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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773606/optimising-experimental-research-in-respiratory-diseases-an-ers-statement
#1
Philippe Bonniaud, Aurélie Fabre, Nelly Frossard, Christophe Guignabert, Mark Inman, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Tania Maes, Wei Shi, Martin Stampfli, Stefan Uhlig, Eric White, Martin Witzenrath, Pierre-Simon Bellaye, Bruno Crestani, Oliver Eickelberg, Heinz Fehrenbach, Andreas Guenther, Gisli Jenkins, Guy Joos, Antoine Magnan, Bernard Maitre, Ulrich A Maus, Petra Reinhold, Juanita H J Vernooy, Luca Richeldi, Martin Kolb
Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models...
May 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762102/dynamic-encoding-of-effort-and-reward-throughout-the-execution-of-action-by-external-globus-pallidus-neurons-in-monkeys
#2
Simon Nougaret, Sabrina Ravel
Humans and animals must evaluate the costs and expected benefits of their actions to make adaptive choices. Prior studies have demonstrated the involvement of the BG in this evaluation. However, little is known about the role of the external part of the globus pallidus (GPe), which is well positioned to integrate motor and reward-related information, in this process. To investigate this role, the activity of 126 neurons was recorded in the associative and limbic parts of the GPe of two monkeys performing a behavioral task in which different levels of force were required to obtain different amounts of liquid reward...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761377/how-different-direct-association-routes-influence-the-indirect-route-in-the-same-simon-like-task
#3
Chunming Luo, Robert W Proctor
The location-, word-, and arrow-based Simon effects are usually attributed to the result of a direct route (the spatially corresponding stimulus-response association, activated automatically) that interferes with an indirect route (the association of task-relevant information and response, activated in accordance with the instructed stimulus-response mapping). We examined whether and how distinct direct routes (stimulus-location-response position and location word-response position or arrow direction-response position associations) affect responding on the basis of the same indirect route (a stimulus color-response association) in a Simon-like task...
May 14, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761057/the-performance-of-cleaner-wrasse-labroides-dimidiatus-in-a-reversal-learning-task-varies-across-experimental-paradigms
#4
Simon Gingins, Fanny Marcadier, Sharon Wismer, Océane Krattinger, Fausto Quattrini, Redouan Bshary, Sandra A Binning
Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners")...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757066/reliability-and-clinical-feasibility-of-measuring-dual-task-gait-in-the-inpatient-rehabilitation-setting-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Lauren Rachal, Chad Swank, Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, Simon Driver
BACKGROUND: To prepare patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) for discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, physical therapists may incorporate dual-task gait activities. Reliability of common dual-task measures for people with TBI in inpatient rehabilitation is undetermined. Our purpose was to assess inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and clinical feasibility of dual-task measures [Walking While Talking Test (WWTT), Modified Walking and Remembering Task (mWART), Timed Up and Go-cognitive (TUG-COG)] in inpatient rehabilitation for patients with TBI...
May 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756794/neurodevelopment-of-conflict-adaptation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#6
Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755513/motor-imagery-during-action-observation-of-locomotor-tasks-improves-rehabilitation-outcome-in-older-adults-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#7
Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre, Armin Paravlic, Simon Kovač, Rado Pišot, Wolfgang Taube
This study aimed at determining whether the combination of action observation and motor imagery (AO + MI) of locomotor tasks could positively affect rehabilitation outcome after hip replacement surgery. Of initially 405 screened participants, 21 were randomly split into intervention group ( N = 10; mean age = 64 y; AO + MI of locomotor tasks: 30 min/day in the hospital, then 3×/week in their homes for two months) and control group ( N = 11, mean age = 63 y, active controls). The functional outcomes (Timed Up and Go, TUG; Four Step Square Test, FSST; and single- and dual-task gait and postural control) were measured before (PRE) and 2 months after surgery (POST)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755382/effect-of-the-symbolic-meaning-of-speed-on-the-perceived-duration-of-children-and-adults
#8
Giovanna Mioni, Franca Stablum, Simon Grondin, Gianmarco Altoé, Dan Zakay
The present study investigated how the symbolic meaning of speed affects time perception in children and adults. We employed a time reproduction task in which participants were asked to reproduce temporal intervals previously presented. In Experiment 1, 45 primary school children and 22 university students performed a time reproduction task with cars (meaning of fastness) and trucks (meaning of slowness) presented for 11 and 21 s in static and moving conditions. Results showed that young children under-reproduced the duration more than the older children and adults, especially when the stimulus presented was a car...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753993/reliability-of-neural-activation-and-connectivity-during-implicit-face-emotion-processing-in-youth
#9
Simone P Haller, Katharina Kircanski, Joel Stoddard, Lauren K White, Gang Chen, Banafsheh Sharif-Askary, Susan Zhang, Kenneth E Towbin, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Face emotion imaging paradigms are widely used in both healthy and psychiatric populations. Here, in children and adolescents, we evaluate the test-retest reliability of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation and task-based functional connectivity on a widely used implicit face emotion processing task (i.e., gender labeling). Twenty-five healthy youth (M age = 13.97 year s; 60% female) completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan sessions approximately two months apart...
