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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160010/effects-of-a-short-midday-nap-on-habitual-nappers-alertness-mood-and-mental-performance-across-cognitive-domains
#1
Taotao Ru, Qingwei Chen, Jianing You, Guofu Zhou
This study examines whether the benefits of a short midday nap on habitual nappers' mental performance depend on the cognitive domain and the task difficulty. Eighteen healthy college students with the long-term habit of a midday nap (13:00-14:00 hours) participated in a nap-deprivation study. On two separate days with at least 3 days in between, participants either took a nap or remained awake, and were subsequently tested on a simple sustained attention task (Psychomotor Vigilance Test), two more complex attention tasks (Go/No-Go and Flanker task) and one working memory task (2-back)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154631/alertness-and-cognitive-control-testing-the-early-onset-hypothesis
#2
Darryl W Schneider
Previous research has revealed a peculiar interaction between alertness and cognitive control in selective-attention tasks: Congruency effects are larger on alert trials (on which an alerting cue is presented briefly in advance of the imperative stimulus) than on no-alert trials, despite shorter response times (RTs) on alert trials. One explanation for this finding is the early onset hypothesis, which is based on the assumptions that increased alertness shortens stimulus-encoding time and that cognitive control involves gradually focusing attention during a trial...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154622/how-does-not-left-become-right-electrophysiological-evidence-for-a-dynamic-conflict-bound-negation-processing-account
#3
Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Human thought and language is traditionally considered as abstract, amodal, and symbolic. However, recent theories propose that high-level human cognition is directly linked to basic, modal biological systems such as sensorimotor areas. Despite this influential representational debate very little is known regarding whether the mechanisms involved in sensorimotor control are also shared with higher-level cognitive processes, such as language comprehension. We investigated negation as a universal of human language, addressing two key questions: (a) Does negation result in a conflict-like representation? (b) Does negation trigger executive control adjustments in a similar manner as standard information processing conflicts do (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151803/cognitive-consequences-of-trilingualism
#4
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138093/electrophysiological-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-under-social-observation-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#5
Rolf Voegler, Jutta Peterburs, Hannah Lemke, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Roman Liepelt, Thomas Straube
Previous research suggests that electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), vary according to psychopathology and context factors. The present study examined the effect of social context on behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in healthy adult subjects and in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants performed two runs of a Go/NoGo flanker task in different social conditions: in the observation condition, they were observed by a confederate while performing the task, whereas there was no observation in the control condition...
November 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115181/it-s-not-me-it-s-you-differential-neural-processing-of-social-and-non-social-nogo-cues-in-joint-action
#6
Jutta Peterburs, Roman Liepelt, Rolf Voegler, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
This EEG study used a joint flanker task to investigate differences in processing of social and non-social nogo cues, i.e., between cues indicating that a co-actor should respond and cues signaling that neither actor nor co-actor should respond, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and trial-to-trial response time (RT) effects. It was hypothesized that a social co-actor's response should be reflected in stronger modulation (slower RTs on subsequent trials; augmented neural responses) for social compared to non-social nogo...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103528/a-randomised-controlled-trial-investigating-the-benefits-of-adaptive-working-memory-training-for-working-memory-capacity-and-attentional-control-in-high-worriers
#7
Matthew Hotton, Nazanin Derakshan, Elaine Fox
The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. The current randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of 15 days of adaptive n-back working memory training, or an active control task, on working memory capacity, attentional control and worry in a sample of high worriers...
November 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100212/an-event-related-potential-investigation-of-the-acute-effects-of-aerobic-and-coordinative-exercise-on-inhibitory-control-in-children-with-adhd
#8
Sebastian Ludyga, Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Peter Weber, Mark Brotzmann, Fahimeh Habibifar, Uwe Pühse
The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task. Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089912/the-relations-between-television-exposure-and-executive-function-in-chinese-preschoolers-the-moderated-role-of-parental-mediation-behaviors
#9
Xiaohui Yang, Zhe Chen, Zhenhong Wang, Liqi Zhu
The present study examined the relations between preschoolers' television exposure and executive functions (EF). One hundred and nineteen 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents participated. Parents filled in a questionnaire regarding children's television viewing time, television content and parental mediation behaviors about their child's television viewing. The children were asked to finish six EF tasks, including the backward digit span task, the spatial span task, the boy-girl Stroop, the Simon task, the flanker task and the Tower of Hanoi task that assessed working memory, inhibition and planning, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080715/structural-integrity-in-the-genu-of-corpus-callosum-predicts-conflict-induced-functional-connectivity-between-medial-frontal-cortex-and-right-posterior-parietal-cortex
#10
Peng Liu, Yang Yu, Shudan Gao, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Peng Liu, Wei Qin
Studies using the flanker task have reported that response conflict is detected by the medial frontal cortex (MFC). As a conflict alert system, the MFC shows enhanced functional communication with task-related regions. Previous studies have revealed individual differences in functional connectivity during cognitive task performance. However, the mechanisms underlying these individual differences remain unclear. In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while 30 subjects performed a flanker task that was modified to exclude feature integration and contingency learning...
