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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631988/evidence-of-practice-effect-in-cantab-spatial-working-memory-test-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Federica Cacciamani, Nicola Salvadori, Paolo Eusebi, Viviana Lisetti, Elisa Luchetti, Paolo Calabresi, Lucilla Parnetti
The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a system of neuropsychological tests frequently used to track the progression of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated test-retest reliability in seven CANTAB tests. Twenty-five MCI patients, with either AD-like or conflicting/normal cerebrospinal fluid profiles underwent three testing sessions at 6-month intervals, including the following tests: Reaction Time and Rapid Visual Information Processing (assessing attention and reaction times); Delayed Matching-to-Sample, Paired Associates Learning, Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory (assessing memory); Spatial Working Memory (assessing executive functions)...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630352/structural-complexity-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-a-butterfly-ejaculate-reflect-a-complex-history-of-selection
#2
Camille Meslin, Tamara S Cherwin, Melissa S Plakke, Brandon S Small, Breanna J Goetz, Nathan I Morehouse, Nathan L Clark
Male ejaculates are often structurally complex, and this complexity is likely to influence key reproductive interactions between males and females. However, despite its potential evolutionary significance, the molecular underpinnings of ejaculate structural complexity have received little empirical attention. To address this knowledge gap, we sought to understand the biochemical and functional properties of the structurally complex ejaculates of Pieris rapae butterflies. Males in this species produce large ejaculates called spermatophores composed of an outer envelope, an inner matrix, and a bolus of sperm...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#3
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622955/age-specific-risks-severity-time-course-and-outcome-of-bleeding-on-long-term-antiplatelet-treatment-after-vascular-events-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Linxin Li, Olivia C Geraghty, Ziyah Mehta, Peter M Rothwell
BACKGROUND: Lifelong antiplatelet treatment is recommended after ischaemic vascular events, on the basis of trials done mainly in patients younger than 75 years. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a serious complication, but had low case fatality in trials of aspirin and is not generally thought to cause long-term disability. Consequently, although co-prescription of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduces upper gastrointestinal bleeds by 70-90%, uptake is low and guidelines are conflicting...
June 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621754/environmental-human-health-and-socio-economic-effects-of-cement-powders-the-multicriteria-analysis-as-decisional-methodology
#5
Laura Moretti, Paola Di Mascio, Simona Bellagamba
The attention to sustainability-related issues has grown fast in recent decades. The experience gained with these themes reveals the importance of considering this topic in the construction industry, which represents an important sector throughout the world. This work consists on conducting a multicriteria analysis of four cement powders, with the objective of calculating and analysing the environmental, human health and socio-economic effects of their production processes. The economic, technical, environmental and safety performances of the examined powders result from official, both internal and public, documents prepared by the producers...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620074/regulatory-bc1-rna-in-cognitive-control
#6
Anna Iacoangeli, Aderemi Dosunmu, Taesun Eom, Dimitre G Stefanov, Henri Tiedge
Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and excessive cortical oscillations in the γ frequency band. Here we asked whether BC1 RNA control is also required for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, or cognition...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619031/healthy-people-and-healthy-profits-elaborating-a-conceptual-framework-for-governing-the-commercial-determinants-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-identifying-options-for-reducing-risk-exposure
#7
REVIEW
Kent Buse, Sonja Tanaka, Sarah Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent a significant threat to human health and well-being, and carry significant implications for economic development and health care and other costs for governments and business, families and individuals. Risks for many of the major NCDs are associated with the production, marketing and consumption of commercially produced food and drink, particularly those containing sugar, salt and transfats (in ultra-processed products), alcohol and tobacco...
June 15, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612612/-molecular-aspects-of-thyroid-tumors-with-emphasis-on-microrna-and-their-clinical-implications
#8
M Ludvíková, I Kholová, D Kalfeřt
BACKGROUND: Central to neoplastic transformation and tumor progression is alteration of the signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and apoptosis. The key mechanisms for this neoplastic process are genetic changes (mutations of cancer-related genes) and recently identified epigenetic changes that involve DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling (which has a profound effect on the control of gene expression), and noncoding, regulatory RNA (notably, microRNA - miRNA). MiRNAs control expression of their target gene post-transcriptionally...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610578/sub-national-assessment-of-aid-effectiveness-a-case-study-of-post-conflict-districts-in-uganda
#9
Freddie Ssengooba, Justine Namakula, Vincent Kawooya, Suzanne Fustukian
BACKGROUND: In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. METHOD: This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607660/investigation-of-marital-satisfaction-and-its-relationship-with-job-stress-and-general-health-of-nurses-in-qazvin-iran
#10
Jalil Azimian, Pegah Piran, Hassan Jahanihashemi, Leila Dehghankar
BACKGROUND: Pressures in nursing can affect family life and marital problems, disrupt common social problems, increase work-family conflicts and endanger people's general health. AIM: To determine marital satisfaction and its relationship with job stress and general health of nurses. METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was done in 2015 in medical educational centers of Qazvin by using an ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and General Health and Job Stress questionnaires completed by 123 nurses...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604026/the-impact-of-resource-valence-on-children-s-other-regarding-preferences
#11
Robert Böhm, David Buttelmann
Given its importance for the emergence of intergroup conflict, the development of other-regarding preferences toward in-group and out-group members has received increasing attention from various disciplines. The present study investigates children's other-regarding preferences toward in-group and out-group members when allocating resources with positive and negative valence. The 6- and 8-year-olds' (N = 92) task was to allocate resources to themselves versus to an in-group or an out-group member. They demonstrated prosociality more frequently toward in-group than toward out-group recipients and more frequently when positive rather than negative resources were involved...
