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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074980/-implications-of-chilean-legal-framework-in-teen-pregnancy-prevention-conflict-and-insecurity-in-health-professionals
#1
Carolina Luttges D, Carolina Leyton M, Ingrid Leal F, Paulina Troncoso E, Temístocles Molina G
BACKGROUND: Teenage pregnancy is a psychosocial and multifactorial problem described as a lack of exercise of rights in sexual and reproductive health. There are important aspects in the doctor-patient relationship and confidentiality that directly affect the continuity and quality of care. There are controversies in the laws relating to the provision of contraception and confidentiality, and those that protect the sexual indemnity, especially in adolescents under 14 years. AIM: To describe the implications of the legal framework for professional midwives in the care of adolescents younger than 14 years in sexual and reproductive health...
October 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068362/conflict-of-interest-policies-at-french-medical-schools-starting-from-the-bottom
#2
Paul Scheffer, Christian Guy-Coichard, David Outh-Gauer, Zoéline Calet-Froissart, Mathilde Boursier, Barbara Mintzes, Jean-Sébastien Borde
BACKGROUND: Medical faculties have a role in ensuring that their students are protected from undue commercial influence during their training, and are educated about professional-industry interactions. In North America, many medical faculties have introduced more stringent conflict of interest (COI) policies during the last decade. We asked whether similar steps had been taken in France. We hypothesized that such policies may have been introduced following a 2009-2010 drug safety scandal (benfluorex, Mediator) in which COIs in medicine received prominent press attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068124/cognitive-effort-is-modulated-outside-of-the-explicit-awareness-of-conflict-frequency-evidence-from-pupillometry
#3
Nathaniel T Diede, Julie M Bugg
Classic theories of cognitive control conceptualized controlled processes as slow, strategic, and willful, with automatic processes being fast and effortless. The context-specific proportion compatibility (CSPC) effect, the reduction in the compatibility effect in a context (e.g., location) associated with a high relative to low likelihood of conflict, challenged classic theories by demonstrating fast and flexible control that appears to operate outside of conscious awareness. Two theoretical questions yet to be addressed are whether the CSPC effect is accompanied by context-dependent variation in effort, and whether the exertion of effort depends on explicit awareness of context-specific task demands...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065714/transient-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-disrupts-avoidance-of-a-dynamic-object
#4
Jan Svoboda, Veronika Lobellová, Anna Popelíková, Nikhil Ahuja, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057878/pseudoautosomal-abnormalities-in-terminal-azfb-c-deletions-are-associated-with-isochromosomes-yp-and-may-lead-to-abnormal-growth-and-neuropsychiatric-function
#5
A Castro, F Rodríguez, M Flórez, P López, B Curotto, D Martínez, A Maturana, M C Lardone, C Palma, V Mericq, M Ebensperger, F Cassorla
STUDY QUESTION: Are copy number variations (CNVs) in the pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) frequent in subjects with Y-chromosome microdeletions and can they lead to abnormal stature and/or neuropsychiatric disorders? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only subjects diagnosed with azoospermia factor (AZF)b+c deletions spanning to the end of the Y chromosome (i.e. terminal deletions) harbor Y isochromosomes and/or cells 45,X that lead to pseudoautosomal gene CNVs, which were associated with abnormal stature and/or neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 5, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056973/conceptualizing-the-dynamics-of-workplace-stress-a-systems-based-study-of-nursing-aides
#6
Arif Jetha, Laura Kernan, Alicia Kurowski
BACKGROUND: Workplace stress is a complex phenomenon that may often be dynamic and evolving over time. Traditional linear modeling does not allow representation of recursive feedback loops among the implicated factors. The objective of this study was to develop a multidimensional system dynamics model (SDM) of workplace stress among nursing aides and conduct simulations to illustrate how changes in psychosocial perceptions and workplace factors might influence workplace stress over time...
