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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330681/verification-of-nonwords-the-baseword-frequency-effect-in-children-s-pseudohomophone-reading
#1
Simon P Tiffin-Richards, Sascha Schroeder
In this study, we investigated the baseword frequency effect in children and its implications for models of visual word recognition. The baseword frequency effect reflects the finding that response latencies in the lexical decision task to nonwords derived from high-frequency basewords (e.g., GREAN derived from GREEN) are shorter than for those derived from low-frequency basewords (e.g., SLEAT derived from SLEET). Importantly, the baseword frequency effect presents a challenge to current activation-based models of visual word recognition...
January 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326067/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tvns-enhances-divergent-thinking
#2
Lorenza S Colzato, Simone M Ritter, Laura Steenbergen
Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers...
January 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325203/fluorescent-diarylethene-photoswitches-a-universal-tool-for-super-resolution-microscopy-in-nanostructured-materials
#3
Oleksii Nevskyi, Dmytro Sysoiev, Jes Dreier, Simon Christoph Stein, Alex Oppermann, Florian Lemken, Tobias Janke, Jörg Enderlein, Ilaria Testa, Thomas Huhn, Dominik Wöll
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows for unprecedented in situ visualization of biological structures, but its application to materials science has so far been comparatively limited. One of the main reasons is the lack of powerful dyes that allow for labeling and photoswitching in materials science systems. In this study it is shown that appropriate substitution of diarylethenes bearing a fluorescent closed and dark open form paves the way for imaging nanostructured materials with three of the most popular super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods that are based on different concepts to achieve imaging beyond the diffraction limit of light...
January 11, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325150/the-relationship-between-alcohol-use-and-long-term-cognitive-decline-in-middle-and-late-life-a-longitudinal-analysis-using-uk-biobank
#4
Giovanni Piumatti, Simon C Moore, Damon M Berridge, Chinmoy Sarkar, John Gallacher
Background: Using UK Biobank data, this study sought to explain the causal relationship between alcohol intake and cognitive decline in middle and older aged populations. Methods: Data from 13 342 men and women, aged between 40 and 73 years were used in regression analysis that tested the functional relationship and impact of alcohol on cognitive performance. Performance was measured using mean reaction time (RT) and intra-individual variation (IIV) in RT, collected in response to a perceptual matching task...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324559/nurse-experiences-of-medication-administration-to-people-with-swallowing-difficulties-living-in-aged-care-facilities-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#5
Aida Sefidani Forough, Simon Y M Wong, Esther T L Lau, Jose Manuel Serrano Santos, Greg J Kyle, Kathryn J Steadman, Julie A Y Cichero, Lisa M Nissen
OBJECTIVE: To identify nurses' experiences of administering oral medications to residents of aged care facilities (ACFs) with swallowing difficulties. INTRODUCTION: Administering medicines to older people with swallowing difficulties is a challenging task. Nurses frequently modify oral medications e.g. by crushing/splitting tablets or opening capsules, to facilitate the administration process. These practices are associated with an increased risk of medication administration errors...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322687/abnormal-fronto-striatal-activation-as-a-marker-of-threshold-and-subthreshold-bulimia-nervosa
#6
Marilyn Cyr, Xiao Yang, Guillermo Horga, Rachel Marsh
This study aimed to determine whether functional disturbances in fronto-striatal control circuits characterize adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) spectrum eating disorders regardless of clinical severity. FMRI was used to assess conflict-related brain activations during performance of a Simon task in two samples of adolescents with BN symptoms compared with healthy adolescents. The BN samples differed in the severity of their clinical presentation, illness duration and age. Multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPAs) based on machine learning were used to determine whether patterns of fronto-striatal activation characterized adolescents with BN spectrum disorders regardless of clinical severity, and whether accurate classification of less symptomatic adolescents (subthreshold BN; SBN) could be achieved based on patterns of activation in adolescents who met DSM5 criteria for BN...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318284/screening-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#7
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine of unknown cause with a Cobb angle of at least 10°, occurs in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form and usually worsens during adolescence before skeletal maturity. Severe spinal curvature may be associated with adverse long-term health outcomes (eg, pulmonary disorders, disability, back pain, psychological effects, cosmetic issues, and reduced quality of life)...
