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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203529/reality-monitoring-impairment-in-schizophrenia-reflects-specific-prefrontal-cortex-dysfunction
#1
Jane R Garrison, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Rashid Zaman, Mark Agius, Jon S Simons
Reality monitoring impairment is often reported in schizophrenia but the neural basis of this deficit is poorly understood. Difficulties with reality monitoring could be attributable to the same pattern of neural dysfunction as other cognitive deficits that characterize schizophrenia, or might instead represent a separable and dissociable impairment. This question was addressed through direct comparison of behavioral performance and neural activity associated with reality monitoring and working memory in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196453/near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-gait-disorders
#3
Vera Gramigna, Giovanni Pellegrino, Antonio Cerasa, Simone Cutini, Roberta Vasta, Giuseppe Olivadese, Iolanda Martino, Aldo Quattrone
Walking is a complex motor behavior with a special relevance in clinical neurology. Many neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and stroke, are characterized by gait disorders whose neurofunctional correlates are poorly investigated. Indeed, the analysis of real walking with the standard neuroimaging techniques poses strong challenges, and only a few studies on motor imagery or walking observation have been performed so far. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is becoming an important research tool to assess functional activity in neurological populations or for special tasks, such as walking, because it allows investigating brain hemodynamic activity in an ecological setting, without strong immobility constraints...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195962/ebus-stat-subscore-analysis-to-predict-the-efficacy-and-assess-the-validity-of-virtual-reality-simulation-for-ebus-tbna-training-among-experienced-bronchoscopists
#4
Simone Scarlata, Patrizio Palermo, Piero Candoli, Ariela Tofani, Tommasangelo Petitti, Lorenzo Corbetta
BACKGROUND: Linear endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) represents a pivotal innovation in interventional pulmonology; determining the best approach to guarantee systematic and efficient training is expected to become a main issue in the forthcoming years. Virtual reality simulators have been proposed as potential EBUS-TBNA training instruments, to avoid unskilled beginners practicing directly in real-life settings. A validated and perfected simulation program could be used before allowing beginners to practice on patients...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195020/the-elasticity-of-preferences
#5
Dan Simon, Stephen A Spiller
We explore how preferences for attributes are constructed when people choose between multiattribute options. As found in prior research, we observed that while people make decisions, their preferences for the attributes in question shift to support the emerging choice, thus enabling confident decisions. The novelty of the studies reported here is that participants repeated the same task 6 to 8 weeks later. We found that between tasks, preferences returned to near their original levels, only to shift again to support the second choice, regardless of which choice participants made...
December 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182494/dynamic-adjustments-of-attentional-control-in-healthy-aging
#6
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota
In standard attentional control tasks, interference effects are reduced following incongruent trials compared to congruent trials, a phenomenon known as the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Typical explanations of this effect suggest the CSE is due to changes in levels of control across adjacent trials. This interpretation has been questioned by the finding that older adults, individuals with impaired attentional control systems, have been shown to produce larger CSEs in the Stroop task compared with younger adult controls...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179549/contact-mechanics-of-the-human-finger-pad-under-compressive-loads
#7
Brygida M Dzidek, Michael J Adams, James W Andrews, Zhibing Zhang, Simon A Johnson
The coefficient of friction of most solid objects is independent of the applied normal force because of surface roughness. This behaviour is observed for a finger pad except at long contact times (greater than 10 s) against smooth impermeable surfaces such as glass when the coefficient increases with decreasing normal force by about a factor of five for the load range investigated here. This is clearly an advantage for some precision manipulation and grip tasks. Such normal force dependence is characteristic of smooth curved elastic bodies...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168748/the-logistics-of-myelin-biogenesis-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Nicolas Snaidero, Mikael Simons
Rapid nerve conduction depends on myelin, but not all axons in the central nervous system (CNS) are myelinated to the same extent. Here, we review our current understanding of the biology of myelin biogenesis in the CNS. We focus on how the different steps of myelination are interconnected and how distinct patterns of myelin are generated. Possibly, a "basal" mode of myelination is laying the groundwork in areas devoted to basic homeostasis early in development, whereas a "targeted" mode generates myelin in regions controlling more complex tasks throughout adulthood...
