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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101925/-watch-out-effects-of-instructed-threat-and-avoidance-on-human-free-operant-approach-avoidance-behavior
#1
Michael W Schlund, Kay Treacher, Oli Preston, Sandy K Magee, David M Richman, Adam T Brewer, Gemma Cameron, Simon Dymond
Approach-avoidance paradigms create a competition between appetitive and aversive contingencies and are widely used in nonhuman research on anxiety. Here, we examined how instructions about threat and avoidance impact control by competing contingencies over human approach-avoidance behavior. Additionally, Experiment 1 examined the effects of threat magnitude (money loss amount) and avoidance cost (fixed ratio requirements), whereas Experiment 2 examined the effects of threat information (available, unavailable and inaccurate) on approach-avoidance...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095026/self-regulation-of-driving-speed-among-distracted-drivers-an-application-of-driver-behavioural-adaptation-theory
#2
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Md Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Simon Washington
OBJECTIVE: The adaptive behaviour of mobile phone distracted drivers has been a topic of much discussion in the recent literature. Both simulator and naturalistic studies suggests that distracted drivers generally select lower driving speeds; however, speed adaptation is not observed among all drivers, and the mechanisms of speed selection are not well understood. The aim of this research was to apply a driver behavioural adaptation model to investigate the speed adaptation of mobile phone distracted drivers...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094787/a-dataset-of-human-decision-making-in-teamwork-management
#3
Han Yu, Zhiqi Shen, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Jun Lin, Lizhen Cui, Zhengxiang Pan, Qiang Yang
Today, most endeavours require teamwork by people with diverse skills and characteristics. In managing teamwork, decisions are often made under uncertainty and resource constraints. The strategies and the effectiveness of the strategies different people adopt to manage teamwork under different situations have not yet been fully explored, partially due to a lack of detailed large-scale data. In this paper, we describe a multi-faceted large-scale dataset to bridge this gap. It is derived from a game simulating complex project management processes...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093279/obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-associated-with-reduced-activity-in-core-memory-regions-of-the-brain
#4
Lucy G Cheke, Heidi M Bonnici, Nicola S Clayton, Jon S Simons
Increasing research in animals and humans suggests that obesity may be associated with learning and memory deficits, and in particular with reductions in episodic memory. Rodent models have implicated the hippocampus in obesity-related memory impairments, but the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory deficits in obese humans remain undetermined. In the present study, lean and obese human participants were scanned using fMRI while completing a What-Where-When episodic memory test (the "Treasure-Hunt Task") that assessed the ability to remember integrated item, spatial, and temporal details of previously encoded complex events...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089855/peripheral-electrical-stimulation-increases-corticomotor-excitability-and-enhances-the-rate-of-visuomotor-adaptation
#5
Simon J Summers, Siobhan M Schabrun, Welber Marinovic, Lucy S Chipchase
Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) modulates corticomotor excitability but its effect on motor performance has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess whether increases and/or decreases in corticomotor excitability, induced by PES, influenced motor performance using a visuomotor adaptation task. Three PES interventions (motor stimulation, sensory stimulation or sham) were delivered to the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in 30 healthy participants matched for age, gender and handedness...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089676/multimodal-evaluation-of-the-amygdala-s-functional-connectivity
#6
Rebecca Kerestes, Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips, Cecile D Ladouceur, Simon B Eickhoff
The amygdala is one of the most extensively studied human brain regions and undisputedly plays a central role in many psychiatric disorders. However, an outstanding question is whether connectivity of amygdala subregions, specifically the centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF) nuclei, are modulated by brain state (i.e., task vs. rest). Here, using a multimodal approach, we directly compared meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE)-derived estimates of CM, LB and SF task-based co-activation to the functional connectivity of these nuclei as assessed by resting state fmri (rs-fmri)...
January 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089608/piloting-the-united-kingdom-prescribing-safety-assessment-with-pharmacist-prescribers-in-scotland
#7
Fiona Reid, Ailsa Power, Derek Stewart, Anne Watson, Leon Zlotos, Derna Campbell, Trudi McIntosh, Simon Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Prescribing is a complex task requiring considerable knowledge and skills. The Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA) was developed by the British Pharmacological Society and the United Kingdom (UK) Medical Schools Council. Between February and June 2014, over 7000 final year medical students undertook the PSA, with an overall pass rate of 94%. Independent prescribing for suitably trained pharmacists was introduced in the UK in 2006. To date there has been little focus on any objective measures of prescribing safety...
