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Attention conflict

Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
Pete Buth, Benoit de Gryse, Sean Healy, Vincent Hoedt, Tara Newell, Giovanni Pintaldi, Hernan Del Valle, Julian C Sheather, Sidney Wong
Humanitarian organisations often work alongside those responsible for serious wrongdoing. In these circumstances, accusations of moral complicity are sometimes levelled at decision makers. These accusations can carry a strong if unfocused moral charge and are frequently the source of significant moral unease. In this paper, we explore the meaning and usefulness of complicity and its relation to moral accountability. We also examine the impact of concerns about complicity on the motivation of humanitarian staff and the risk that complicity may lead to a retreat into moral narcissism...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is associated with poorer peer functioning, no study has examined SCT in relation to student-teacher relationship quality. The current study examined whether SCT, as rated by both teachers and children, was uniquely associated with poorer student-teacher relationship quality above and beyond child demographics and other mental health symptoms (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder [ODD/CD], anxiety/depression)...
March 15, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Sarah Ackerman
The ethical underpinnings of writing about patients are explored, the question of how best to undertake the writing of case reports being subordinated to a more general question about the ethics of choosing how or whether to write. An unsolvable paradox is encountered here: that we need to write or speak about our clinical work in order to conceptualize and understand the work we are doing, but that in the very gesture of doing so, we are breaking a fundamental bond with the patient. This conundrum is viewed from a number of vantage points...
February 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Nicholas Alipui, Nicole Gerke
We are currently facing one of the largest and most complex refugee crises in modern times. Conflict and natural disasters have resulted in 22.5 million refugees worldwide, more than half are children. As the world struggles to respond to this massive displacement of people, how is this affecting child refugees' development and what is being done about it? In this commentary, we explore answers to these central questions. First, we review the situation of child refugees in numbers, exploring their geographic concentration...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Katie L Burkhouse, Autumn Kujawa, Bobby Hosseini, Heide Klumpp, Kate D Fitzgerald, Scott A Langenecker, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that individuals with anxiety have difficulty ignoring threat distractors when completing tasks with competing stimuli. Studies examining the neural correlates of these emotional processing difficulties in youth anxiety highlight reduced recruitment of regions associated with goal-directed attention, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the current study, we examined neural activation during an emotional conflict task in youth with anxiety disorders before and after treatment...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Renée C Firman
Males and females rarely have identical evolutionary interests over reproduction, and when the fitness of both sexes is dependent upon paternity outcomes, sexual conflict over fertilization is inevitable. In internal fertilizers, the female tract is a formidable selective force on the number and integrity of sperm that reach the egg. Selection on sperm quality is intensified when females mate multiply and rival males are forced to compete for fertilizations. While male adaptations to sperm competition have been well documented (e...
March 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Minsoo Jung
Active discussions are underway on whether or not the absence or insufficiency of communication is a decisive factor affecting hesitancy with regard to vaccines. Low-quality services such as insufficient communication can lead to an increase in the population postponing vaccinations in countries without deficiencies in vaccine procurement. This study examines the strategies and tasks of health communication in relation to vaccinations. Social networking services (SNSs) are major channels of health communication in responding to infectious diseases...
March 8, 2018: Health Care Manager
Ria Maxine Rühl, Thomas Bauermann, Marianne Dieterich, Peter Zu Eulenburg
The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is the most prominent aftereffect in the visual system. Regarding its function, Psychophysical studies suggest its function to be a form of sensory error correction, possibly also triggered by incongruent visual-vestibular stimulation. Several observational imaging experiments have deducted an essential role for region MT+ in the perception of a visual MAE but not provided conclusive evidence. Potential confounders with the MAE such as ocular motor performance, attention, and vection sensations have also never been controlled for...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Mahmoud Abd-Elkareem, Nasser S Abou Khalil, Alaa H Sayed
4-Nonylphenol (NP) toxicity in fish attracts much attention due to its ability in targeting several organs; however, the researches regarding its potential hepatotoxicity are conflicting and still require further investigation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to focus on this issue from the histophysiological point of view using NP intoxicated African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model of hepatotoxicity. Twelve adult fish (6 per group) were divided into two groups; the first was considered as a control and the second was exposed to NP dissolved in water at a dose of 0...
