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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298876/does-reading-words-differing-in-arousal-load-influence-interference-control-in-flanker-task
#1
Kamil K Imbir
Arousal involves a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It could be treated also as an energetic property of stimulation. On the basis of previous findings concerning affective state modulation of spatial processing, I predict that arousal impact will follow the Yerkes-Dodson law. To test this hypothesis, 135 words were chosen and divided into three levels of arousal (low, medium and high), whilst controlling for valence, concreteness, frequency of appearance and length...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295409/working-memory-capacity-and-task-goals-modulate-error-related-erps
#2
James R Coleman, Jason M Watson, David L Strayer
The present study investigated individual differences in information processing following errant behavior. Participants were initially classified as high or as low working memory capacity using the Operation Span Task. In a subsequent session, they then performed a high congruency version of the flanker task under both speed and accuracy stress. We recorded ERPs and behavioral measures of accuracy and response time in the flanker task with a primary focus on processing following an error. The error-related negativity was larger for the high working memory capacity group than for the low working memory capacity group...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289600/conflict-processing-in-juvenile-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1-and-healthy-controls-two-pathways-to-success
#3
Annet Bluschke, Maja von der Hagen, Katharina Papenhagen, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a monogenetic autosomal-dominant disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and is commonly associated with cognitive deficits. Patients with NF1 frequently exhibit cognitive impairments like attention problems, working memory deficits and dysfunctional inhibitory control. The latter is also relevant for the resolution of cognitive conflicts. However, it is unclear how conflict monitoring processes are modulated in NF1. To examine this question in more detail, we used a system neurophysiological approach combining high-density ERP recordings with source localisation analyses in juvenile patients with NF1 and controls during a flanker task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288533/attentional-bias-during-emotional-processing-evidence-from-an-emotional-flanker-task-using-iaps
#4
Mario A Parra, Manuel Guillermo Sánchez, Stella Valencia, Natalia Trujillo
Attention is biased towards threat-related stimuli. In three experiments, we investigated the mechanisms, processes, and time course of this processing bias. An emotional flanker task simultaneously presented affective or neutral pictures from the international affective picture system database either as central response-relevant stimuli or surrounding response-uninformative flankers. Participants' response times to central stimuli was measured. The attentional bias was observed when stimuli were presented either for 1500 ms (Experiment 1) or 500 ms (Experiment 2)...
March 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282326/effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#5
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Luk Buyse, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and has been observed to decrease time-trial (TT) endurance performance by ~3,5% in normal ambient temperatures. Recently it has been suggested that heat may augment the negative effect of mental fatigue on cognitive performance, raising the question whether it may also amplify the effect of mental fatigue on TT-performance. METHODS: In 30 °C and 30% relative humidity, ten endurance-trained male athletes (Age: 22 ± 3 y; Wmax: 332 ± 41 W) completed two experimental conditions: intervention (I; 45-min Stroop task) and control (C; 45-min documentary)...
March 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273520/sequential-congruency-effects-reveal-differences-in-disengagement-of-attention-for-monolingual-and-bilingual-young-adults
#6
John G Grundy, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Deanna C Friesen, Lorinda Mak, Ellen Bialystok
Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differences between language groups on mean reaction time using standard analyses for congruent or incongruent trials or the size of the flanker effect. Sequential congruency effects (SCEs) however, which account for previous trial congruency, were smaller for bilinguals than for monolinguals...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268425/response-conflict-processes-classification-in-7-and-9-year-old-children-using-eeg-brain-connectivity-measures
#7
T Almabruk, K Iyer, S Girdler, M M Khan, T Tan
Investigating cognitive development of children poses interesting challenges pertaining to emergence of children's' ability to think and understand. Psychological tasks that involve conflict, like the Flanker task, are widely used to understand development of response conflict processes. In this study, EEG signals were used to examine the coherence and imaginary part of coherency within the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands across different conditions of the Flanker task. Longitudinal data were collected from a group of typically developing children at ages of seven and nine...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261945/cognitive-decline-and-slower-reaction-time-in-elderly-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Ko-Chia Chen, Chia-Ying Weng, Sigmund Hsiao, Wen-Long Tsao, Malcolm Koo
AIM: The relationship between declining performance, as measured by changes in reaction time, and declining cognitive function has not been critically studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between reaction time during a task and cognitive ability in elderly Taiwanese individuals. METHODS: Patients aged 65 years or older with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 33) and Alzheimer's disease (n = 26) were recruited from the neurology clinic of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan...