January 6, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089304/management-of-prostate-cancer-in-elderly-patients-recommendations-of-a-task-force-of-the-international-society-of-geriatric-oncology
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Droz, Gilles Albrand, Silke Gillessen, Simon Hughes, Nicolas Mottet, Stéphane Oudard, Heather Payne, Martine Puts, Gilbert Zulian, Lodovico Balducci, Matti Aapro
CONTEXT: Prostate cancer is the most frequent male cancer. Since the median age of diagnosis is 66 yr, many patients require both geriatric and urologic evaluation if treatment is to be tailored to individual circumstances including comorbidities and frailty. OBJECTIVE: To update the 2014 International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) guidelines on prostate cancer in men aged >70 yr. The update includes new material on health status evaluation and the treatment of localised, advanced, and castrate-resistant disease...
January 11, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081231/physical-activity-energy-expenditure-nutritional-habits-quality-of-sleep-and-stress-levels-in-shift-working-health-care-personnel
#9
Frederick Charles Roskoden, Janine Krüger, Lena Johanna Vogt, Simone Gärtner, Hans Joachim Hannich, Antje Steveling, Markus M Lerch, Ali A Aghdassi
BACKGROUND: Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078571/analyzing-spatial-data-from-mouse-tracker-methodology-an-entropic-approach
#10
Antonio Calcagnì, Luigi Lombardi, Simone Sulpizio
Mouse tracker methodology has recently been advocated to explore the motor components of the cognitive dynamics involved in experimental tasks like categorization, decision-making, and language comprehension. This methodology relies on the analysis of computer-mouse trajectories, by evaluating whether they significantly differ in terms of direction, amplitude, and location when a given experimental factor is manipulated. In this kind of study, a descriptive geometric approach is usually adopted in the analysis of raw trajectories, where they are summarized with several measures, such as maximum-deviation and area under the curve...
January 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067860/3d-visual-tracking-of-an-articulated-robot-in-precision-automated-tasks
#11
Hamza Alzarok, Simon Fletcher, Andrew P Longstaff
The most compelling requirements for visual tracking systems are a high detection accuracy and an adequate processing speed. However, the combination between the two requirements in real world applications is very challenging due to the fact that more accurate tracking tasks often require longer processing times, while quicker responses for the tracking system are more prone to errors, therefore a trade-off between accuracy and speed, and vice versa is required. This paper aims to achieve the two requirements together by implementing an accurate and time efficient tracking system...
January 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057726/reduced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval-in-autism
#12
Rose A Cooper, Franziska R Richter, Paul M Bays, Kate C Plaisted-Grant, Simon Baron-Cohen, Jon S Simons
Increasing recent research has sought to understand the recollection impairments experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we tested whether these memory deficits reflect a reduction in the probability of retrieval success or in the precision of memory representations. We also used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural mechanisms underlying memory encoding and retrieval in ASD, focusing particularly on the functional connectivity of core episodic memory networks...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045222/correspondent-functional-topography-of-the-human-left-inferior-parietal-lobule-at-rest-and-under-task-revealed-using-resting-state-fmri-and-coactivation-based-parcellation
#13
Jiaojian Wang, Sangma Xie, Xin Guo, Benjamin Becker, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Tianzi Jiang
The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level...