February 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161772/do-alcohol-dependent-patients-show-different-neural-activation-during-response-inhibition-than-healthy-controls-in-an-alcohol-related-fmri-go-no-go-task
#9
Marta Czapla, Christian Baeuchl, Joe J Simon, Barbara Richter, Matthias Kluge, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Karl Mann, Sabine C Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired response inhibition and heightened cue reactivity towards alcohol-related stimuli. Several brain areas, but mainly prefrontal structures, have been linked to response inhibition in addiction. This study aimed at combining both aspects: salience of drug-associated cues and response inhibition using a go/no-go task with alcohol-associated stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). OBJECTIVES: Nineteen abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and 21 healthy control subjects (HC) were compared on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses during successful inhibition of no-go stimuli and successful reactions to go stimuli...
February 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161286/meg-and-eeg-demonstrate-similar-test-retest-reliability-of-the-40hz-auditory-steady-state-response
#10
Kristina T Legget, Allison K Hild, Sarah E Steinmetz, Steven T Simon, Donald C Rojas
The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders, but research investigating the test-retest reliability of this measure is needed. We previously reported ASSR reliability, measured by electroencephalography (EEG), to 40Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli. The purpose of the current study was to (a) assess the reliability of the MEG-measured ASSR to 40Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli, and (b) compare test-retest reliability between MEG and EEG measures of ASSR, which has not previously been investigated...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157572/effects-of-singular-and-dual-task-constraints-on-motor-skill-variability-in-childhood
#11
Simone V Gill, Zoe Yang, Ya-Ching Hung
We examined the effects of singular versus dual task constraints involving upper and lower extremities in typically developing children in young (4-6 years old), middle (7-9 years old), and old (10-13 years old) age groups. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the effects of singular upper and lower extremity and dual upper and lower extremity conditions on motor variability and 2) to examine if variability in children's motor actions would differ according to age (i.e., young, middle, or old)...
January 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154991/a-computational-framework-for-attentional-object-discovery-in-rgb-d-videos
#12
Germán Martín García, Mircea Pavel, Simone Frintrop
We present a computational framework for attention-guided visual scene exploration in sequences of RGB-D data. For this, we propose a visual object candidate generation method to produce object hypotheses about the objects in the scene. An attention system is used to prioritise the processing of visual information by (1) localising candidate objects, and (2) integrating an inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism grounded in spatial coordinates. This spatial IOR mechanism naturally copes with camera motions and inhibits objects that have already been the target of attention...
February 2, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150723/short-term-monocular-occlusion-produces-changes-in-ocular-dominance-by-a-reciprocal-modulation-of-interocular-inhibition
#13
Eva Chadnova, Alexandre Reynaud, Simon Clavagnier, Robert F Hess
Ocular dominance can be modulated by short-term monocular deprivation. This changes the contribution that each eye makes to binocular vision, an example of adult cortical neuroplasticity. Optical imaging in primates and psychophysics in humans suggest these neuroplastic changes occur in V1. Here we use brain imaging (MEG) in normal adults to better understand the nature of these neuroplastic changes. The results suggest that short-term monocular deprivation, whether it be by an opaque or translucent patch, modulates dichoptic inhibitory interactions in a reciprocal fashion; the unpatched eye is inhibited, the patched eye is released from inhibition...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150023/effects-of-nicotine-on-response-inhibition-and-interference-control
#14
Ulrich Ettinger, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Nadine Petrovsky, Raymond C K Chan, Roman Liepelt, Veena Kumari
Nicotine is a cholinergic agonist with known pro-cognitive effects in the domains of alerting and orienting attention. However, its effects on attentional top-down functions such as response inhibition and interference control are less well characterised. Here, we investigated the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine on performance on a battery of response inhibition and interference control tasks. A sample of N = 44 healthy adult non-smokers performed antisaccade, stop signal, Stroop, go/no-go, flanker, shape matching and Simon tasks, as well as the attentional network test (ANT) and a continuous performance task (CPT)...