March 6, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235695/the-differential-effects-of-prolonged-exercise-upon-executive-function-and-cerebral-oxygenation
#9
Gavin D Tempest, Karen Davranche, Jeanick Brisswalter, Stephane Perrey, Rémi Radel
The acute-exercise effects upon cognitive functions are varied and dependent upon exercise duration and intensity, and the type of cognitive tasks assessed. The hypofrontality hypothesis assumes that prolonged exercise, at physiologically challenging intensities, is detrimental to executive functions due to cerebral perturbations (indicated by reduced prefrontal activity). The present study aimed to test this hypothesis by measuring oxygenation in prefrontal and motor regions using near-infrared spectroscopy during two executive tasks (flanker task and 2-back task) performed while cycling for 60min at a very low intensity and an intensity above the ventilatory threshold...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226595/response-conflict-processes-classification-in-7-and-9-year-old-children-using-eeg-brain-connectivity-measures
#10
T Almabruk, K Iyer, S Girdler, M M Khan, T Tan, T Almabruk, K Iyer, S Girdler, M M Khan, T Tan, S Girdler, M M Khan, T Tan, T Almabruk
Investigating cognitive development of children poses interesting challenges pertaining to emergence of children's' ability to think and understand. Psychological tasks that involve conflict, like the Flanker task, are widely used to understand development of response conflict processes. In this study, EEG signals were used to examine the coherence and imaginary part of coherency within the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands across different conditions of the Flanker task. Longitudinal data were collected from a group of typically developing children at ages of seven and nine...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217091/a-little-goes-a-long-way-low-working-memory-load-is-associated-with-optimal-distractor-inhibition-and-increased-vagal-control-under-anxiety
#11
Derek P Spangler, Bruce H Friedman
Anxiety impairs both inhibition of distraction and attentional focus. It is unclear whether these impairments are reduced or exacerbated when loading working memory with non-affective information. Cardiac vagal control has been related to top-down regulation of anxiety; therefore, vagal control may reflect load-related inhibition of distraction under anxiety. The present study examined whether: (1) the enhancing and impairing effects of load on inhibition exist together in a non-linear function, (2) there is a similar association between inhibition and concurrent vagal control under anxiety...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182494/dynamic-adjustments-of-attentional-control-in-healthy-aging
#12
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota
In standard attentional control tasks, interference effects are reduced following incongruent trials compared to congruent trials, a phenomenon known as the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Typical explanations of this effect suggest the CSE is due to changes in levels of control across adjacent trials. This interpretation has been questioned by the finding that older adults, individuals with impaired attentional control systems, have been shown to produce larger CSEs in the Stroop task compared with younger adult controls...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165364/inhibitory-control-under-threat-the-role-of-spontaneous-eye-blinks-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Mikael Rubin, Denise A Hien, Dipanjana Das, Robert D Melara
This study is the first to explore spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR) in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the connection between the magnitude of flanker interference in PTSD participants and sEBR during performance on a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task. As a peripheral measure of cognitive control and dopaminergic function, sEBR may illuminate the relationship between PTSD and executive function. Findings revealed a positive relationship between sEBR and flanker interference in participants diagnosed with PTSD, to both threat-related and neutral stimuli, whereas this relationship was negative in participants exposed to trauma but without PTSD and in healthy controls...
