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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941812/enhanced-error-related-negativity-amplitude-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-comorbidity-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Hema Nawani, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shrinivasa Basavaraju, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940987/error-related-brain-activity-and-internalizing-disorder-symptom-dimensions-in-depression-and-anxiety
#2
Stephanie M Gorka, Katie L Burkhouse, Kaveh Afshar, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that enhanced neural reactivity to errors, measured via the error-related negativity (ERN), is relatively unique to internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) and symptom clusters characterized by excessive worry and apprehension. However, no prior study has tested the association between the ERN and IP symptom dimensions in a heterogeneous, clinically representative patient population. The current study was designed to address this gap in the literature and clarify the role of the ERN in an adult IP treatment-seeking patient sample...
September 20, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936807/on-the-role-of-language-membership-information-during-word-recognition-in-bilinguals-evidence-from-flanker-language-congruency-effects
#3
Mathieu Declerck, Joshua Snell, Jonathan Grainger
According to some bilingual language comprehension models (e.g., BIA), language membership information has a direct influence on word processing. However, this idea is not shared by all models (e.g., BIA+). To investigate this matter, we manipulated the language membership of irrelevant flanking words while French-English bilinguals performed a lexical decision task on centrally located target words and nonwords. The target words were either French or English words, flanked by words that were either in the same language as the target (language congruent) or in the other language (language incongruent)...
September 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935223/testing-the-effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-on-adult-conflict-related-theta-dynamics
#4
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent alcohol use (AAU) is associated with brain anomalies, but less is known about long-term neurocognitive effects. Despite theoretical models linking AAU to diminished cognitive control, empirical work testing this relationship with specific cognitive control neural correlates (e.g., prefrontal theta-band EEG dynamics) remains scarce. A longitudinal twin design was used to test the hypothesis that greater AAU is associated with reduced conflict-related EEG theta-band dynamics in adulthood, and to examine the genetic/environmental etiology of this association...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931569/individual-alpha-peak-frequency-predicts-10-hz-flicker-effects-on-selective-attention
#5
Rasa Gulbinaite, Tara van Viegen, Martijn Wieling, Michael X Cohen, Rufin VanRullen
Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929499/occipital-alpha-power-reveals-fast-attentional-inhibition-of-incongruent-distractors
#6
Clio Janssens, Esther De Loof, C Nico Boehler, Gilles Pourtois, Tom Verguts
Recent associative models of cognitive control hypothesize that cognitive control can be learned (optimized) for task-specific settings via associations between perceptual, motor, and control representations, and, once learned, control can be implemented rapidly. Midfrontal brain areas signal the need for control, and control is subsequently implemented by biasing sensory representations, boosting or suppressing activity in brain areas processing task-relevant or task-irrelevant information. To assess the timescale of this process, we employed EEG...
September 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916440/white-matter-microstructure-within-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-modulates-the-degree-of-response-conflict-indexed-by-n2-in-healthy-adults
#7
Shudan Gao, Peng Liu, Jialu Guo, Yuanqiang Zhu, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
Response conflict can be induced by priming multiple responses competing for control of action in trials. The N2 is one functionally-related cognitive control index for response conflict. And yet the underlying whiter matter neural substrates of inter-individual difference in conflict N2 remain unclear. So the aim of present study was to address the white matter microstructure of the N2 responsible for conflict by directly relating the amplitude cost of the event-related potential (ERP) N2 component to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in healthy subjects...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910331/reproducibility-of-frequency-dependent-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-reaction-time-over-time-and-across-tasks
#8
Zan-Zan Liu, Hui-Jie Qu, Zhuo-Ling Tian, Meng-Jian Han, Yi Fan, Lie-Zhong Ge, Yu-Feng Zang, Hang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of reaction time variability (RTV) are characteristics of sustained attention deficits. The clinical significance of RTV has been widely recognized. However, the reliability of RTV measurements has not been widely studied. The present study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of RTV conventional measurements, e.g., the standard deviation (SD), the coefficient of variation (CV), and a new measurement called the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of RT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878716/cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-directional-and-non-directional-spatial-numerical-associations-across-the-lifespan
#9
Manuel Ninaus, Korbinian Moeller, Liane Kaufmann, Martin H Fischer, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Guilherme Wood
There is accumulating evidence suggesting an association of numbers with physical space. However, the origin of such spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) is still debated. In the present study we investigated the development of two SNAs in a cross-sectional study involving children, young and middle-aged adults as well as the elderly: (1) the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, reflecting a directional SNA; and (2) the numerical bisection bias in a line bisection task with numerical flankers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872407/relationship-between-physical-activity-adiposity-and-attentional-inhibition
#10
Nicholas W Baumgartner, Anne Dm Walk, Caitlyn G Edwards, Alicia R Covello, Morgan R Chojnacki, Ginger E Reeser, Andrew M Taylor, Hannah D Holscher, Naiman A Khan
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be detrimental to physical and cognitive health. However, implications of these interrelated health factors are rarely examined together, consequently, little is known regarding the concomitant contribution of physical activity and adiposity to cognition. METHODS: Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted among a sample of adults between 25-45 years (N= 65). Attentional inhibition was assessed using an Eriksen Flanker task...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872341/smelling-the-space-around-us-odor-pleasantness-shifts-visuospatial-attention-in-humans
#11
Luca Rinaldi, Emanuela Maggioni, Nadia Olivero, Angelo Maravita, Luisa Girelli
The prompt recognition of pleasant and unpleasant odors is a crucial regulatory and adaptive need of humans. Reactive answers to unpleasant odors ensure survival in many threatening situations. Notably, although humans typically react to certain odors by modulating their distance from the olfactory source, the effect of odor pleasantness over the orienting of visuospatial attention is still unknown. To address this issue, we first trained participants to associate visual shapes with pleasant and unpleasant odors, and then we assessed the impact of this association on a visuospatial task...