February 1, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146248/disruption-of-reward-processing-in-addiction-an-image-based-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#15
Maartje Luijten, Arnt F Schellekens, Simone Kühn, Marise W J Machielse, Guillaume Sescousse
Importance: Disrupted reward processing, mainly driven by striatal dysfunction, is a key characteristic of addictive behaviors. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported conflicting results, with both hypoactivations and hyperactivations during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in addiction. Objective: To determine the nature and direction of reward-processing disruptions during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in individuals with addiction using image-based meta-analyses of fMRI studies...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137968/two-independent-frontal-midline-theta-oscillations-during-conflict-detection-and-adaptation-in-a-simon-type-manual-reaching-task
#16
Thomas Töllner, Yijun Wang, Scott Makeig, Hermann J Müller, Tzyy-Ping Jung, Klaus Gramann
: One of the most firmly established factors determining the speed of human behavioral responses towards action-critical stimuli is the spatial correspondence between the stimulus and response locations. If both locations match, the time taken for response production is markedly reduced relative to when they mismatch-a phenomenon called Simon effect. While there is a consensus that this stimulus-response (S-R) conflict is associated with brief (4-7 Hz) frontal midline theta (fmθ) complexes generated in medial frontal cortex (MFC), it remains controversial (i) whether there are multiple, simultaneously active theta generator areas in the MFC that commonly give rise to conflict-related fmθ complexes; and if so, (ii) whether they are all related to the resolution of conflicting task information...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137358/distinct-mechanisms-mediate-speed-accuracy-adjustments-in-cortico-subthalamic-networks
#17
Damian M Herz, Huiling Tan, John-Stuart Brittain, Petra Fischer, Binith Cheeran, Alexander L Green, James FitzGerald, Tipu Z Aziz, Keyoumars Ashkan, Simon Little, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Rafal Bogacz, Peter Brown
Optimal decision-making requires balancing fast but error-prone and more accurate but slower decisions through adjustments of decision thresholds. Here, we demonstrate two distinct correlates of such speed-accuracy adjustments by recording subthalamic nucleus (STN) activity and electroencephalography in 11 Parkinson's disease patients during a perceptual decision-making task; STN low-frequency oscillatory (LFO) activity (2-8 Hz), coupled to activity at prefrontal electrode Fz, and STN beta activity (13-30 Hz) coupled to electrodes C3/C4 close to motor cortex...
January 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135816/the-youth-mood-clinic-an-innovative-service-for-the-treatment-of-severe-and-complex-depression
#18
Simon M Rice, Steve Halperin, Sara Cahill, Ingrid Cranston, Mark Phelan, Sarah E Hetrick, Simon Blaikie, Jane Edwards, John Koutsogiannis, Christopher G Davey
OBJECTIVE: Depression is the leading cause of disability for Australians from late adolescence through mid-adulthood, and effective treatments can positively impact subsequent life course trajectories. A treatment model for the management of complex youth depression, characterised by symptom severity, multi-morbidity and ongoing suicidality is presented. CONCLUSIONS: The Youth Mood Clinic (YMC) provides multidisciplinary, team-based treatment for young people aged 15-25 years...
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135636/phasic-valence-and-arousal-do-not-influence-post-conflict-adjustments-in-the-simon-task
#19
David Dignath, Markus Janczyk, Andreas B Eder
According to theoretical accounts of cognitive control, conflict between competing responses is monitored and triggers post conflict behavioural adjustments. Some models proposed that conflict is detected as an affective signal. While the conflict monitoring theory assumed that conflict is registered as a negative valence signal, the adaptation by binding model hypothesized that conflict provides a high arousal signal. The present research induced phasic affect in a Simon task with presentations of pleasant and unpleasant pictures that were high or low in arousal...
January 27, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129337/the-potential-of-automatic-word-comparison-for-historical-linguistics
#20
Johann-Mattis List, Simon J Greenhill, Russell D Gray
The amount of data from languages spoken all over the world is rapidly increasing. Traditional manual methods in historical linguistics need to face the challenges brought by this influx of data. Automatic approaches to word comparison could provide invaluable help to pre-analyze data which can be later enhanced by experts. In this way, computational approaches can take care of the repetitive and schematic tasks leaving experts to concentrate on answering interesting questions. Here we test the potential of automatic methods to detect etymologically related words (cognates) in cross-linguistic data...
2017: PloS One
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