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Flanker task

Chisato Mine, Jun Saiki
Feature-reward association elicits value-driven attentional capture (VDAC) regardless of the task relevance of associated features. What are the necessary conditions for feature-reward associations in VDAC? Recent studies claim that VDAC is based on Pavlovian conditioning. In this study, we manipulated the temporal relationships among feature, response, and reward in reward learning to elucidate the necessary components of VDAC. We presented reward-associated features in a variety of locations in a flanker task to form a color-reward association (training phase) and then tested VDAC in a subsequent visual search task (test phase)...
March 14, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Chia-Liang Tsai, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová, Ming-Chyi Pai
Although exercise is an effective way to decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, the biological basis for such benefits from the different exercise modes remains elusive. The present study thus aimed (i) to investigate the effects of acute aerobic or resistance exercise on neurocognitive performances and molecular markers when performing a cognitive task involving executive functioning in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and (ii) to explore relationships of acute exercise-induced neurocognitive changes with changes in circulating levels of neuroprotective growth factors (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sebastian Ludyga, Markus Gerber, Serge Brand, Uwe Pühse, Flora Colledge
PURPOSE: Acute benefits of aerobic exercise on executive functioning have been reported frequently under laboratory conditions. However, to date, a beneficial effect on long-term memory has been less well supported and no data are available regarding nonlaboratory conditions in young adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in a university classroom setting. METHOD: Using a cross-over design, 51 participants performed a bout of moderately intense running (RUN) and read an article while seated (CON)...
March 7, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Mélanie Brion, Valérie Dormal, Séverine Lannoy, Serge Mertens, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) simultaneously present decreased inhibitory control and increased attention towards alcohol-related cues. The dual-process models have proposed that these symptoms reflect an imbalance between prefrontal/reflective and limbic/automatic systems, respectively leading to cognitive dysfunctions in executive processes and to alcohol-related bias. However, most previous research has focused on a separate exploration of these systems among ALC, and the direct measure of their interactions remains to be conducted...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Stephanie J Kayser, Christoph Kayser
A well-known effect in multisensory perception is that congruent information received by different senses usually leads to faster and more accurate responses. Less well understood are trial-by-trial interactions, whereby the multisensory composition of stimuli experienced during previous trials shapes performance during a subsequent trial. We here exploit the analogy of multisensory paradigms with classical flanker tasks to investigate the neural correlates underlying trial-by-trial interactions of multisensory congruency...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Scott A Wylie, Theodore R Bashore, Nelleke C Van Wouwe, Emily J Mason, Kevin D John, Joseph S Neimat, Brandon A Ally
American football is played in a chaotic visual environment filled with relevant and distracting information. We investigated the hypothesis that collegiate football players show exceptional skill at shielding their response execution from the interfering effects of distraction ( interference control ). The performances of 280 football players from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football programs were compared to age-matched controls in a variant of the Eriksen flanker task (Eriksen and Eriksen, 1974)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lotte Meteyard, Nicholas Holmes
BACKGROUND: The magnetic pulse generated during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) also stimulates cutaneous nerves and muscle fibres, with the most commonly reported side effect being muscle twitches and sometimes painful sensations. These sensations affect behaviour during experimental tasks, presenting a potential confound for 'online' TMS studies. NEW METHOD: Our objective was to systematically map the degree of disturbance (ratings of annoyance, pain, and muscle twitches) caused by TMS at 43 locations across the scalp...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Iris M Spruit, Tom F Wilderjans, Henk van Steenbergen
Posterror slowing (PES) is the observation that people respond slower on trials subsequent to error commissions than on trials subsequent to correct responses. Different accounts have been proposed to explain PES. On the one hand, it has been suggested that PES arises from an adaptive increase in cognitive control following error commission, thereby making people more cautious after making an error. On the other hand, PES has been attributed to an orienting response, indicating that attention is shifted toward the error...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Katharina Wick, Oliver Faude, Susanne Manes, Lukas Zahner, Lars Donath
Sedentarism is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of employing standing desks in classrooms on cognitive function. The intervention class (IG; n = 19) was supplied with standing desks and balance pads for 11 weeks. The control class (CG; n = 19) received lessons as usual. Standing time was assessed objectively (accelerometers) and subjectively (self-report sheets, external classroom observers). The impact of standing on the digit span task and Eriksen flanker task was analysed...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Robert D Melara, Lesia M Ruglass, Eric A Fertuck, Denise A Hien
The current study investigated links between trauma exposure, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and inhibitory control assessed using a modified version of the visual flanker task. The study had three aims: (1) specifically confirm general non-affective deficits in sustained attention in PTSD; (2) probe the influence of threatening and trauma-related stimuli on inhibitory control; and (3) explore neural correlates connecting PTSD, facets of dissociation, and inhibitory control. Participants with PTSD (n=16), trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE; n=14), and healthy controls (n=15) discriminated line orientations while ignoring temporally flanking lines and images depicting threatening or non-threatening scenes or faces...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychology
Ryan S Williams, Farrah Kudus, Benjamin J Dyson, Julia Spaniol
Preparing for upcoming events, separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant information and efficiently responding to stimuli all require cognitive control. The adaptive recruitment of cognitive control depends on activity in the dopaminergic reward system as well as the frontoparietal control network. In healthy aging, dopaminergic neuromodulation is reduced, resulting in altered incentive-based recruitment of control mechanisms. In the present study, younger adults (18-28 years) and healthy older adults (66-89 years) completed an incentivized flanker task that included gain, loss, and neutral trials...