January 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316560/transbronchial-cryobiopsies-for-the-diagnosis-of-diffuse-parenchymal-lung-diseases-expert-statement-from-the-cryobiopsy-working-group-on-safety-and-utility-and-a-call-for-standardization-of-the-procedure
#8
Jürgen Hetzel, Fabien Maldonado, Claudia Ravaglia, Athol U Wells, Thomas V Colby, Sara Tomassetti, Jay H Ryu, Oren Fruchter, Sara Piciucchi, Alessandra Dubini, Alberto Cavazza, Marco Chilosi, Nicola Sverzellati, Dominique Valeyre, Dimitri Leduc, Simon L F Walsh, Stefano Gasparini, Martin Hetzel, Lars Hagmeyer, Maik Haentschel, Ralf Eberhardt, Kaid Darwiche, Lonny B Yarmus, Alfonso Torrego, Ganesh Krishna, Pallav L Shah, Jouke T Annema, Felix J F Herth, Venerino Poletti
Transbronchial cryobiopsies (TBCB) have recently been introduced as a promising and safer alternative to surgical lung biopsy in the diagnostic approach to diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD). Despite a substantial and expanding body of literature, the technique has not yet been standardized and its place in the diagnostic algorithm of DPLD remains to be defined. In part, this reflects concerns over the diagnostic yield and safety of the procedure, together with the rapid spread of the technique without competency and safety standards; furthermore, there is a substantial procedural variability among centers and interventional pulmonologists...
January 9, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304167/the-language-disorder-of-prion-disease-is-characteristic-of-a-dynamic-aphasia-and-is-rarely-an-isolated-clinical-feature
#9
Diana Caine, Akin Nihat, Philippa Crabb, Peter Rudge, Lisa Cipolotti, John Collinge, Simon Mead
BACKGROUND: Akinetic mutism is a key diagnostic feature of prion diseases, however, their rapidly progressive nature makes detailed investigation of the language disorder in a large cohort extremely challenging. This study aims to position prion diseases in the nosology of language disorders and improve early clinical recognition. METHODS: A systematic, prospective investigation of language disorders in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with prion diseases. 568 patients were included as a sub-study of the National Prion Monitoring Cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291529/anatomical-and-functional-changes-in-the-brain-after-simultaneous-interpreting-training-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Lorna García-Pentón, Evy Woumans, Aster Dijkgraaf, Wouter Duyck
In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on other variables. In the present neuroimaging study, we adopted a longitudinal design, assessing the long-term anatomical and cognitive effects of an extreme form of bilingualism, namely simultaneous interpreting. We compared a group of students starting interpreting training with a closely matched group of translators, before and after nine months of training...
December 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285653/continuous-subcutaneous-apomorphine-infusion-does-not-impair-the-dynamics-of-cognitive-action-control-in-mild-to-moderate-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Joan Duprez, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Sophie Drapier, Manon Auffret, Dominique Drapier, Gabriel Robert, Marc Vérin, Paul Sauleau
INTRODUCTION: Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) is increasingly used in Parkinson's disease (PD), notably in patients contraindicated for subthalamic deep brain stimulation. Although it has been suggested that CSAI is safe regarding cognition, few studies have actually investigated its effect, especially on cognitive control which is a crucial process for goal-directed behavior. More specifically, its impact on the dynamics of cognitive action control, as reflected by the activation and suppression of impulsive responses, has yet to be investigated, which is the objective of the present study...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274048/a-comparison-of-serial-order-short-term-memory-effects-across-verbal-and-musical-domains
#12
Simon Gorin, Pierre Mengal, Steve Majerus
Recent studies suggest that the mechanisms involved in the short-term retention of serial order information may be shared across short-term memory (STM) domains such as verbal and visuospatial STM. Given the intrinsic sequential organization of musical material, the study of STM for musical information may be particularly informative about serial order retention processes and their domain-generality. The present experiment examined serial order STM for verbal and musical sequences in participants with no advanced musical expertise and experienced musicians...
December 22, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273969/within-person-adaptivity-in-frugal-judgments-from-memory
#13
Elisa Filevich, Sebastian S Horn, Simone Kühn
Humans can exploit recognition memory as a simple cue for judgment. The utility of recognition depends on the interplay with the environment, particularly on its predictive power (validity) in a domain. It is, therefore, an important question whether people are sensitive to differences in recognition validity between domains. Strategic, intra-individual changes in the reliance on recognition have not been investigated so far. The present study fills this gap by scrutinizing within-person changes in using a frugal strategy, the recognition heuristic (RH), across two task domains that differed in recognition validity...