January 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045223/on-the-dependence-of-response-inhibition-processes-on-sensory-modality
#7
Benjamin Bodmer, Christian Beste
The ability to inhibit responses is a central sensorimotor function but only recently the importance of sensory processes for motor inhibition mechanisms went more into the research focus. In this regard it is elusive, whether there are differences between sensory modalities to trigger response inhibition processes. Due to functional neuroanatomical considerations strong differences may exist, for example, between the visual and the tactile modality. In the current study we examine what neurophysiological mechanisms as well as functional neuroanatomical networks are modulated during response inhibition...
January 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044450/caffeine-and-theanine-exert-opposite-effects-on-attention-under-emotional-arousal
#8
Grace E Giles, Caroline R Mahoney, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor, Robin B Kanarek
Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039127/effectiveness-of-early-compared-with-conservative-rehabilitation-for-patients-having-rotator-cuff-repair-surgery-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#9
Bruno Fles Mazuquin, Andrew Charles Wright, Sarah Russell, Puneet Monga, James Selfe, Jim Richards
AIM/OBJECTIVE: The aim is to critically analyse and discuss the current literature and determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation for patients after surgical repair of rotator cuff tears for range of motion (ROM), pain, functional status and retear rates; in addition, an update of new literature is included. DESIGN: Overview of systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: A search was performed with no restrictions to date of publication and language in the following databases: EBSCO, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Knowledge...
December 30, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032532/the-missing-the-martyred-and-the-disappeared-global-networks-technical-intensification-and-the-end-of-human-rights-genetics
#10
Lindsay A Smith
In 1984, a group of Argentine students, trained by US academics, formed the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team to apply the latest scientific techniques to the excavation of mass graves and identification of the dead, and to work toward transitional justice. This inaugurated a new era in global forensic science, as groups of scientists in the Global South worked outside of and often against local governments to document war crimes in post-conflict settings. After 2001, however, with the inauguration of the war on terror following the September 11(th) attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, global forensic science was again remade through US and European investment to increase preparedness in the face of potential terrorist attacks...
December 1, 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030422/factors-influencing-mini-cex-rater-judgments-and-their-practical-implications-a-systematic-literature-review
#11
Victor Lee, Keira Brain, Jenepher Martin
PURPOSE: At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors. METHOD: The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases...
December 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028359/role-of-dupa-in-virulence-of-helicobacter-pylori
#12
REVIEW
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Guillermo Perez-Perez
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gastric human pathogen associated with acute and chronic gastritis, 70% of all gastric ulcers, 85% of all duodenal ulcers, and both forms of stomach cancer, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Recently, attention has focused on possible relationship between presence of certain virulence factor and H. pylori-associated diseases. Some contradictory data between this bacterium and related disorders has been observed since not all the colonized individuals develop to severe disease...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018026/harnessing-learning-biases-is-essential-for-applying-social-learning-in-conservation
#13
REVIEW
Alison L Greggor, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Social learning can influence how animals respond to anthropogenic changes in the environment, determining whether animals survive novel threats and exploit novel resources or produce maladaptive behaviour and contribute to human-wildlife conflict. Predicting where social learning will occur and manipulating its use are, therefore, important in conservation, but doing so is not straightforward. Learning is an inherently biased process that has been shaped by natural selection to prioritize important information and facilitate its efficient uptake...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009055/life-history-evolution-reproduction-and-the-origins-of-sex-dependent-aging-and-longevity
#14
Robert C Brooks, Michael G Garratt
Males and females in many species differ in how they age and how long they live. These differences have motivated much research, concerning both their evolution and the underlying mechanisms that cause them. We review how differences in male and female life histories have evolved to shape patterns of aging and some of the mechanisms and pathways involved. We pay particular attention to three areas where considerable potential for synergy between mechanistic and evolutionary research exists: (1) the role of estrogens, androgens, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway in sex-dependent growth and reproduction; (2) sexual conflict over mating rate and fertility, and how mate presence or mating can become an avenue for males and females to directly affect each other's life span; and (3) the link between dietary restriction and aging, and the emerging understanding that only the restriction of certain nutrients is involved and that this is linked to reproduction...