February 1, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Emma G Johnson, Sarah Skromanis, Raimondo Bruno, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia A Honan
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond...
February 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Matthew J C Crump, Bruce Milliken, Jason Leboe-McGowan, Launa Leboe-McGowan, Xiaoqing Gao
There are several independent demonstrations that attentional phenomena can be controlled in a context-dependent manner by cues associated with differing attentional control demands. The present set of experiments provide converging evidence that attention-capture phenomena can be modulated in a context-dependent fashion. We determined whether methods from the proportion congruent literature (listwide and item- and context-specific proportion congruent designs) that are known to modulate distractor interference effects in Stroop and flanker tasks are capable of modulating attention capture by salient feature singletons...
February 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
Julia Siemann, Manfred Herrmann, Daniela Galashan
The present study examined whether feature-based cueing affects early or late stages of flanker conflict processing using EEG and fMRI. Feature cues either directed participants' attention to the upcoming colour of the target or were neutral. Validity-specific modulations during interference processing were investigated using the N200 event-related potential (ERP) component and BOLD signal differences. Additionally, both data sets were integrated using an fMRI-constrained source analysis. Finally, the results were compared with a previous study in which spatial instead of feature-based cueing was applied to an otherwise identical flanker task...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manson Cheuk-Man Fong, Nga Yan Hui, Edith Sze Wan Fung, Patrick Chun Kau Chu, William Shi-Yuan Wang
The N2 component is a well-known neural correlate of conflict monitoring (CM), being more negative in the presence of conflicting information in visual conflict tasks. However, whether to-be-ignored auditory distractors can introduce additional conflict remains unknown. In the present work, subjects performed a visual (V) and audiovisual (AV) version of a Go/NoGo flanker task, and responded only if the target arrow pointed toward a pre-specified direction (e.g., left). In the AV task, in which to-be-ignored auditory distractors that were semantically associated with the flankers were concurrently presented, the congruency effect on both RT and N2 amplitude were enhanced, confirming that additional conflict can be brought about by cross-modal distractors at both behavioural and neural levels...
January 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ryan L Olson, Christopher J Brush, Peter J Ehmann, Jennifer F Buckman, Brandon L Alderman
Previous research has demonstrated long-term deficits in neurocognitive function in individuals with a history of sport-related concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of concussion and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) indices of pre- and post-response conflict and error monitoring. A secondary aim was to determine whether years of high risk sport participation were related to impairments in these cognitive control processes. Forty-seven former athletes (age = 20...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jasmine B Taylor, Troy A W Visser, Simone N Fueggle, Mark A Bellgrove, Allison M Fox
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have postulated that the error-related negativity (ERN) may reflect individual differences in impulsivity; however, none have used a longitudinal framework or evaluated impulsivity as a multidimensional construct. The current study evaluated whether ERN amplitude, measured in childhood and adolescence, is predictive of impulsiveness during adolescence. METHODS: Seventy-five children participated in this study, initially at ages 7-9 years and again at 12-18 years...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
Lize Van der Linden, Nele Verreyt, Miet De Letter, Dimitri Hemelsoet, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Michaël Stevens, Arnaud Szmalec, Wouter Duyck
BACKGROUND: Until today, there is no satisfying explanation for why one language may recover worse than another in differential bilingual aphasia. One potential explanation that has been largely unexplored is that differential aphasia is the consequence of a loss of language control rather than a loss of linguistic representations. Language control is part of a general control mechanism that also manages non-linguistic cognitive control. If this system is impaired, patients with differential aphasia could still show bilingual language activation, but they may be unable to manage activation in non-target languages, so that performance in another language is hindered...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Joshua Snell, Daisy Bertrand, Jonathan Grainger
The masked-priming lexical decision task has been the paradigm of choice for investigating how readers code for letter identity and position. Insight into the temporal integration of information between prime and target words has pointed out, among other things, that readers do not code for the absolute position of letters. This conception has spurred various accounts of the word recognition process, but the results at present do not favor one account in particular. Thus, employing a new strategy, the present study moves out of the arena of temporal- and into the arena of spatial information integration...
January 8, 2018: Memory & Cognition
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