December 22, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273688/abnormal-beta-power-is-a-hallmark-of-explicit-movement-control-in-functional-movement-disorders
#14
Tiago Teodoro, Anne Marthe Meppelink, Simon Little, Robert Grant, Glenn Nielsen, Antonella Macerollo, Isabel Pareés, Mark J Edwards
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sensorimotor beta-frequency oscillatory power is raised during motor preparation in patients with functional movement disorders (FMD) and could therefore be a marker of abnormal "body-focused" attention. METHODS: We analyzed motor performance and beta-frequency cortical oscillations during a precued choice reaction time (RT) task with varying cue validity (50% or 95% congruence between preparation and go cues). We compared 21 patients with FMD with 13 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261246/impact-of-statin-guidelines-on-statin-utilization-and-costs-in-an-employer-based-primary-care-clinic
#15
Holly E Gurgle, Marisa B Schauerhamer, Simón A Rodriguez, Carrie McAdam-Marx
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe statin utilization and costs in an employer-based patient cohort by comparing actual practice and assumed adoption of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) or 2016 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) statin recommendations versus the guidelines described in 2001 (and supplemented in 2004) in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATPIII)...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261133/eeg-dynamics-of-a-go-nogo-task-in-children-with-adhd
#16
Simon Baijot, Carlos Cevallos, David Zarka, Axelle Leroy, Hichem Slama, Cecile Colin, Nicolas Deconinck, Bernard Dan, Guy Cheron
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating event-related potential (ERP) evoked in a Cue-Go/NoGo paradigm have shown lower frontal N1, N2 and central P3 in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing children (TDC). However, the electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics underlying these ERPs remain largely unexplored in ADHD. METHODS: We investigate the event-related spectral perturbation and inter-trial coherence linked to the ERP triggered by visual Cue-Go/NoGo stimuli, in 14 children (7 ADHD and 7 TDC) aged 8 to 12 years...
December 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259275/comparing-stroop-like-and-simon-effects-on-perceptual-features
#17
Elisa Scerrati, Luisa Lugli, Roberto Nicoletti, Carlo Umiltà
Stroop-like and Simon tasks produce two sources of interference in human information processing. Despite being logically similar, it is still debated whether the conflicts ensuing from the two tasks are resolved by the same or different mechanisms. In the present study, we compare two accounts of the Stroop-like effect. According to the Perceptual Account, the Stroop-like effect is due to Stimulus-Stimulus congruence. According to the Decisional Account, the Stroop-like effect results from the same mechanisms that produce the Simon effect, that is, Stimulus-Response compatibility...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258543/the-impact-of-interpretive-and-reductive-front-of-pack-labels-on-food-choice-and-willingness-to-pay
#18
Zenobia Talati, Richard Norman, Simone Pettigrew, Bruce Neal, Bridget Kelly, Helen Dixon, Kylie Ball, Caroline Miller, Trevor Shilton
BACKGROUND: This study examined how front-of-pack labels and product healthfulness affect choice and willingness to pay across a range of foods. It was hypothesized that: (i) product choice and (ii) willingness to pay would be more aligned with product healthfulness when healthfulness was expressed through the Health Star Rating, followed by the Multiple Traffic Light, then the Daily Intake Guide, and (iii) the Nutrition Facts Panel would be viewed infrequently. METHODS: Adults and children aged 10+ years (n = 2069) completed an online discrete choice task involving mock food packages...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249956/the-mirror-neurons-network-in-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-a-functional-mri-study
#19
Elisabetta Farina, Francesca Baglio, Simone Pomati, Alessandra D'Amico, Isabella C Campini, Sonia Di Tella, Giulia Belloni, Thierry Pozzo
The aim of the current study is to investigate the integrity of the Mirror Neurons (MN) network in normal aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Although AD and MCI are considered "cognitive" diseases, there has been increasing recognition of a link between motor function and AD. More recently the embodied cognition hypothesis has also been developed: it postulates that a part of cognition results from the coupling between action and perception representations. MN represent a neuronal population which links perception, action, and cognition, therefore we decided to characterize MN functioning in neurodegenerative cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247293/work-related-social-support-modulates-effects-of-early-life-stress-on-limbic-reactivity-during-stress
#20
Ulrich Leicht-Deobald, Heike Bruch, Luisa Bönke, Amie Stevense, Yan Fan, Malek Bajbouj, Simone Grimm
Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS...
December 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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