October 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043656/from-eyes-to-hands-transfer-of-learning-in-the-simon-task-across-motor-effectors
#11
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, Phoebe E Palmer, Paul E Dux
Inhibition of irrelevant and conflicting information and responses is crucial for goal-directed behaviour and adaptive functioning. In the Simon task, for example, responses are slowed if their mappings are spatially incongruent with stimuli that must be discriminated on a nonspatial dimension. Previous work has shown that practice with incongruent spatial mappings can reduce or even reverse the Simon effect. We asked whether such practice transfers between the manual and oculomotor systems and if so to what extent this occurs across a range of behavioural tasks...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031474/sport-time-pressure-and-cognitive-performance
#12
Chia N Chiu, Chiao-Yun Chen, Neil G Muggleton
Sport participation, fitness, and expertise have been associated with a range of cognitive benefits in a range of populations but both the factors that confer such benefits and the nature of the resulting changes are relatively unclear. Additionally, the interactions between time pressure and cognitive performance for these groups is little studied. Using a flanker task, which measures the ability to selectively process information, and with different time limits for responding, we investigated the differences in performance for participants in (1) an unpredictable, open-skill sport (volleyball), (2) an exercise group engaged in predictable, closed-skill sports (running, swimming), and (3) nonsporting controls...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019064/inhibition-in-aging-what-is-preserved-what-declines-a-meta-analysis
#13
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade
Aging has been assumed to go along with deficient inhibitory processes in cognitive performance. According to this inhibition deficit hypothesis, older adults are less able to suppress or ignore irrelevant thoughts and actions than young adults are. This hypothesis has been investigated in a large number of studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether there is an inhibition deficit in older age and whether this deficit is general or task-specific. We selected 176 studies in which young and older adults were tested on tasks commonly assumed to measure inhibition (i...
October 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017088/anterior-cingulate-cortex-sulcation-and-its-differential-effects-on-conflict-monitoring-in-bilinguals-and-monolinguals
#14
Arnaud Cachia, Nicola Del Maschio, Gregoire Borst, Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa, Christophe Pallier, Albert Costa, Olivier Houdé, Jubin Abutalebi
The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in modulating the effect of bilingual experience on cognitive control has been reported at both functional and structural neural levels. Individual differences in the ACC sulcal patterns have been recently correlated with cognitive control efficiency in monolinguals. We aimed to investigate whether differences of ACC sulcation mediate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control efficiency. We contrasted the performance of bilinguals and monolinguals during a cognitive control task (i...
October 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994360/effects-of-childhood-trauma-on-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-function-during-response-inhibition-across-psychotic-disorders
#15
Y Quidé, N O'Reilly, O J Watkeys, V J Carr, M J Green
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976540/effects-of-the-fitkids-physical-activity-randomized-controlled-trial-on-conflict-monitoring-in-youth
#16
Eric S Drollette, Matthew B Pontifex, Lauren B Raine, Mark R Scudder, R Davis Moore, Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel R Westfall, Chien-Ting Wu, Keita Kamijo, Darla M Castelli, Naiman A Khan, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman
The present study investigated the effect of a 9-month physical activity (PA) intervention on children's cardiorespiratory fitness levels and neuroelectric indices of conflict monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity, ERN). Four hundred twenty-eight preadolescent children (8-9 years old) were randomized into a PA intervention or wait-list control group, and completed a fitness and cognitive control assessment (i.e., modified flanker task) at pre- and posttest. Following exclusion criterion, 308 children were included in the analyses (PA intervention: n = 139; wait-list control: n = 169)...
October 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966082/the-peak-frequency-of-motor-related-gamma-oscillations-is-modulated-by-response-competition
#17
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Joslynn M Hoburg, Tony W Wilson
Movement execution generally occurs in an environment with numerous distractors, and requires the selection of a motor plan from multiple possible alternatives. However, the impact of such distractors on cortical motor function during movement remains largely unknown. Previous studies have identified two movement-related oscillatory responses that are critical to motor planning and execution, and these responses include the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and the movement-related gamma synchronization (MRGS)...
September 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960342/temporal-dynamics-of-reactive-cognitive-control-as-revealed-by-event-related-brain-potentials
#18
Curtis D Von Gunten, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Bruce D Bartholow
Reactive cognitive control refers to a complementary set of cognitive operations by which individuals monitor for and detect the presence of goal-interfering conflict (i.e., conflict monitoring/evaluation) and, subsequently, initiate attention-focusing and response selection processes to bolster goal-directed action in the face of such conflict (regulative control). The purpose of the current study was to characterize the nature of conflict adaptation in both components of this dynamic process across sequences of trials and, more broadly, across time as participants complete a cognitive control task...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960340/the-power-of-frontal-midline-theta-and-post-error-slowing-to-predict-performance-recovery-evidence-for-compensatory-mechanisms
#19
Emilio A Valadez, Robert F Simons
Past studies utilizing cognitive control tasks have noted that trials following errors are characterized by slowed reaction time. Despite the assumption long held by researchers that this slowing is compensatory (in the service of post-error performance recovery), studies consistently show that post-error trials are no more accurate than post-correct trials. As a result, it has recently been proposed that post-error slowing (PES) is merely part of an orienting response that serves no task-relevant cognitive control purpose...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956944/should-we-stop-thinking-about-inhibition-searching-for-individual-and-age-differences-in-inhibition-ability
#20
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade, Klaus Oberauer
Inhibition is often conceptualized as a unitary construct reflecting the ability to ignore and suppress irrelevant information. At the same time, it has been subdivided into inhibition of prepotent responses (i.e., the ability to stop dominant responses) and resistance to distracter interference (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting information). The present study investigated the unity and diversity of inhibition as a psychometric construct, and tested the hypothesis of an inhibition deficit in older age...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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