January 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043892/genetic-influences-on-functional-connectivity-associated-with-feedback-processing-and-prediction-error-phase-coupling-of-theta-band-oscillations-in-twins
#14
Şükrü Barış Demiral, Simon Golosheykin, Andrey P Anokhin
Detection and evaluation of the mismatch between the intended and actually obtained result of an action (reward prediction error) is an integral component of adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Extensive human and animal research has shown that evaluation of action outcome is supported by a distributed network of brain regions in which the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role, and the integration of distant brain regions into a unified feedback-processing network is enabled by long-range phase synchronization of cortical oscillations in the theta band...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039553/deficient-amygdala-prefrontal-intrinsic-connectivity-after-effortful-emotion-regulation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#15
Blazej M Baczkowski, Linda van Zutphen, Nicolette Siep, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Simon Maier, Andreas Sprenger, Alena Senft, Bastian Willenborg, Oliver Tüscher, Arnoud Arntz, Vincent van de Ven
Emotion instability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with an impaired fronto-limbic inhibitory network. However, functional connectivity (FC) underlying altered emotion regulation in BPD has yet to be established. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate enduring effects of effortful emotion regulation on the amygdala intrinsic FC in BPD. In this multicenter study, resting-state fMRI was acquired before and after an emotion regulation task in 48 BPD patients and 39 non-patient comparison individuals...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039058/impulsive-oculomotor-action-selection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Joan Duprez, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Soizic Argaud, Florian Naudet, Gabriel Robert, Dominique Drapier, Marc Vérin, Paul Sauleau
The effects of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the dynamics of impulsive action selection and suppression have recently been studied using distributional analyses, but with mixed results, especially for selection. Furthermore, some authors have suggested that impulsivity, regarded as a personality trait, shares common features with behavioral tasks' measures. The current study was designed to clarify the impact of PD on impulsive action selection and suppression, and investigate the link between cognitive action control and self-reported impulsivity...
December 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034803/computational-eeg-modelling-of-decision-making-under-ambiguity-reveals-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-outcome-evaluation
#17
Lee Jollans, Robert Whelan, Louise Venables, Oliver H Turnbull, Matteo Cella, Simon Dymond
Complex human cognition, such as decision-making under ambiguity, is reflected in dynamic spatio-temporal activity in the brain. Here, we combined event-related potentials with computational modelling of the time course of decision-making and outcome evaluation during the Iowa Gambling Task. Measures of choice probability generated using the Prospect Valence Learning Delta (PVL-Delta) model, in addition to objective trial outcomes (outcome magnitude and valence), were applied as regressors in a general linear model of the EEG signal...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027961/the-clinical-relevance-of-distortion-correction-in-presurgical-fmri-at-7t
#18
Pedro Lima Cardoso, Barbara Dymerska, Beáta Bachratá, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, Nina Mahr, Eva Matt, Siegfried Trattnig, Roland Beisteiner, Simon Daniel Robinson
Presurgical planning with fMRI benefits from increased reliability and the possibility to reduce measurement time introduced by using ultra-high field. Echo-planar imaging suffers, however, from geometric distortions which scale with field strength and potentially give rise to clinically significant displacement of functional activation. We evaluate the effectiveness of a dynamic distortion correction (DDC) method based on unmodified single-echo EPI in the context of simulated presurgical planning fMRI at 7T and compare it with static distortion correction (SDC)...
December 24, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026196/unresolved-loss-a-risk-factor-for-offspring-predicts-event-related-potential-responses-to-death-related-imagery
#19
Naomi I Gribneau Bahm, Emiliana R Simon-Thomas, Mary Main, Erik Hesse
This study investigates whether individual differences in attachment status can be detected by electrophysiological responses to loss-themed pictures. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to identify discourse/reasoning lapses during the discussion of loss experiences via death that place speakers in the Unresolved/disorganized AAI category. In parents, Unresolved AAI status has been associated with Disorganized infant Strange Situation response, a known risk factor for psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing/dissociation)...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018573/basic-and-complex-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-autism-cross-cultural-findings
#20
Shimrit Fridenson-Hayo, Steve Berggren, Amandine Lassalle, Shahar Tal, Delia Pigat, Sven Bölte, Simon Baron-Cohen, Ofer Golan
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have emotion recognition deficits when tested in different expression modalities (face, voice, body). However, these findings usually focus on basic emotions, using one or two expression modalities. In addition, cultural similarities and differences in emotion recognition patterns in children with ASC have not been explored before. The current study examined the similarities and differences in the recognition of basic and complex emotions by children with ASC and typically developing (TD) controls across three cultures: Israel, Britain, and Sweden...
2016: Molecular Autism
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