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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775080/mindfulness-meditation-and-interprofessional-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study
#1
Diana J Kelm, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Becca L Gas, Monali Mohan, David A Cook, Darlene R Nelson, Roberto P Benzo
PROBLEM: Mindfulness training includes mindfulness meditation, which has been shown to improve both attention and self-awareness. Medical providers in the intensive care unit often deal with difficult situations with strong emotions, life-and-death decisions, and both interpersonal and interprofessional conflicts. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on healthcare providers during acute care tasks such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains unknown. Mindfulness meditation has the potential to improve provider well-being and reduce stress in individuals involved in resuscitation teams, which could then translate into better team communication and delivery of care under stress...
May 18, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774489/the-role-of-lifestyle-in-male-infertility-diet-physical-activity-and-body-habitus
#2
REVIEW
Russell P Hayden, Ryan Flannigan, Peter N Schlegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing attention to primary and secondary prevention of male infertility through modifiable lifestyle factors has gained traction amongst both patients and infertility specialists. In this review, the available evidence of modifiable lifestyle choices, specifically diet, physical activity, and body habitus, are evaluated. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining diet, exercise/physical activity, and body habitus are characterized by conflicting conclusions, difficult confounders, and imperfect end points to judge male reproductive potential...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773755/expectations-do-not-alter-early-sensory-processing-during-perceptual-decision-making
#3
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773215/sleep-disturbance-mediates-the-association-between-intrafamily-conflict-and-mental-health-problems-in-chinese-adolescents
#4
Liying Zhang, Yanyun Yang, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Cun-Xian Jia, Xianchen Liu
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems and sleep disturbance are prevalent in adolescents. Intrafamily conflict has been found to be associated with mental health problems and sleep disturbance in adolescents. This study examined the hypothesis that sleep disturbance mediates the effect of intrafamily conflict on mental health problems. METHOD: Participants were 11,831 adolescent students who participated in the baseline survey of the Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773210/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Sabine Pompéia, Mônica Carolina Miranda
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771565/memory-guided-selective-attention-single-experiences-with-conflict-have-long-lasting-effects-on-cognitive-control
#6
Nicholaus P Brosowsky, Matthew J C Crump
Adjustments in cognitive control, as measured by congruency sequence effects, are thought to be influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this dichotomy has often overshadowed the potential contribution of past experience stored in memory. Here, we examine the role of long-term episodic memory in guiding selective attention. Our aim was to demonstrate new evidence that selective attention can be modulated by long-term retrieval of stimulus-specific attentional control settings. All the experiments used a modified flanker task involving multiple unique stimuli...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770186/conflict-tasks-of-different-types-divergently-affect-the-attentional-processing-of-gaze-and-arrow
#7
Lingxia Fan, Huan Yu, Xuemin Zhang, Qing Feng, Mengdan Sun, Mengsi Xu
The present study explored the attentional processing mechanisms of gaze and arrow cues in two different types of conflict tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed a flanker task in which gaze and arrow cues were presented as central targets or bilateral distractors. The congruency between the direction of the target and the distractors was manipulated. Results showed that arrow distractors greatly interfered with the attentional processing of gaze, while the processing of arrow direction was immune to conflict from gaze distractors...
May 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765144/mind-wandering-and-task-focused-attention-erp-correlates
#8
Óscar F Gonçalves, Gabriel Rêgo, Tatiana Conde, Jorge Leite, Sandra Carvalho, Olívia Morgan Lapenta, Paulo S Boggio
Previous studies looking at how Mind Wandering (MW) impacts performance in distinct Focused Attention (FA) systems, using the Attention Network Task (ANT), showed that the presence of pure MW thoughts did not impact the overall performance of ANT (alert, orienting and conflict) performance. However, it still remains unclear if the lack of interference of MW in the ANT, reported at the behavioral level, has a neurophysiological correspondence. We hypothesize that a distinct cortical processing may be required to meet attentional demands during MW...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763424/prevalence-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-in-patients-undergoing-evaluation-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#9
Tatsuyuki Sato, Masaru Hatano, Yukiko Iwasaki, Hisataka Maki, Akihito Saito, Shun Minatsuki, Toshiro Inaba, Eisuke Amiya, Keishi Fujio, Masafumi Watanabe, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) had been reported to be rare. However, recent studies using echocardiography as a screening method showed conflicting results, and the true prevalence is still unclear. Since diagnosing primary SS is difficult because of its heterogeneous nature, a number of patients with primary-SS-associated PAH may be misdiagnosed with idiopathic PAH, losing their chance to undergo immunosuppressive therapy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761018/behavioral-and-neurophysiological-abnormalities-during-cued-continuous-performance-tasks-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Weixiang Zhao, Ruhong Wu, Suhong Wang, Haihui Qi, Yitao Qian, Suinuan Wang
Objective: This study's aim was to investigate the features and neural mechanisms of sustained attention in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by comparing and analyzing neuropsychological, behavioral, event-related potentials, and event-related desynchronization and synchronization between mTBI patients and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty mTBI patients with mTBI and 20 healthy controls underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a cued continuous performance task (AX-CPT)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760940/analyses-of-non-benzodiazepine-induced-adverse-events-and-prognosis-in-elderly-patients-based-on-the-japanese-adverse-drug-event-report-database
#11
Yoshihiro Noguchi, Anri Ueno, Hayato Katsuno, Manami Otsubo, Aki Yoshida, Yuta Kanematsu, Ikuto Sugita, Tomoya Tachi, Teruo Tsuchiya, Hitomi Teramachi
Background: The contents of the guidelines for the use of non-benzodiazepines (Z-drugs) differ slightly between THE JAPANESE SOCIETY OF SLEEP RESEARCH and THE JAPAN GERIATRIC SOCIETY, and the recommended directions are conflicting. Therefore, we analyzed the use of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) for identifying adverse events (AEs) caused by Z-drugs and clarifying their occurrence trend and prognosis. Methods: The signal value for comparison was calculated by using the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and chi-squared test (χ2 ) results of data of elderly and non-elderly patients...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758478/mechanisms-of-value-learning-in-the-guidance-of-spatial-attention
#12
Brian A Anderson, Haena Kim
The role of associative reward learning in the guidance of feature-based attention is well established. The extent to which reward learning can modulate spatial attention has been much more controversial. At least one demonstration of a persistent spatial attention bias following space-based associative reward learning has been reported. At the same time, multiple other experiments have been published failing to demonstrate enduring attentional biases towards locations at which a target, if found, yields high reward...
