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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771565/memory-guided-selective-attention-single-experiences-with-conflict-have-long-lasting-effects-on-cognitive-control
#1
Nicholaus P Brosowsky, Matthew J C Crump
Adjustments in cognitive control, as measured by congruency sequence effects, are thought to be influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this dichotomy has often overshadowed the potential contribution of past experience stored in memory. Here, we examine the role of long-term episodic memory in guiding selective attention. Our aim was to demonstrate new evidence that selective attention can be modulated by long-term retrieval of stimulus-specific attentional control settings. All the experiments used a modified flanker task involving multiple unique stimuli...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770186/conflict-tasks-of-different-types-divergently-affect-the-attentional-processing-of-gaze-and-arrow
#2
Lingxia Fan, Huan Yu, Xuemin Zhang, Qing Feng, Mengdan Sun, Mengsi Xu
The present study explored the attentional processing mechanisms of gaze and arrow cues in two different types of conflict tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed a flanker task in which gaze and arrow cues were presented as central targets or bilateral distractors. The congruency between the direction of the target and the distractors was manipulated. Results showed that arrow distractors greatly interfered with the attentional processing of gaze, while the processing of arrow direction was immune to conflict from gaze distractors...
May 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765985/effects-of-afternoon-nap-deprivation-on-adult-habitual-nappers-inhibition-functions
#3
Qingwei Chen, Taotao Ru, Minqi Yang, Pei Yan, Jinghua Li, Ying Yao, Xiaoran Li, Guofu Zhou
Multiple studies have established the effects of afternoon naps on cognition. However, relatively few studies have investigated the domain of executive functions. Moreover, the effects of napping on inhibition are far from conclusive. The present study employed adult habitual nappers to investigate the effects of afternoon nap deprivation on response-based inhibition assessed by a Go/No-go task and stimulus-based inhibition assessed by a Flanker task and on alertness assessed by a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS)...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756794/neurodevelopment-of-conflict-adaptation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#4
Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754580/the-effects-of-a-school-based-physical-activity-intervention-programme-on-children-s-executive-control-the-health-oriented-pedagogical-project-hopp
#5
Carolien Konijnenberg, Per Morten Fredriksen
AIMS: To assess the effects of a large school-based physical activity intervention on children's ability to resist distractions and maintain focus, known as executive control. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design with seven intervention and two control primary schools. The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) intervention consisted of 45 min of physical activity a day during school time for 6-8 months in addition to the regular weekly physical education lessons...
May 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742385/the-neurocognitive-mechanisms-underlying-food-cravings-and-snack-food-consumption-a-combined-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-ctbs-and-eeg-study
#6
Cassandra J Lowe, William R Staines, Felicia Mannochio, Peter A Hall
Regulation of food cravings is thought to be critical for modulating eating behavior, yet we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which cognitive control operates in the eating context. The current study combined rTMS and EEG paradigms to examine the causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in modulating visceral and behavioral responses to high calorie foods, and the mediational mechanisms underlying this relation. 28 right-handed female participants received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS; a rTMS variant used to decrease cortical activity) targeting the left dlPFC in a counterbalanced order...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734494/error-related-brain-activity-in-adolescents-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Gregory L Hanna, Yanni Liu, Yona E Isaacs, Angela M Ayoub, Alice Brosius, Zachary Salander, Paul D Arnold, William J Gehring
BACKGROUND: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential following a mistake that is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The relationship of the ERN to comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) has not been examined in adolescents with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in OCD patients with MDD (OCD + MDD), OCD patients without MDD (OCD - MDD), MDD patients, and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: The ERN, correct response negativity, and accuracy were measured during a flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 53 adolescents with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD, 36 adolescents with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD, and 89 age-matched HC of 13-18 years...
