cope with heat waves, drought periods and pathogens at the same time or consecutively. Heat and drought cause opposing physiological responses, while pathogens may or may not profit from climate changes depending on their lifestyle. Several studies have been conducted to find stress-specific signatures or stress-independent commonalities...
April 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370723/persistence-of-historical-population-structure-in-an-endangered-species-despite-near-complete-biome-conversion-in-california-s-san-joaquin-desert
#16
Jonathan Q Richmond, Dustin A Wood, Michael F Westphal, Amy G Vandergast, Adam D Leaché, Lawrence R Saslaw, H Scott Butterfield, Robert N Fisher
Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects pre-disturbance landscapes. Such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, where biome conversion is nearly complete, but comprehensive genetic datasets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368164/avoiding-the-conflict-metacognitive-awareness-drives-the-selection-of-low-demand-contexts
#17
Kobe Desender, Cristian Buc Calderon, Filip Van Opstal, Eva Van den Bussche
Previous research attempted to explain how humans strategically adapt behavior in order to achieve successful task performance. Recently, it has been suggested that 1 potential strategy is to avoid tasks that are too demanding. Here, we report 3 experiments that investigate the empirically neglected role of metacognitive awareness in this process. In these experiments, participants could freely choose between performing a task in either a high-demand or a low-demand context. Using subliminal priming, we ensured that participants were not aware of the visual stimuli creating these different demand contexts...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367131/infantile-anorexia-and-co-parenting-a-pilot-study-on-mother-father-child-triadic-interactions-during-feeding-and-play
#18
Loredana Lucarelli, Massimo Ammaniti, Alessio Porreca, Alessandra Simonelli
Infantile Anorexia (IA), defined by the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood Revised (DC: 0-3R, Zero To Three, 2005), occurs when the child (a) refuses to eat adequate amounts of food for at least 1 month, and shows growth deficiency, (b) does not communicate hunger and lacks interest in food, and (c) the child's food refusal does not follow a traumatic event and is not due to an underlying medical illness. IA usually emerges during the transition to self-feeding, when the child issues of autonomy are played out daily in the feeding situation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365775/distinct-roles-for-the-anterior-cingulate-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices-during-conflict-between-abstract-rules
#19
Erica A Boschin, Merima M Brkic, Jon S Simons, Mark J Buckley
Distinct patterns of activity within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) reported in neuroimaging studies during tasks involving conflict between competing responses have often been cited as evidence for their key contributions to conflict-monitoring and behavioral adaptation, respectively. However, supporting evidence from neuropsychological patients has been scarce and contradictory. We administered a well-studied analog of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, designed to elicit conflict between 2 abstract rules, to a cohort of 6 patients with damage to ACC or dlPFC...
January 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364943/amygdala-lesions-reduce-anxiety-like-behavior-in-a-human-benzodiazepine-sensitive-approach-avoidance-conflict-test
#20
Christoph W Korn, Johanna Vunder, Júlia Miró, Lluís Fuentemilla, Rene Hurlemann, Dominik R Bach
BACKGROUND: Rodent approach-avoidance conflict tests are common preclinical models of human anxiety disorder. Their translational validity mainly rests on the observation that anxiolytic drugs reduce rodent anxiety-like behavior. Here, we capitalized on a recently developed approach-avoidance conflict computer game to investigate the impact of benzodiazepines and of amygdala lesions on putative human anxiety-like behavior. In successive epochs of this game, participants collect monetary tokens on a spatial grid while under threat of virtual predation...
February 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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