September 4, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867538/attention-bias-modification-reduces-neural-correlates-of-response-monitoring
#12
Brady D Nelson, Felicia Jackson, Nader Amir, Greg Hajcak
The error-related negativity (ERN) is an electrophysiological response to errors. Individual differences in the ERN have been posited to reflect sensitivity to threat and linked with risk for anxiety disorders. Attention bias modification is a promising computerized intervention that has been shown to decrease threat biases and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, we examined the impact of a single session of attention bias modification, relative to a control task, on the neural correlates of response monitoring, including the ERN, correct response negativity (CRN), and their difference (i...
September 1, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866568/open-vs-closed-shapes-new-perceptual-categories
#13
David Burlinson, Kalpathi Subramanian, Paula Goolkasian
Effective communication using visualization relies in part on the use of viable encoding strategies. For example, a viewer's ability to rapidly and accurately discern between two or more categorical variables in a chart or figure is contingent upon the distinctiveness of the encodings applied to each variable. Research in perception suggests that color is a more salient visual feature when compared to shape and although that finding is supported by visualization studies, characteristics of shape also yield meaningful differences in distinctiveness...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865755/the-relationship-between-the-superior-frontal-cortex-and-alpha-oscillation-in-a-flanker-task-simultaneous-recording-of-electroencephalogram-eeg-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs
#14
Kota Suzuki, Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Yuhei Oi, Haruo Shinoda, Masumi Inagaki
Activity in the alpha band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects functional inhibition of the cerebral cortex. The superior frontal cortex (SFC) is known to control alpha activity. Based on this relationship between SFC and alpha, we hypothesized that SFC controlled alpha mediates proactive control over interference. In this study, we examined the relationship between SFC and alpha in the flanker task by simultaneously recording EEG and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Forty participants performed a flanker task with occasional (compatible 75%, incompatible 25%) and successive (incompatible 100%) conditions...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845513/flanker-task-with-equiprobable-congruent-and-incongruent-conditions-does-not-elicit-the-conflict-n2
#15
Patrycja Kałamała, Jakub Szewczyk, Magdalena Senderecka, Zofia Wodniecka
In many published studies, various modifications of the flanker task have been used. Regardless of the flanker task version, the conflict N2 component has been consistently reported and interpreted as evidence for the resolution of conflict introduced by incongruent flankers. However, ERP studies that used the most basic flanker task (i.e., a version with equiprobable congruent and incongruent conditions in which only congruency between the target and flankers is manipulated) have not provided compelling evidence for the conflict N2 component...
August 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826495/anatomical-and-functional-organization-of-the-human-substantia-nigra-and-its-connections
#16
Yu Zhang, Kevin Michel-Herve Larcher, Bratislav Misic, Alain Dagher
We investigated the anatomical and functional organization of the human substantia nigra (SN) using diffusion and functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project. We identified a tripartite connectivity-based parcellation of SN with a limbic, cognitive, motor arrangement. The medial SN connects with limbic striatal and cortical regions and encodes value (greater response to monetary wins than losses during fMRI), while the ventral SN connects with associative regions of cortex and striatum and encodes salience (equal response to wins and losses)...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818144/refining-selection-for-elite-troops-by-predicting-military-training-outcome
#17
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Sabine Kubesch, Olivier Mairesse, Guy de Schutter, Nathalie Pattyn
INTRODUCTION: Paratrooper training courses are very demanding, leading to a high number of drop-outs, despite existing selection criteria. This study investigated physiological, neuropsychological, and subjective data of completers and drop-outs during paratrooper training to identify potential predictive indices. METHODS: Tested were 24 paratrooper soldiers before (t0), after 8 wk (t1), and at the end of a 12-wk training camp (t2). There were 11 soldiers who completed the course and 13 dropped out...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811585/age-related-changes-in-crowding-and-reading-speed
#18
Rong Liu, Bhavika N Patel, MiYoung Kwon
Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6 ± 3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2 ± 7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance between a target and flankers required to yield a criterion recognition accuracy) and the size of the visual span (an uncrowded window in the visual field within which letters can be recognizable reliably)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800339/perceptual-learning-improves-contrast-sensitivity-visual-acuity-and-foveal-crowding-in-amblyopia
#19
Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini, Andrea Pavan, Clara Casco
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic observers present abnormal spatial interactions between a low-contrast sinusoidal target and high-contrast collinear flankers. It has been demonstrated that perceptual learning (PL) can modulate these low-level lateral interactions, resulting in improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: We measured the extent and duration of generalization effects to various spatial tasks (i.e., visual acuity, Vernier acuity, and foveal crowding) through PL on the target's contrast detection...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776486/effects-of-age-on-inhibitory-control-are-affected-by-task-specific-features
#20
Angela de Bruin, Sergio Della Sala
Older adults have been argued to have impoverished inhibitory control compared to younger adults. However, these effects of age may depend on processing speed and their manifestation may furthermore depend on the type of inhibitory control task that is used. We present two experiments that examine age effects on inhibition across three tasks: a Simon arrow, static flanker, and motion flanker task. The results showed overall slower RTs for older adults on all three tasks. However, effects of age on inhibition costs were only found for the Simon task, but not for the two flanker tasks...
August 4, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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