May 11, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757081/-the-great-fiasco-of-the-1948-presidential-election-polls-status-recognition-and-norms-conflict-in-social-science
#13
Dominic Lusinchi
All three 'scientific' pollsters (Crossley, Gallup and Roper) wrongly predicted incumbent President Harry Truman's defeat in the 1948 presidential election, and thus faced a potentially serious legitimacy crisis. This 'fiasco' occurred at a most inopportune time. Social science was embroiled in a policy debate taking place in the halls of Congress. It was fighting a losing battle to be included, along with the natural sciences, in the National Science Foundation, for which legislation was being drafted. Faced with the failure of the polls, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) intervened quickly to prevent social science's adversaries from using this event to degrade further its status...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753074/kinetic-and-stoichiometric-constraints-determine-the-pathway-of-h-2-o-2-consumption-by-red-blood-cells
#14
Florencia Orrico, Matías N Möller, Adriana Cassina, Ana Denicola, Leonor Thomson
Red blood cells (RBC) are considered as a circulating sink of H2 O2 , but a significant debate remains over the role of the different intraerythocyte peroxidases. Herein we examined the kinetic of decomposition of exogenous H2 O2 by human RBC at different cell densities, using fluorescent and oxymetric methods, contrasting the results against a mathematical model. Fluorescent measurements as well as oxygen production experiments showed that catalase was responsible for most of the decomposition of H2 O2 at cell densities suitable for both experimental settings (0...
May 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740292/adolescent-gender-differences-in-cognitive-control-performance-and-functional-connectivity-between-default-mode-and-fronto-parietal-networks-within-a-self-referential-context
#15
Gabriela Alarcón, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Damien A Fair, Bonnie J Nagel
Ineffective reduction of functional connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal network (FPN) during cognitive control can interfere with performance in healthy individuals-a phenomenon present in psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Here, this mechanism is studied in healthy adolescents by examining gender differences in task-regressed functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel task designed to place the DMN-supporting self-referential processing (SRP)-and FPN-supporting cognitive control-into conflict...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736753/factors-affecting-resident-satisfaction-in-continuity-clinic-a-systematic-review
#16
J Stepczynski, S R Holt, M S Ellman, D Tobin, Benjamin R Doolittle
PURPOSE: In recent years, with an increasing emphasis on time spent in ambulatory training, educators have focused attention on improving the residents' experience in continuity clinic. The authors sought to review the factors associated with physician trainee satisfaction with outpatient ambulatory training. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted for all English language articles published between January 1980 and December 2016 in relevant databases, including Medline (medicine), CINAHL (nursing), PSYCHinfo (psychology), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials...
May 7, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731695/executive-attention-at-eight-years-concurrent-and-longitudinal-predictors-and-individual-differences
#17
Amanda W Joyce, Denise R Friedman, Christy D Wolfe, Martha Ann Bell
Executive attention, the attention necessary to reconcile conflict among simultaneous attentional demands, is vital to children's daily lives. This attention develops rapidly as the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal areas mature during early and middle childhood. However, the developmental course of executive attention is not uniform amongst children. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the role of individual differences in the development of executive attention by exploring the concurrent and longitudinal contributions to its development at 8 years of age...
March 2018: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730224/rapid-diagnosis-of-parasitic-diseases-current-scenario-and-future-needs
#18
REVIEW
Stefan Momčilović, Cinzia Cantacessi, Valentina Arsić-Arsenijević, Domenico Otranto, Suzana Tasić-Otašević
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases are one of the world's most devastating and prevalent infections which cause millions of morbidities and mortalities annually. In the past, many of these infections have been linked predominantly to tropical or subtropical areas. Nowadays, however, climatic and vector ecology changes, a significant increase in international travel, armed conflicts and migration of humans and animals have influenced the transmission of some parasitic diseases from "book pages" to reality in developed countries...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726033/collaboration-among-eldercare-workers-barriers-facilitators-and-supporting-processes
#19
Louise M Jakobsen, Karen Albertsen, Anette F B Jorgensen, Birgit A Greiner, Reiner Rugulies
To retain qualified care workers and to ensure high-quality care for residents in eldercare homes, well-functioning collaboration among care workers is pivotal. This study aims to identify barriers and facilitators of collaboration among eldercare workers and to describe the processes leading to well-functioning collaboration. We collected focus group data from 33 eldercare workers from seven Danish eldercare homes. We found that collaboration was hampered by a number of formal and informal divisions among care workers...
May 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725839/executive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#20
Itaru Tamura, Asako Takei, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Michio Nonaka, Sanae Homma, Fumio Moriwaka
The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive functions of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(SCA3). We examined 15 patients with genetically confirmed SCA3 and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age, years of education, and intellectual ability. We administered verbal memory (word recall and word recognition) and executive function tasks (word fluency test, forward and backward digit and visual span tests, Kana Pick-out Test, Trail Making Test, and conflicting instructions and a Go/NoGo task from the Frontal Assessment Battery)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
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