May 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709582/differential-effects-of-sustained-and-transient-effort-triggered-by-reward-a-combined-eeg-and-pupillometry-study
#8
Mariam Kostandyan, Klaas Bombeke, Thomas Carsten, Ruth M Krebs, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
In instrumental task contexts, incentive manipulations such as posting reward on successful performance usually trigger increased effort, which is signified by effort markers like increased pupil size. Yet, it is not fully clear under which circumstances incentives really promote performance, and which role effort plays therein. In the present study, we compared two schemes of associating reward with a Flanker task, while simultaneously acquiring electroencephalography (EEG) and pupillometry data in order to explore the contribution of effort-related processes...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706908/event-related-potential-erp-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#9
Lynn Marquardt, Heike Eichele, Astri J Lundervold, Jan Haavik, Tom Eichele
Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and tends to persist into adulthood. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies indicates that alterations of error processing are core symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD. To test whether adults with ADHD show persisting deficits and compensatory processes, we investigated performance monitoring during stimulus-evaluation and response-selection, with a focus on errors, as well as within-group correlations with symptom scores...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704581/individual-differences-in-combat-experiences-and-error-related-brain-activity-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans
#10
Narmeen I Khan, Katie L Burkhouse, Lynne Lieberman, Stephanie M Gorka, Julia A DiGangi, Christopher Schroth, Alyssa Frederick, Amy E Kennedy, Darrin M Aase, Justin E Greenstein, Eric Proescher, Greg Hajcak, K Luan Phan
Increased error-related negativity (ERN) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple forms of psychopathology. Although there is increasing evidence that the ERN can be shaped by environment and experience, no studies to date have examined this question in a clinical sample. In the current study, we examined the influence of combat exposure on the ERN using electroencephalogram (EEG) in a sample of military veterans with a high prevalence of psychopathology. Participants included sixty-seven U.S...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689518/characterizing-anxiety-subtypes-and-the-relationship-to-behavioral-phenotyping-in-major-depression-results-from-the-embarc-study
#11
Joseph M Trombello, Diego A Pizzagalli, Myrna M Weissman, Bruce D Grannemann, Crystal M Cooper, Tracy L Greer, Ashley L Malchow, Manish K Jha, Thomas J Carmody, Benji T Kurian, Christian A Webb, Daniel G Dillon, Patrick J McGrath, Gerard Bruder, Maurizio Fava, Ramin V Parsey, Melvin G McInnis, Phil Adams, Madhukar H Trivedi
The current study aimed to characterize the multifaceted nature of anxiety in patients with major depression by evaluating distinct anxiety factors. We then related these derived anxiety factors to performance on a Flanker Task of cognitive control, in order to further validate these factors. Data were collected from 195 patients with nonpsychotic chronic or recurrent major depression or dysthymic disorder. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and other related symptoms (mania, suicidality) and clinicians administered a structured diagnostic interview and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, including anxiety/somatization items...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683918/detection-of-persisting-concussion-effects-on-neuromechanical-responsiveness
#12
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin C Nabhan, Chad J Prusmack, William J Moreau
PURPOSE: Assessment of various indices of neuromechanical responsiveness for association with concussion history. METHODS: An observational cohort study included 48 elite athletes (34 males: 23.8 ±4.4 years; 14 females: 25.4 ±4.5 years) who performed visuomotor reaction time (VMRT) tests involving rapid manual contact with illuminated target buttons that included 2 dual-task conditions: 1) simultaneous oral recitation of scrolling text (VMRT+ST) and 2) simultaneous verbal responses to identify the right or left direction indicated by the center arrow of the Eriksen flanker test (VMRT+FT)...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682751/social-influences-of-error-monitoring-in-adolescent-girls
#13
Tyson V Barker, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Lindsay C Bowman, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased social motivation and a heightened concern of peer evaluation. However, little research has examined social influences on neural functioning in adolescence. One psychophysiological measure of motivation, the error-related negativity (ERN), is an ERP following an error. In adults, the ERN is enhanced by contextual factors that influence motivation, such as social observation and evaluation. The current study examined relations among age and neural responses in social contexts in adolescence...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681868/impaired-cognitive-control-of-emotional-conflict-in-trait-anxiety-a-preliminary-study-based-on-clinical-and-non-clinical-individuals
#14
Yongju Yu, Chenggang Jiang, Haiyan Xu, Qian Yang, Jiawen Li, Yuanyuan Xu, Wenjun Xiang, Li Peng, Botao Liu, Fang Lv, Min Li
