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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631968/improving-kindergarten-readiness-in-children-with-developmental-disabilities-changes-in-neural-correlates-of-response-monitoring
#1
Jennifer Martin McDermott, Katherine C Pears, Jacqueline Bruce, Hyoun K Kim, Leslie Roos, Karen L Yoerger, Philip A Fisher
Among children diagnosed with developmental delays, difficulties in self-regulation are prominent and have been linked to school readiness problems. The current study sought to examine the impact of the Kids in Transition to School (KITS) school readiness intervention program on self-regulation, with a specific focus on response monitoring skills, among children with developmental delays. Children (n = 20 in the KITS group and n = 21 in a services as usual group) were administered a flanker task during which event-related potential data were collected to examine group differences in response monitoring...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628797/attenuated-error-related-potentials-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-executive-dysfunctions
#2
Caroline Seer, Max Joop, Florian Lange, Christian Lange, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Bruno Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunctions affect up to 50% of the patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Executive dysfunctions have been identified as negative prognostic factor and can affect quality of life in patients and their caregivers. Assessment of executive dysfunction may be impeded by the patients' motor impairments. Event-related potentials (ERP) have been proposed as a tool to overcome these assessment difficulties. The error(-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) is an ERP which can be recorded with minimal motor requirements for the patient...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628557/excessive-hemodynamic-activity-in-the-superior-frontal-cortex-during-the-flanker-task-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Kota Suzuki, Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Yuhei Oi, Yushiro Yamashita, Takaaki Goto, Masumi Inagaki
Near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown excessive prefrontal activity responsible for coping with interference. However, it is possible that the previous results were influenced by verbal, reading, and memory developments. The flanker task is an interference task that does not require a verbal response, reading, or memorization. We examined activity in the superior frontal cortex (SFC) during the flanker task in 12 children with ADHD and 14 children with typical development using near-infrared spectroscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622956/obesity-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-cognitive-function-in-childhood
#4
Lauren B Raine, Naiman A Khan, Eric S Drollette, Matthew B Pontifex, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a 9-month physical activity intervention on changes in adiposity and cognitive control based on pretrial weight status (ie, healthy weight vs obese) in children. STUDY DESIGN: Participants included obese (n = 77) and matched healthy-weight (n = 77) preadolescents (8-9 years) who participated in a 9-month physical activity randomized controlled trial. Cognitive function was assessed with an inhibitory control task (modified flanker task)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621433/stability-and-reliability-of-error-related-electromyography-over-the-corrugator-supercilii-with-increasing-trials
#5
Nathaniel Elkins-Brown, Blair Saunders, Frank He, Michael Inzlicht
Electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (cEMG), the primary facial muscle involved in negative emotions, is increased during the commission of errors on speeded reaction-time tasks. In the present paper, data from two previously published studies were reanalyzed to investigate the reliability and stability of error-related, correct-related, and difference cEMG across increasing numbers of trials. For a modified go/no-go and a flanker task, we found that error-related cEMG was highly stable and reliable in 14 trials, and correct-related cEMG between 56 and 82 trials, respectively...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608273/how-long-lasting-is-the-post-conflict-slowing-after-incongruent-trials-evidence-from-the-stroop-simon-and-flanker-tasks
#6
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Beat Meier
The purpose of the present study was to determine how long-lasting the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli is. In previous research, incongruent stimuli have been used to induce a conflict because they have relevant features for two different response alternatives. So far, the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli has mainly been assessed up to one trial. In the first two experiments, we assessed the persistence of the post-conflict slowing across several trials. To this end, we presented a few incongruent stimuli among non-conflict stimuli...
June 12, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608004/effector-system-specific-sequential-modulations-of-congruency-effects
#7
Markus Janczyk, Hartmut Leuthold
Congruency effects in conflict tasks are reliably reduced after experiencing conflict, that is, following incongruent trials. Such sequential modulations (sometimes referred to as the Gratton effect) indicate the operation of conflict adaptation mechanisms. The influential conflict monitoring hypothesis suggested that after conflict the processing of relevant stimulus dimensions is increased. Alternatively, it was suggested that the influence of automatic response activation is suppressed following conflict...
