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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811585/age-related-changes-in-crowding-and-reading-speed
#1
Rong Liu, Bhavika N Patel, MiYoung Kwon
Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6 ± 3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2 ± 7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance between a target and flankers required to yield a criterion recognition accuracy) and the size of the visual span (an uncrowded window in the visual field within which letters can be recognizable reliably)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800339/perceptual-learning-improves-contrast-sensitivity-visual-acuity-and-foveal-crowding-in-amblyopia
#2
Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini, Andrea Pavan, Clara Casco
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic observers present abnormal spatial interactions between a low-contrast sinusoidal target and high-contrast collinear flankers. It has been demonstrated that perceptual learning (PL) can modulate these low-level lateral interactions, resulting in improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: We measured the extent and duration of generalization effects to various spatial tasks (i.e., visual acuity, Vernier acuity, and foveal crowding) through PL on the target's contrast detection...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776486/effects-of-age-on-inhibitory-control-are-affected-by-task-specific-features
#3
Angela de Bruin, Sergio Della Sala
Older adults have been argued to have impoverished inhibitory control compared to younger adults. However, these effects of age may depend on processing speed and their manifestation may furthermore depend on the type of inhibitory control task that is used. We present two experiments that examine age effects on inhibition across three tasks: a Simon arrow, static flanker, and motion flanker task. The results showed overall slower RTs for older adults on all three tasks. However, effects of age on inhibition costs were only found for the Simon task, but not for the two flanker tasks...
August 4, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774794/the-acute-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cognitive-control-among-people-with-chronic-stroke
#4
Karli Swatridge, Kayla Regan, William Richard Staines, Eric Roy, Laura Elizabeth Middleton
BACKGROUND: Over half of stroke survivors have cognitive impairment, which impedes rehabilitation and functional recovery. Evidence suggests a single session of aerobic exercise improves cognitive functions among healthy adults. Whether this holds true for stroke survivors is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether one session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves the cognitive control and attention of stroke survivors. METHODS: Nine people with chronic stroke (≥6 months poststroke) performed a modified Eriksen Flanker task with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) before and immediately, 20 minutes, and 40 minutes after 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise and after 20 minutes of rest...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757233/cognitive-conflict-increases-processing-of-negative-task-irrelevant-stimuli
#5
Tomasz S Ligeza, Miroslaw Wyczesany
The detection of cognitive conflict is thought to trigger adjustments in executive control. It has been recently shown that cognitive conflict increases processing of stimuli that are relevant to the ongoing task and that these modulations are exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, it is still unclear whether such control influences are unspecific and might also affect the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive conflict affects processing of neutral and negative, task-irrelevant pictures...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751739/distinct-brain-responses-to-different-inhibitions-evidence-from-a-modified-flanker-task
#6
Liufang Xie, Maofan Ren, Bihua Cao, Fuhong Li
Whether inhibition is a unitary or multifaceted construct is still an open question. To clarify the electrophysiological distinction among the different types of inhibition, we used a modified flanker paradigm, in which interference inhibition, rule inhibition, and response inhibition were compared to non-inhibition condition. The results indicated that, compared to the non-inhibition condition (1) the interference inhibition condition induced larger negativities during N2 epoch at the frontal region, (2) the rule inhibition condition elicited a larger N1 at the posterior region, followed by a larger P3a at the frontal region, reflecting the function of proactive cognitive control in the new stimulus-reaction (S-R) association, and (3) the response inhibition condition evoked a larger P3b at the posterior region, reflecting the process of suppressing the old response and reprogramming the new action...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741423/cognitive-control-in-young-adults-with-cannabis-use-disorder-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#7
David Lr Maij, Ben Jm van de Wetering, Ingmar Ha Franken
Contemporary models of substance use disorders emphasize the role of cognitive control, which has been linked to difficulties in resisting the use of substances. In the present study, we measured two aspects of cognitive control, response inhibition (operationalized by a Go/NoGo Task) and performance monitoring (operationalized by an Eriksen Flanker Task), in a group of young cannabis-use disorder (CUD) patients and compared these functions with two control groups (i.e. a group of cigarette smokers and a group of non-smokers)...
