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Flanker task

Mithras Kuipers, Michael Richter, Daan Scheepers, Maarten A Immink, Elio Sjak-Shie, Henk van Steenbergen
The ability to adjust attentional focus to varying levels of task demands depends on the adaptive recruitment of cognitive control processes. The present study investigated for the first time whether the mobilization of cognitive control during response-conflict trials in a flanker task is associated with effort-related sympathetic activity as measured by changes in the RZ-interval at a single-trial level, thus providing an alternative to the pre-ejection period (PEP) which can only be reliably measured in ensemble-averaged data...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Kerstin Jost, Mike Wendt, Aquiles Luna-Rodriguez, Andreas Löw, Thomas Jacobsen
In choice reaction time (RT) tasks, performance is often influenced by the presence of nominally irrelevant stimuli, referred to as distractors. Recent research provided evidence that distractor processing can be adjusted to the utility of the distractors: Distractors predictive of the upcoming target/response were more attended to and also elicited stronger motor responses. In an event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated whether not only the extent of distractor processing (as suggested by these previous results), but also the timing of distractor-based response activation is subject to strategic control...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Volker Thoma, Neil Ward, Jan W de Fockert
Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kenneth R Paap, Sawi Oliver
BACKGROUND: Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. NEW METHOD: Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Shih-Chun Kao, Eric S Drollette, Mark R Scudder, Lauren B Raine, Daniel R Westfall, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
The authors used a conditional accuracy function (CAF) method to compute the mean accuracy of multiple reaction time ranges, to investigate the association between aerobic fitness and the utilization of cognitive control strategy during preadolescence. Thirty-eight higher- and lower-fit children were grouped according to their cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max) and completed a modified flanker task. Seventeen young adults were recruited as a reference group of maturation. The results showed that higher-fit children exhibited an adult-like performance pattern, and demonstrated increased overall response accuracy compared to lower-fit children, with a disproportionally larger increase in individual responses when the time allowed for discriminative processing was constrained...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Emily L Coderre, Jason F Smith, Walter J B van Heuven, Barry Horwitz
The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control (EC) in bilinguals such that the EC and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where EC and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of EC during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic EC, we hypothesize that regions commonly involvement in language processing, linguistic EC, and non-linguistic EC may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals...
May 2016: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Manuel Petrucci, Anna Pecchinenda
The role of cognitive control mechanisms in reducing interference from emotionally salient distractors was investigated. In two experiments, participants performed a flanker task in which target-distractor affective compatibility and cognitive load were manipulated. Differently from past studies, targets and distractors were presented at separate spatial locations and cognitive load was not domain-specific. In Experiment 1, words (positive vs. negative) and faces (angry, happy or neutral faces), were used respectively as targets and distractors, whereas in Experiment 2, both targets (happy vs...
September 30, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
David Chan, Jason Rajsic, Jay Pratt
University-based psychological research typically relies on the participation of undergraduate students for data collection. Using this particular sample brings with it several possible issues, including the self-scheduling done by the participants. Research on performance between students who sign up early versus late in the semester has been inconsistent. Some research report benefits for early participant semesters, while others find no differences between the two groups. Anecdotally, it seems that the former holds true, as many researchers worry about the data collected late in the semester, sometimes opting for more motivated earlier participants in the next semester...
September 21, 2016: Vision Research
Gregory L Hanna, Yanni Liu, Yona E Isaacs, Angela M Ayoub, Jose J Torres, Nolan B O'Hara, William J Gehring
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves increased activity in corticostriatal circuits connecting the anterior cingulate cortex with other brain regions. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response that is believed to reflect anterior cingulate cortex activity. This study examined the relation of the ERN to OCD symptom dimensions and other childhood symptom dimensions. METHOD: The ERN, correct response negativity, and accuracy were measured during a flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 80 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 80 matched healthy comparison participants ranging from 8 to 18 years old...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Sarah Baumeister, Isabella Wolf, Nathalie Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Nicoletta Adamo, Martin Holtmann, Matthias Ruf, Tobias Banaschewski, Sarah Hohmann, Daniel Brandeis
Neurofeedback training (NF) is a promising non-pharmacological treatment for ADHD that has been associated with improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms as well as changes in electrophysiological measures. However, the functional localization of neural changes following NF compared to an active control condition, and of successful learning during training (considered to be the critical mechanism for improvement), remains largely unstudied. Children with ADHD (N=16, mean age: 11...
September 19, 2016: Neuroscience
Teal S Eich, Anna MacKay-Brandt, Yaakov Stern, Daniel Gopher
OBJECTIVES: Recent work has identified different aspects of executive function that may underlie cognitive changes associated with age. The current study used a multifactorial design to investigate age sensitivity in the ability to shift between different task sets and the interaction of this ability with several specific aspects of executive control. METHOD: A large, well-characterized sample of younger (n = 40) and clinically healthy older (n = 51) adults completed a task switching paradigm in which 3 aspects of executive control were manipulated between subjects: a) sensorimotor demand (the number of distinct stimulus-response options); b) stimulus-level interference (i...