December 23, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004476/epidemiology-characteristics-reporting-characteristics-and-methodological-quality-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-traditional-chinese-medicine-nursing-interventions-published-in-chinese-journals
#15
Min Yang, Li Jiang, Aihong Wang, Guihua Xu
To evaluate the epidemiological characteristics, reporting characteristics, and methodological quality of systematic reviews in the traditional Chinese medicine nursing field published in Chinese journals. The number of systematic reviews in the traditional Chinese medicine nursing field has increased, but their epidemiology, quality, and reporting characteristics have not been assessed completely. We generated an overview of reviews using a narrative approach. Four Chinese databases were searched for systematic reviews from inception to December 2015...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001305/an-entertainment-education-colorectal-cancer-screening-decision-aid-for-african-american-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Aubri S Hoffman, Lisa M Lowenstein, Geetanjali R Kamath, Ashley J Housten, Viola B Leal, Suzanne K Linder, Maria L Jibaja-Weiss, Gottumukkala S Raju, Robert J Volk
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening rates for African American patients remain suboptimal. Patient decision aids designed with an entertainment-education approach have been shown to improve saliency and foster informed decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess whether an entertainment-education decision aid tailored for African American patients improved patients' decision making, attitudes, intentions, or colorectal cancer screening behavior. METHODS: Eighty-nine participants were randomized to view 1) a patient decision aid video containing culturally tailored information about colorectal cancer screening options and theory-based support in decision making presented in an entertainment-education format or 2) an attention control video about hypertension that contained similarly detailed information...
December 21, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998261/suicidal-ideation-among-suburban-adolescents-the-influence-of-school-bullying-and-other-mediating-risk-factors
#17
David T Lardier, Veronica R Barrios, Pauline Garcia-Reid, Robert J Reid
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has identified multiple factors that influence suicidal ideation (SI) among bullied youth. The effects of school bullying on SI cannot be considered in isolation. In this study, we examined the influence of school bullying on SI, through a constellation of risks, which include depressive and anxiety symptoms, family conflict, and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. We also provide recommendations for therapists working with bullied youth. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 488 adolescents (ages 10-18 years) from a northern New Jersey, United States suburban community...
October 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995282/-asa-classification-transition-in-the-course-of-time-and-depiction-in-the-literature
#18
T Irlbeck, B Zwißler, A Bauer
The American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of physical status (ASA PS) is a widely used system for categorizing the preoperative status of patients. The ASA class is a good independent predictor of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The definitions of the ASA classes have been amended several times since 1941, resulting in inconsistent and confusing usage in the current literature. Conflicting definitions of ASA PS exist, particularly for classes III, IV and V. The high variability of individual classifications by different anesthesiologist, however, can be explained by the previous lack of examples for diagnoses...
December 19, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989463/coupling-between-one-dimensional-networks-reconciles-conflicting-dynamics-in-lip-and-reveals-its-recurrent-circuitry
#19
Wujie Zhang, Annegret L Falkner, B Suresh Krishna, Michael E Goldberg, Kenneth D Miller
Little is known about the internal circuitry of the primate lateral intraparietal area (LIP). During two versions of a delayed-saccade task, we found radically different network dynamics beneath similar population average firing patterns. When neurons are not influenced by stimuli outside their receptive fields (RFs), dynamics of the high-dimensional LIP network during slowly varying activity lie predominantly in one multi-neuronal dimension, as described previously. However, when activity is suppressed by stimuli outside the RF, slow LIP dynamics markedly deviate from a single dimension...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977230/time-out-for-conflict-monitoring-theory-preventing-rhythmic-biases-eliminates-the-list-level-proportion-congruent-effect
#20
James R Schmidt
The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the observation that congruency effects are smaller when most trials are incongruent rather than congruent. The list-level PC (LLPC) effect is the finding that a PC effect can transfer from biased inducer items to unbiased diagnostic items. Such effects are generally interpreted as resulting from conflict monitoring and attentional adaptation. An alternative view proposes that PC effects result from simple learning biases unrelated to conflict. The temporal learning account proposes that LLPC effects stem from a different task rhythm in the mostly congruent and mostly incongruent conditions...
December 15, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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