June 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606471/impact-of-anxiety-symptoms-and-problematic-alcohol-use-on-error-related-brain-activity
#8
Stephanie M Gorka, K Luan Phan
Anxiety disorders are associated with enhanced defensive reactivity to errors, measured via the error-related negativity (ERN). There is some evidence to suggest that problematic alcohol use is also associated with an enhanced ERN; although prior studies have been almost exclusively in men and have yet to examine the potential interactive effects of anxiety and alcohol abuse symptoms. The aim of the current study was to address the gaps in this literature by examining the unique and interactive effects of anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use on the ERN in a sample of 79 heterogeneous internalizing disorder patients...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603562/meditation-in-stressed-older-adults-improvements-in-self-rated-mental-health-not-paralleled-by-improvements-in-cognitive-function-or-physiological-measures
#9
Barry S Oken, Helané Wahbeh, Elena Goodrich, Daniel Klee, Tabatha Memmott, Meghan Miller, Rongwei Fu
To determine if mindfulness meditation (MM) in older adults improves cognition and, secondarily, if MM improves mental health and physiology, 134 at least mildly stressed 50-85 year olds were randomized to a six-week MM intervention or a waitlist control. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and two months later at Visit 2. The primary outcome measure was an executive function/attentional measure (flanker task). Other outcome measures included additional cognitive assessments, salivary cortisol, respiratory rate, heart rate variability, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness (NEO) personality traits, and SF-36 health-related quality of life...
June 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579912/interaction-of-bilingualism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-young-adults
#10
Ellen Bialystok, Kornelia Hawrylewicz, Melody Wiseheart, Maggie Toplak
One hundred and sixty-eight young adult participants were classified as monolingual or bilingual and as having a previously reported clinical diagnosis of ADHD or not to create four groups. All participants completed tests of language proficiency, ADHD ratings, and executive control. Both bilingualism and ADHD are generally associated with poorer vocabulary knowledge, but bilingualism and ADHD are associated with opposite effects on executive control. Consistent with this literature, bilinguals performed more poorly than monolinguals on the vocabulary test but contrary to predictions, the ADHD group performed somewhat better on language ability than the non-ADHD group, attesting to their high functioning status...
May 2017: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578905/attentional-resources-modulate-error-processing-related-brain-electrical-activity-evidence-from-a-dual-task-design
#11
Mingxiu Han, Li Shi, Shiwei Jia
Attention plays an important role in the processing of error, but only a few studies have explored the relationship between them. The current study used a dual-task paradigm, combining the classic flanker task with a working memory load task, to explore how changes in the amount of attentional resources modulate error negativity (Ne) and error positivity (Pe). The results showed that the reduction of attentional resources overall caused a decrease in Pe amplitude, especially in the late stage of Pe, which had a significant diminution in amplitude...