August 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726513/effects-of-depression-and-past-year-binge-drinking-on-cognitive-control-processes-during-a-flanker-task-in-college-aged-adults
#8
Arin M Connell, Sarah Danzo, Glen Dawson
BACKGROUND: Recent but largely separate literatures have examined neurocognitive alterations related to both depression and binge drinking, suggesting similar patterns of impairments in attention control and decisional processes. However, depression and problematic alcohol use tend to co-occur, and few studies have examined whether cognitive processing effects of depression and binge drinking are independent or interacting. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined joint effects of depressive symptoms and past-year binge drinking on cognitive processing (measured via EEG assessment)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726177/the-reliability-paradox-why-robust-cognitive-tasks-do-not-produce-reliable-individual-differences
#9
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Petroc Sumner
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships...
July 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713237/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-executive-function-interplay-between-inhibition-and-updating-processes
#10
Na Young Kim, Ellen Wittenberg, Chang S Nam
This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711672/the-flexible-engagement-of-monitoring-processes-in-non-focal-and-focal-prospective-memory-tasks-with-salient-cues
#11
Carmen Hefer, Anna-Lisa Cohen, Alexander Jaudas, Gesine Dreisbach
Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform a delayed intention. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability to suspend such an intention and thus to confirm previous findings (Cohen, Gordon, Jaudas, Hefer, & Dreisbach, 2016) demonstrating the ability to flexibly engage in monitoring processes. In the current study, we presented a perceptually salient PM cue (bold and red) to rule out that previous findings were limited to non-salient and, thus, easy to ignore PM cues. Moreover, we used both a non-focal (Experiment 1) and a focal PM (Experiment 2) cue...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711379/the-attentiontrip-a-game-like-tool-for-measuring-the-networks-of-attention
#12
Raymond M Klein, Tariq Hassan, Graham Wilson, Yoko Ishigami, Jonathan Mulle
BACKGROUND: Recognizing that attention is not a unitary system, the Attention Network Test (ANT) and its variants were developed to measure the efficacy of the multiple components of attention. One potential weakness of these tests (ANTs) is that they are unengaging. This poses a problem when particular groups are tested (e.g., young children), when more stable measures of performance are desirable (and can only be achieved in longer testing sessions) and when repeated testing is necessary...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711111/to-do-or-not-to-do-task-control-deficit-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Eyal Kalanthroff, Avishai Henik, Helen Blair Simpson, Doron Todder, Gideon E Anholt
Task control is an executive control mechanism that facilitates goal-directed task selection by suppressing irrelevant automatic "stimulus-driven" behaviors. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that less efficient task control in individuals diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with OCD symptoms, and specifically, with the inability to inhibit unwanted behaviors in OCD. Thirty-five healthy controls, 30 participants with OCD, and 26 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) completed the object-interference (OI) task to measure task control, the stop-signal task to measure response inhibition, and the arrow-flanker task to evaluate executive abilities not contingent upon task control...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701934/neuronal-intra-individual-variability-masks-response-selection-differences-between-adhd-subtypes-a-need-to-change-perspectives
#14
Annet Bluschke, Witold X Chmielewski, Moritz Mückschel, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Due to the high intra-individual variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there may be considerable bias in knowledge about altered neurophysiological processes underlying executive dysfunctions in patients with different ADHD subtypes. When aiming to establish dimensional cognitive-neurophysiological constructs representing symptoms of ADHD as suggested by the initiative for Research Domain Criteria, it is crucial to consider such processes independent of variability. We examined patients with the predominantly inattentive subtype (attention deficit disorder, ADD) and the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD-C) in a flanker task measuring conflict control...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694229/motor-expertise-modulates-neural-oscillations-and-temporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-control
#15
Chun-Hao Wang, Cheng-Ta Yang, David Moreau, Neil G Muggleton
The field of motor expertise in athletes has recently been receiving increasing levels of investigation. However, there has been less investigation of how dynamic changes in behavior and in neural activity as a result of sporting participation might result in superiority for athletes in domain-general cognition. We used a flanker task to investigate conflict-related behavioral measures, such as mean reaction time (RT) and RT variability, in conjunction with electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, including N2d, theta activity power, and inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC)...