March 27, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753842/extracting-orthogonal-subject-and-condition-specific-signatures-from-fmri-data-using-whole-brain-effective-connectivity
#10
Vicente Pallarés, Andrea Insabato, Ana Sanjuán, Simone Kühn, Dante Mantini, Gustavo Deco, Matthieu Gilson
The study of brain communication based on fMRI data is often limited because such measurements are a mixture of session-to-session variability with subject- and condition-related information. Disentangling these contributions is crucial for real-life applications, in particular when only a few recording sessions are available. The present study aims to define a reliable standard for the extraction of multiple signatures from fMRI data, while verifying that they do not mix information about the different modalities (e...
May 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751059/the-relationship-between-conflict-awareness-and-behavioral-and-oscillatory-signatures-of-immediate-and-delayed-cognitive-control
#11
Jun Jiang, Camile M Correa, Jesse Geerts, Simon van Gaal
Cognitive control over conflict, mediated by the prefrontal cortex, is an important skill for successful decision-making. Although it has been shown that cognitive control may operate unconsciously, it has recently been proposed that control operations may be driven by the metacognitive awareness of conflict, e.g. arising from the feeling of task difficulty or the ease of action selection, and therefore crucially depends on conflict awareness. Behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) data are presented from 64 subjects performing a masked priming paradigm to test this hypothesis...
May 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743155/causality-patterns-for-detecting-adverse-drug-reactions-from-social-media-text-mining-approach
#12
Danushka Bollegala, Simon Maskell, Richard Sloane, Joanna Hajne, Munir Pirmohamed
BACKGROUND: Detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important task that has direct implications for the use of that drug. If we can detect previously unknown ADRs as quickly as possible, then this information can be provided to the regulators, pharmaceutical companies, and health care organizations, thereby potentially reducing drug-related morbidity and saving lives of many patients. A promising approach for detecting ADRs is to use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook...
May 9, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741457/differences-between-early-and-late-involvement-of-palliative-home-care-in-oncology-care-a-focus-group-study-with-palliative-home-care-teams
#13
Naomi Dhollander, Luc Deliens, Simon Van Belle, Aline De Vleminck, Koen Pardon
BACKGROUND: To date, no randomised controlled trials on the integration of specialised palliative home care into oncology care have been identified. Information on whether existing models of integrated care are applicable to the home care system and how working procedures and skills of the palliative care teams might require adaptation is missing. AIM: To gain insight into differences between early and late involvement and the effect on existing working procedures and skills as perceived by palliative home care teams...