June 12, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588960/perspectives-of-host-faculty-and-trainees-on-international-visiting-faculty-to-paediatric-academic-departments-in-east-africa
#12
Christiana M Russ, Lakshmi Ganapathi, Diana Marangu, Melanie Silverman, Edward Kija, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Ahmed Laving
BACKGROUND: Investments in faculty exchanges to build physician workforce capacity are increasing. Little attention has been paid to the expectations of host institution faculty and trainees. This prospective qualitative research study explored faculty and resident perspectives about guest faculty in paediatric departments in East Africa, asking (1) What are the benefits and challenges of hosting guest faculty, (2) What factors influence the effectiveness of faculty visits and (3) How do host institutions prepare for faculty visits? METHODS: We recruited 36 faculty members and residents from among four paediatric departments in East Africa to participate in semistructured interviews which were audio recorded and transcribed...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583021/relationships-matter-contraceptive-choices-among-hiv-positive-women-in-tanzania
#13
Tabitha Alexandria Njeri Nyanja, Charlotte Tulinius
Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania...
June 6, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581878/what-happens-when-the-doctor-denies-a-patient-s-request-a-qualitative-interview-study-among-general-practitioners-in-norway
#14
Stein Nilsen, Kirsti Malterud
OBJECTIVE: To explore general practitioners (GPs') experiences from consultations when a patient's request is denied, and outcomes of such incidents. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a qualitative study with semi-structured individual interviews with six GPs in Norway. We asked them to tell about experiences from specific encounters where they had refused a patient's request. The texts were analysed with Systematic Text Condensation, a method for thematic cross-case analysis...
June 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580687/theta-and-delta-band-eeg-network-dynamics-during-a-novelty-oddball-task
#15
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
While the P3 component during target detection and novelty processing has been widely studied, less is known about its underlying network dynamics. A recent cognitive model suggests that frontal-parietal and frontal-temporal interregional connectivity are related to attention/action selection and target-related memory updating during the P3, respectively, but empirical work testing this model is lacking. Other work suggests the importance of theta- and delta-band connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and distributed cortical regions during attention, stimulus detection, and response selection processes, and similar dynamics may underlie P3-related network connectivity...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579912/interaction-of-bilingualism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-young-adults
#16
Ellen Bialystok, Kornelia Hawrylewicz, Melody Wiseheart, Maggie Toplak
One hundred and sixty-eight young adult participants were classified as monolingual or bilingual and as having a previously reported clinical diagnosis of ADHD or not to create four groups. All participants completed tests of language proficiency, ADHD ratings, and executive control. Both bilingualism and ADHD are generally associated with poorer vocabulary knowledge, but bilingualism and ADHD are associated with opposite effects on executive control. Consistent with this literature, bilinguals performed more poorly than monolinguals on the vocabulary test but contrary to predictions, the ADHD group performed somewhat better on language ability than the non-ADHD group, attesting to their high functioning status...
May 2017: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573333/incorporating-equity-in-economic-evaluations-a-multi-attribute-equity-state-approach
#17
Jeff Round, Mike Paulden
In publicly funded health care systems, decision makers must continually balance often conflicting priorities of efficiency and equity. Health economists have developed a set of highly sophisticated analytical methods for assessing efficiency, but less attention has been paid to formally incorporating equity considerations into analyses. As a result, where equity is considered is often informal, ad hoc and/or simplistic. This paper is a proposal for a mechanism for formally incorporating equity within the decision process...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569205/association-between-blood-pressure-and-alzheimer-disease-measured-up-to-27%C3%A2-years-prior-to-diagnosis-the-hunt-study
#18
Jessica Mira Gabin, Kristian Tambs, Ingvild Saltvedt, Erik Sund, Jostein Holmen
BACKGROUND: A lot of attention has been paid to the relationship of blood pressure and dementia because epidemiological research has reported conflicting evidence. Observational data has shown that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia later in life, whereas there is evidence that low blood pressure is predictive in later life. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dementia and blood pressure measured up to 27 years (mean 17...
May 31, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566957/additive-effects-of-former-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-and-cannabis-use-on-subclinical-psychotic-symptoms
#19
Berker Duman, Nilay Sedes, Bora Baskak
INTRODUCTION: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine-derived psychostimulant, usually known as "ecstasy." The long-term neuropsychological effects of MDMA are examined in several studies with conflicting results. The most common findings reported are depression, anxiety, and memory and attention deficits. In addition to acute psychotic reactions observed after MDMA use, serotonergic and dopaminergic toxicities may increase the psychosis risk in the long-term. Cannabis usage among MDMA users is very high...
March 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566892/disruptive-behavior-in-the-workplace-challenges-for-gastroenterology-fellows
#20
Nalinee Srisarajivakul, Catherine Lucero, Xiao-Jing Wang, Michael Poles, Colleen Gillespie, Sondra Zabar, Elizabeth Weinshel, Lisa Malter
AIM: To assess first-year gastroenterology fellows' ability to address difficult interpersonal situations in the workplace using objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). METHODS: Two OSCEs ("distracted care team" and "frazzled intern") were created to assess response to disruptive behavior. In case 1, a fellow used a colonoscopy simulator while interacting with a standardized patient (SP), nurse, and attending physician all played by actors. The nurse and attending were instructed to display specific disruptive behavior and disregard the fellow unless requested to stop the disruptive behavior and focus on the patient and procedure...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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