Background: It has been observed that trait anxiety easily leads to conflict maladaptation under conflict circumstances. However, it remains unclear whether the precise neural mechanisms underlying the effects of high trait anxiety (HTA) on cognitive control are consistent in high trait anxious individuals, with and without anxiety disorders. Methods: The present study recruited 29 healthy volunteers with low trait anxiety (LTA), 37 healthy volunteers with HTA, and 23 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677319/focusing-and-orienting-spatial-attention-differently-modulate-crowding-in-central-and-peripheral-vision
#15
Andrea Albonico, Marialuisa Martelli, Emanuela Bricolo, Eleonora Frasson, Roberta Daini
The allocation of attentional resources to a particular location or object in space involves two distinct processes: an orienting process and a focusing process. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that performance of different visual tasks can be improved when a cue, such as a dot, anticipates the position of the target (orienting), or when its dimensions (as in the case of a small square) inform about the size of the attentional window (focusing). Here, we examine the role of these two components of visuo-spatial attention (orienting and focusing) in modulating crowding in peripheral (Experiment 1 and Experiment 3a) and foveal (Experiment 2 and Experiment 3b) vision...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668394/it-s-the-other-way-around-early-modulation-of-sensory-distractor-processing-induced-by-late-response-conflict
#16
Bernhard Pastötter, Christian Frings
Understanding the neural processes that maintain goal-directed behavior is a major challenge for the study of attentional control. Although much of the previous work on the issue has focused on prefrontal brain areas, little is known about the contribution of sensory brain processes to the regulation of attentional control. The present EEG study examined brain oscillatory activities invoked in the processing of response conflict in a lateralized Eriksen single-flanker task, in which target letters were presented at fixation and single distractor letters were presented either left or right to the targets...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665432/moderate-intensity-exercise-boosts-the-n2-neural-inhibition-marker-a-randomized-and-counterbalanced-erp-study-with-precisely-controlled-exercise-intensity
#17
Tomasz S Ligeza, Marcin Maciejczyk, Patrycja Kałamała, Zbigniew Szygula, Miroslaw Wyczesany
A prior session of moderate intensity continuous exercise (MCE) benefits performance during tasks requiring conflict resolution but the specific cognitive process that underlies this improvement remains unknown. Many studies postulate that MCE increases inhibition, but ERP evidence is ambiguous due to significant differences across past procedures. Most importantly, exercise intensity, which modulates the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive processes, might have varied across past ERP studies...
April 14, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665048/a-neural-biomarker-the-error-related-negativity-predicts-the-first-onset-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-a-large-sample-of-adolescent-females
#18
Alexandria Meyer, Brady Nelson, Greg Perlman, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: An increased neural response to making mistakes has emerged as a potential biomarker of anxiety across development. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential elicited when people make mistakes on simple laboratory-based reaction time tasks that has been associated with risk for anxiety. This study examined whether the ERN prospectively predicted the first onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) over 1.5 years in adolescent girls. METHODS: The sample included 457 girls between the ages of 13...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663286/how-holistic-processing-of-faces-relates-to-cognitive-control-and-intelligence
#19
Isabel Gauthier, Kao-Wei Chua, Jennifer J Richler
The Vanderbilt Holistic Processing Test for faces (VHPT-F) is the first standard test designed to measure individual differences in holistic processing. The test measures failures of selective attention to face parts through congruency effects, an operational definition of holistic processing. However, this conception of holistic processing has been challenged by the suggestion that it may tap into the same selective attention or cognitive control mechanisms that yield congruency effects in Stroop and Flanker paradigms...
April 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627273/neural-functional-correlates-of-the-impact-of-socio-emotional-stimuli-on-performances-on-a-flanker-task-in-children-aged-9-11-years
#20
Morgane Réveillon, François Lazeyras, Laurens Van Calster, Yann Cojan, David Sander, Petra S Hüppi, Koviljka Barrisnikov
Immature cognition is susceptible to interference from competing information, and particularly in affectively charged situations. Several studies have reported activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and amygdala associated with emotional conflict processing in adults but literature is lacking regarding children. Moreover, studies in children and adolescents still disagree regarding the functional activation of amygdala related to facial stimuli. In the purpose of investigating both the effect of socio-emotional stimuli and its interaction with interference control, we designed a flanker task associated with an event-related fMRI paradigm in 30 healthy children ages 9-11...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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