May 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740303/long-range-temporal-correlations-in-alpha-oscillations-stabilize-perception-of-ambiguous-visual-stimuli
#14
Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Arthur-Ervin Avramiea, Mona Irrmischer, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Ongoing brain dynamics have been proposed as a type of "neuronal noise" that can trigger perceptual switches when viewing an ambiguous, bistable stimulus. However, no prior study has directly quantified how such neuronal noise relates to the rate of percept reversals. Specifically, it has remained unknown whether individual differences in complexity of resting-state oscillations-as reflected in long-range temporal correlations (LRTC)-are associated with perceptual stability. We hypothesized that participants with stronger resting-state LRTC in the alpha band experience more stable percepts, and thereby fewer perceptual switches...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733953/anticipatory-neural-dynamics-of-spatial-temporal-orienting-of-attention-in-younger-and-older-adults
#15
Simone G Heideman, Gustavo Rohenkohl, Joshua J Chauvin, Clare E Palmer, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
Spatial and temporal expectations act synergistically to facilitate visual perception. In the current study, we sought to investigate the anticipatory oscillatory markers of combined spatial-temporal orienting and to test whether these decline with ageing. We examined anticipatory neural dynamics associated with joint spatial-temporal orienting of attention using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in both younger and older adults. Participants performed a cued covert spatial-temporal orienting task requiring the discrimination of a visual target...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733667/the-power-law-of-visual-working-memory-characterizes-attention-engagement
#16
Philip L Smith, Elaine A Corbett, Simon D Lilburn, Søren Kyllingsbæk
The quality or precision of stimulus representations in visual working memory can be characterized by a power law, which states that precision decreases as a power of the number of items in memory, with an exponent whose magnitude typically varies in the range 0.5 to 0.75. The authors show that the magnitude of the exponent is an index of the attentional demands of memory formation. They report 5 visual working memory experiments with tasks using noisy, backward-masked stimuli that varied in their attentional demands and show that the magnitude of the exponent increases systematically with the attentional demands of the task...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732367/the-effect-of-movement-on-cognitive-performance
#17
Raed Mualem, Gerry Leisman, Yusra Zbedat, Sherif Ganem, Ola Mualem, Monjed Amaria, Aiman Kozle, Safa Khayat-Moughrabi, Alon Ornai
The study examines the relationship between walking, cognitive, and academic skills. Students from elementary, middle, high school, and college were required to walk for 10 min prior to completing feature detection, Simon-type memory, and mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants were counterbalanced to remove a time bias. Ten minutes of walking had a significant positive effect on Simon-type memory and critical feature-detection tasks among all age groups. Separately, with mathematical problem-solving ability, higher performing high-school students demonstrated significant positive effects on mathematical reasoning tasks based on the Bloom Taxonomy...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730492/trade-off-of-cerebello-cortical-and-cortico-cortical-functional-networks-for-planning-in-6-year-old-children
#18
Judy A Kipping, Daniel S Margulies, Simon Eickhoff, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu
Childhood is a critical period for the development of cognitive planning. There is a lack of knowledge on its neural mechanisms in children. This study aimed to examine cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity in association with planning skills in 6-year-olds (n = 76). We identified the cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks related to cognitive planning using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on existing functional imaging studies on spatial planning, and data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) of children's resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728732/affordable-laparoscopic-camera-system-alcs-designed-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-feasibility-study
#19
Federico Gheza, Fadekemi O Oginni, Simone Crivellaro, Mario A Masrur, Adewale O Adisa
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgical techniques (MISTs) could have tremendous benefits in resource-poor environment. There is growing interest in MISTs in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), but its adoption has remained limited; this is largely due to high cost of the initial setup, lack of technological backup and limited access to training among others. An affordable laparoscopic setup will go a long way in improving access to MISTs. METHODS: A common zero degrees 10 mm scope is attached on the camera of a low-price smartphone...
May 4, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725068/chromosomal-barcoding-as-a-tool-for-multiplexed-phenotypic-characterization-of-laboratory-evolved-lineages
#20
Leonie Johanna Jahn, Andreas Porse, Christian Munck, Daniel Simon, Svetlana Volkova, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer
Adaptive laboratory evolution is an important tool to evolve organisms to increased tolerance towards different physical and chemical stress. It is applied to study the evolution of antibiotic resistance as well as genetic mechanisms underlying improvements in production strains. Adaptive evolution experiments can be automated in a high-throughput fashion. However, the characterization of the resulting lineages can become a time consuming task, when the performance of each lineage is evaluated individually...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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