February 4, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160688/the-association-between-aerobic-fitness-and-congruency-sequence-effects-in-preadolescent-children
#14
Daniel R Westfall, Shih-Chun Kao, Mark R Scudder, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
Aerobic fitness has previously been related to cognitive control in preadolescents; however, these investigations have generally relied on global measures of performance. Thus, we have little understanding of how aerobic fitness may relate to trial-by-trial modulations in cognitive control. This study utilized congruency sequence effects (CSEs), which characterize how behavior on the current trial is influenced by the previous trial, to investigate the relation of aerobic fitness on varying levels of cognitive control...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159973/the-effect-of-aging-and-attention-on-visual-crowding-and-surround-suppression-of-perceived-contrast-threshold
#15
Menaka S Malavita, Trichur R Vidyasagar, Allison M McKendrick
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study how, in midperipheral vision, aging affects visual processes that interfere with target detection (crowding and surround suppression) and to determine whether the performance on such tasks are related to visuospatial attention as measured by visual search. Methods: We investigated the effect of aging on crowding and suppression in detection of a target in peripheral vision, using different types of flanking stimuli...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150023/effects-of-nicotine-on-response-inhibition-and-interference-control
#16
Ulrich Ettinger, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Nadine Petrovsky, Raymond C K Chan, Roman Liepelt, Veena Kumari
Nicotine is a cholinergic agonist with known pro-cognitive effects in the domains of alerting and orienting attention. However, its effects on attentional top-down functions such as response inhibition and interference control are less well characterised. Here, we investigated the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine on performance on a battery of response inhibition and interference control tasks. A sample of N = 44 healthy adult non-smokers performed antisaccade, stop signal, Stroop, go/no-go, flanker, shape matching and Simon tasks, as well as the attentional network test (ANT) and a continuous performance task (CPT)...
February 1, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143802/conflict-and-performance-monitoring-throughout-the-lifespan-an-event-related-potential-erp-and-temporospatial-component-analysis
#17
Ann Clawson, Peter E Clayson, Cierra M Keith, Christina Catron, Michael J Larson
Cognitive control includes higher-level cognitive processes used to evaluate environmental conflict. Given the importance of cognitive control in regulating behavior, understanding the developmental course of these processes may contribute to a greater understanding of normal and abnormal development. We examined behavioral (response times [RTs], error rates) and event-related potential data (N2, error-related negativity [ERN], correct-response negativity [CRN], error positivity [Pe]) during a flanker task in cross-sectional groups of 45 youth (ages 8-18), 52 younger adults (ages 20-28), and 58 older adults (ages 56-91)...
March 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121803/the-influence-of-cognitive-impairment-on-the-fitness-cognition-relationship-in-ms
#18
Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl, John DeLuca
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive processing speed impairment (PSI) is common and debilitating in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been proposed as a behavioral approach for possibly managing MS-related processing speed dysfunction, largely based on cross-sectional studies of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive processing speed. However, there is minimal evidence supporting exercise training as a treatment for MS-related PSI, as the vast majority of the existing studies have examined exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness effects on cognition in samples of non-cognitively impaired persons with MS...
January 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119105/a-single-aerobic-exercise-session-accelerates-movement-execution-but-not-central-processing
#19
Kit B Beyer, Michael D Sage, W Richard Staines, Laura E Middleton, William E McIlroy
Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise has disparate effects on speed of processing and movement execution. In simple and choice reaction tasks, aerobic exercise appears to increase speed of movement execution while speed of processing is unaffected. In the flanker task, aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce response time on incongruent trials more than congruent trials, purportedly reflecting a selective influence on speed of processing related to cognitive control. However, it is unclear how changes in speed of processing and movement execution contribute to these exercise-induced changes in response time during the flanker task...
January 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117420/dopaminergic-modulation-of-performance-monitoring-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-event-related-potential-study
#20
Caroline Seer, Florian Lange, Sebastian Loens, Florian Wegner, Christoph Schrader, Dirk Dressler, Reinhard Dengler, Bruno Kopp
Monitoring one's actions is essential for goal-directed performance. In the event-related potential (ERP), errors are followed by fronto-centrally distributed negativities. These error(-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) amplitudes are often found to be attenuated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to healthy controls (HC). Although Ne/ERN has been proposed to be related to dopaminergic neuronal activity, previous research did not find evidence for effects of dopaminergic medication on Ne/ERN amplitudes in PD...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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