June 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551393/content-specificity-of-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
A Zinchenko, M M Al-Amin, M M Alam, W Mahmud, N Kabir, H M Reza, T H J Burne
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias to affective information and reduced cognitive control may maintain the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impair cognitive functioning. However, the role of content specificity of affective stimuli (e.g., trauma-related, emotional trauma-unrelated) in the observed attentional bias and cognitive control is less clear, as this has not been tested simultaneously before. Therefore, we examined the content specificity of attentional bias to threat in PTSD...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#13
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n = 43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549279/control-adjustments-in-speaking-electrophysiology-of-the-gratton-effect-in-picture-naming
#14
Natalia Shitova, Ardi Roelofs, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Accumulating evidence suggests that spoken word production requires different amounts of top-down control depending on the prevailing circumstances. For example, during Stroop-like tasks, the interference in response time (RT) is typically larger following congruent trials than following incongruent trials. This effect is called the Gratton effect, and has been taken to reflect top-down control adjustments based on the previous trial type. Such control adjustments have been studied extensively in Stroop and Eriksen flanker tasks (mostly using manual responses), but not in the picture-word interference (PWI) task, which is a workhorse of language production research...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539893/more-than-attentional-tuning-investigating-the-mechanisms-underlying-practice-gains-and-preparation-in-task-switching
#15
Mike Wendt, Stina Klein, Tilo Strobach
In task switching, participants perform trials of task repetitions (i.e., the same task is executed in consecutive trials) and task switches (i.e., different tasks are executed in consecutive trials) and the longer reaction times in switch trials in comparison to these times in repetition trials are referred to as switch costs. These costs are reduced by lengthening of an interval following a cue that indicates the upcoming task; this effect demonstrated effective task preparation. To investigate the role of task switching practice for these preparation effects and task switch costs, we applied a task switching paradigm, involving two digit classification tasks, in six successive practice sessions and varied the length of the preparation interval...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536543/adoption-of-task-specific-sets-of-visual-attention
#16
Mike Wendt, Svantje T Kähler, Aquiles Luna-Rodriguez, Thomas Jacobsen
Evidence from behavioral and physiological studies suggests attentional weighting of stimulus information from different sources, according to task demands. We investigated the adoption of task-specific attentional sets by administering a flanker task, which required responding to a centrally presented letter while ignoring two adjacent letters, and a same-different judgment task, which required a homogenous/heterogeneous classification concerning the complete three-letter string. To assess the distribution of attentional weights across the letter locations we intermixed trials of a visual search task, in which a target stimulus occurred randomly in any of these locations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533954/exercise-and-dietary-program-induced-weight-reduction-is-associated-with-cognitive-function-among-obese-adolescents-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Chun Xie, Xiaochun Wang, Chenglin Zhou, Chang Xu, Yu-Kai Chang
OBJECTIVE: The present study was to determine the effect of a combined exercise and dietary program on cognitive function as well as the relationship between the program-induced weight change and cognitive function alterations. DESIGN: The study applies a quasi-experimental design. METHODS: Fifty-eight adolescents with obese status (body mass index, BMI >28 kg/m(2)) were assigned to either an experiment (n = 30) or control group (n = 28)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528704/from-neuro-pigments-to-neural-efficiency-the-relationship-between-retinal-carotenoids-and-behavioral-and-neuroelectric-indices-of-cognitive-control-in-childhood
#18
Anne M Walk, Naiman A Khan, Sasha M Barnett, Lauren B Raine, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Christopher J Moulton, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, Charles H Hillman
Lutein and zeaxanthin are plant pigments known to preferentially accumulate in neural tissue. Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD), a non-invasive measure of retinal carotenoids and surrogate measure of brain carotenoid concentration, has been associated with disease prevention and cognitive health. Superior MPOD status in later adulthood has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects on cognition. Given that childhood signifies a critical period for carotenoid accumulation in brain, it is likely that the beneficial impact would be evident during development, though this relationship has not been directly investigated...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505262/the-basal-ganglia-striosomes-affect-the-modulation-of-conflicts-by-subliminal-information-evidence-from-x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
#19
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
Cognitive control is relevant when distracting information induces behavioral conflicts. Such conflicts can be produced consciously and by subliminally processed information. Interestingly, both sources of conflict interact suggesting that they share neural mechanisms. Here, we ask whether conjoint effects between different sources of conflict are modulated by microstructural basal ganglia dysfunction. To this end, we carried out an electroencephalography study and examined event-related potentials (ERPs) including source localization using a combined flanker-subliminal priming task in patients with X-linked dystonia Parkinsonism (XDP) and a group of healthy controls...
May 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501539/spatiotemporal-oscillatory-dynamics-of-visual-selective-attention-during-a-flanker-task
#20
Timothy J McDermott, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
The flanker task is a test of visual selective attention that has been widely used to probe error monitoring, response conflict, and related constructs. However, to date, few studies have focused on the selective attention component of this task and imaged the underlying oscillatory dynamics serving task performance. In this study, 21 healthy adults successfully completed an arrow-based version of the Eriksen flanker task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). All MEG data were pre-processed and transformed into the time-frequency domain...
May 10, 2017: NeuroImage
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