July 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690571/the-correlation-among-neural-dynamic-processing-of-conflict-control-testosterone-and-cortisol-levels-in-10-year-old-children
#16
Fangfang Shangguan, Tongran Liu, Xiuying Liu, Jiannong Shi
Cognitive control is related to goal-directed self-regulation abilities, which is fundamental for human development. Conflict control includes the neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Testosterone and cortisol are essential hormones for the development of cognitive functions. However, there are no studies that have investigated the correlation of these two hormones with conflict control in preadolescents. In this study, we aimed to explore whether testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol ratio worked differently for preadolescent's conflict control processes in varied conflict control tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683069/emotional-cue-validity-effects-the-role-of-neurocognitive-responses-to-emotion
#17
Samantha Denefrio, Akeesha Simmons, Amishi Jha, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary
The beneficial effect of valid compared to invalid cues on attention performance is a basic attentional mechanism, but the impact of emotional content on cue validity is poorly understood. We tested whether the effect of cue validity on attention performance differed when cues were angry, happy, or neutral faces. Moreover, we used scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting the capture of early visual attention (P1, N170) to test whether effects were strengthened when neurocognitive responses to angry or happy cues were enhanced (larger P1 and N170 amplitudes)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676780/prolonged-interruption-of-cognitive-control-of-conflict-processing-over-human-faces-by-task-irrelevant-emotion-expression
#18
Jinyoung Kim, Min-Suk Kang, Yang Seok Cho, Sang-Hun Lee
As documented by Darwin 150 years ago, emotion expressed in human faces readily draws our attention and promotes sympathetic emotional reactions. How do such reactions to the expression of emotion affect our goal-directed actions? Despite the substantial advance made in the neural mechanisms of both cognitive control and emotional processing, it is not yet known well how these two systems interact. Here, we studied how emotion expressed in human faces influences cognitive control of conflict processing, spatial selective attention and inhibitory control in particular, using the Eriksen flanker paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664035/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-circadian-cognitive-control-in-rls-patients-an-eeg-source-localization-study
#19
Rui Zhang, Moritz D Brandt, Wiebke Schrempf, Christian Beste, Ann-Kathrin Stock
The circadian variation of sensory and motor symptoms with increasing severity in the evening and at night is a key diagnostic feature/symptom of the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Even though many neurological diseases have shown a strong nexus between motor and cognitive symptoms, it has remained unclear whether cognitive performance of RLS patients declines in the evening and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by the circadian variation. In the current study, we examined daytime effects (morning vs...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659750/development-of-performance-and-erps-in-a-flanker-task-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-a-follow-up-study
#20
Heike Eichele, Tom Eichele, Lynn Marquardt, Steinunn Adolfsdottir, Kenneth Hugdahl, Lin Sørensen, Kerstin J Plessen
Background: Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with childhood-onset, with a typical decline in tic severity, as well as an increasing ability to suppress tics in late childhood and adolescence. These processes develop in parallel with general improvement of self-regulatory abilities, and performance monitoring during this age-span. Hence, changes in performance monitoring over time might provide insight into the regulation of tics in children and adolescents with TS. Method: We measured reaction time, reaction time variability, accuracy, and event-related potentials (ERP) in 17 children with TS, including 10 children with comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 24 children with ADHD, and 29 typically developing children, using a modified Eriksen Flanker task in two testing sessions administered on average 4...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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