September 15, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Giorgia Michelini, Glenn L Kitsune, Celeste H M Cheung, Daniel Brandeis, Tobias Banaschewski, Philip Asherson, Gráinne McLoughlin, Jonna Kuntsi
BACKGROUND: The processes underlying persistence and remission of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are poorly understood. We examined whether cognitive and neurophysiological impairments on a performance-monitoring task distinguish between ADHD persisters and remitters. METHODS: On average 6 years after initial assessment, 110 adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD (87 persisters, 23 remitters) and 169 age-matched control participants were compared on cognitive-performance measures and event-related potentials of conflict monitoring (N2) and error processing (error-related negativity and positivity) from an arrow flanker task with low-conflict and high-conflict conditions...
July 5, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Sonya Troller-Renfree, Charles A Nelson, Charles H Zeanah, Nathan A Fox
BACKGROUND: Children raised in institutions are at increased risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. However, not all children raised in institutions develop psychopathology. Deficits in error monitoring may be one risk pathway for children with a history of institutionalization given that these skills are related to both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. Error monitoring and the neural circuitry that supports it have a protracted developmental time course and are highly susceptible to the effects of adversity...
October 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
P Cédric M P Koolschijn, Matthan W A Caan, Jalmar Teeuw, Sílvia D Olabarriaga, Hilde M Geurts
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is typified as a brain connectivity disorder in which white matter abnormalities are already present early on in life. However, it is unknown if and to which extent these abnormalities are hard-wired in (older) adults with ASD and how this interacts with age-related white matter changes as observed in typical aging. The aim of this first cross-sectional study in mid- and late-aged adults with ASD was to characterize white matter microstructure and its relationship with age. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging with head motion control in 48 adults with ASD and 48 age-matched controls (30-74 years), who also completed a Flanker task...
August 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Kilian Semmelmann, Sarah Weigelt
Using the Internet to acquire behavioral data is currently on the rise. However, very basic questions regarding the feasibility of online psychophysics are still open. Here, we aimed to replicate five well-known paradigms in experimental psychology (Stroop, Flanker, visual search, masked priming, attentional blink) in three settings (classical "lab", "web-in-lab", "web") to account for possible changes in technology and environment. Lab and web-in-lab data were both acquired in an in-lab setting with lab using "Gold Standard" methods, while web-in-lab used web technology...
August 5, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Autumn Kujawa, Anna Weinberg, Nora Bunford, Kate D Fitzgerald, Gregory L Hanna, Christopher S Monk, Amy E Kennedy, Heide Klumpp, Greg Hajcak, K Luan Phan
Increased error monitoring, as measured by the error-related negativity (ERN), has been shown to persist after treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder in youth and adults; however, no previous studies have examined the ERN following treatment for related anxiety disorders. We used a flanker task to elicit the ERN in 28 youth and young adults (8-26years old) with primary diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 35 healthy controls. Patients were assessed before and after treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), and healthy controls were assessed at a comparable interval...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Maria Lev, Uri Polat
Collinear facilitation is an enhancement in the visibility of a target by laterally placed iso-oriented flankers in a collinear (COL) configuration. Iso-oriented flankers placed in a non-collinear configuration (side-by-side, SBS) produce less facilitation. Surprisingly, presentation of both configurations simultaneously (ISO-CROSS) abolishes the facilitation rather than increases it - a phenomenon that can't be fully explained by the spatial properties of the target and flankers. Based on our preliminary data and recent studies, we hypothesized that there might be a novel explanation based on the temporal properties of the excitation and inhibition, resulting in asynchrony between the lateral inputs received from COL and SBS, leading to cancelation of the facilitatory component in ISO-CROSS...
2016: Scientific Reports
Barbara Schulte Holthausen, Christina Regenbogen, Bruce I Turetsky, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
[This corrects the article on p. 712 in vol. 7, PMID: 27252665.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ingmar H A Franken, Ilse M T Nijs, Ashley Toes, Frederik M van der Veen
Currently, there is an ongoing debate about whether it is possible to be addicted to food. There are several indications pointing in this direction, but research is scarce. Up to this date it is not exactly known whether this "food addiction" shares common neurocognitive deficits observed in the more classical types of addictions such as substance use disorders (SUDs). One commonly observed finding in SUD patients is that there is an impaired cognitive control. One of the essential components of cognitive control is performance monitoring...
July 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
Wesley K Lefferts, Matthew C Babcock, Matthew J Tiss, Stephen J Ives, Corey N White, Tom D Brutsaert, Kevin S Heffernan
Exercise in hypoxia places added demands on the brain and cerebrovasculature that can impact cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute hypoxia on cerebrovascular hemodynamics, markers of neuro-steroidal modulation and brain-blood barrier (BBB) integrity, and cognition during exercise. Thirty healthy participants (21±4yrs., BMI 24.0±2.6kg∙m(-2); 15 men) were randomized to both a≈2.5h normoxic (FiO2 20.0%) and hypoxic (FiO2 12.5%) condition on two separate days...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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