March 7, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Marc Vecchi, Ricardo Pereira Mestre, S Luciamma Thiekalamuriyil, Roberto Cartolari
In the context of painful cranial neuropathies, a very rare cause is represented by the irritation of the glossopharyngeal nerve due to various aetiologic factors. Here, we present a case of neuralgia of the ninth right cranial nerve due to a compression of its nerve root upon the kinking of the homolateral vertebral artery, resulting in a disabling clinical overview for the patient. Our objective was to focus the reader's attention on the clinical manifestation, which alone could lead to an immediate diagnosis...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
Mohd Altaf Paul, Waheeda Khan
Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children...
March 5, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Itsaso Colás, Almudena Capilla, Ana B Chica
The relation between attention and consciousness is a highly debated topic in Cognitive Neuroscience. Although there is an agreement about their relationship at the functional level, there is still no consensus about how these two cognitive processes interact at the neural level. According to the gateway hypothesis (Posner, 1994), attention filters the information accessing to consciousness, resulting in both neural and functional modulations. Contrary to this idea, the cumulative influence hypothesis (Tallon-Baudry, 2012) proposes that both attention and consciousness independently impact decision processes about the perception of stimuli...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Margaret H Sibley, Stefany J Coxe, Mileini Campez, Candance Morley, Sandra Olson, Nick Hidalgo-Gato, Elizabeth Gnagy, Andrew Greiner, Erika K Coles, Timothy Page, William E Pelham
Spikes in symptom severity are noted for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at the transitions to middle and high school that are attributed to developmental maladjustment. This study evaluated the effectiveness of high-intensity (HI; 412 hr, $4,373 per participant) versus low-intensity (LI; 24 hr, $97 per participant) skills-based summer intervention delivered to adolescents with ADHD by local school district staff. Participants were 325 ethnically diverse rising sixth and ninth graders with ADHD randomized to HI versus LI (n = 218) or recruited into an untreated comparison group (n = 107)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento, Anna Paula Uziel, Jimena de Garay Hernández
This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
J Alard, V Peucelle, D Boutillier, J Breton, S Kuylle, B Pot, S Holowacz, C Grangette
Alterations in the gut microbiota composition play a key role in the development of chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The potential use of probiotics therefore gained attention, although outcomes were sometimes conflicting and results largely strain-dependent. The present study aimed to identify new probiotic strains that have a high potential for the management of this type of pathologies. Strains were selected from a large collection by combining different in vitro and in vivo approaches, addressing both anti-inflammatory potential and ability to improve the gut barrier function...
February 27, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Frédéric Leroy, Malaika Brengman, Wouter Ryckbosch, Peter Scholliers
The debate on meat's role in health and disease is a rowdy and dissonant one. This study uses the health section of the online version of The Daily Mail as a case study to carry out a quantitative and qualitative reflection on the related discourses in mass media during the first fifteen years of the 21st century. This period ranged from the fall-out of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis and its associated food safety anxieties, over the Atkins diet-craze in 2003 and the avian flu episode in 2007, to the highly influential publication of the report on colon cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015...
February 24, 2018: Appetite
Ping C Mamiya, Todd L Richards, Patricia K Kuhl
Executive function (EF) skills enhance learning across domains, and are particularly linked to the acquisition of a second language. Previous studies have shown that bilingual individuals show enhanced EF skills in cognitive tasks where they attended a targeted dimension of a stimulus while inhibiting other competing cues. Brain imaging revealed that bilingual young adults' performances in the Stroop color-naming task were related to the volume of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal lobe. Subjects who had greater white-matter in the frontal cortex showed enhanced performances in the same task, suggesting that brain fiber pathways connecting ACC to the frontal region may be related to the Stroop color-naming task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Victor Ng, Allyn Walsh, Nandani de Silva, Eleni Politi, Heather Grusauskas
While all physicians must continue to learn new knowledge through their careers, their post-training continuing professional development (CPD) has received less attention. Problems include lack of support for physicians, frequent deviations from best practices such as mandatory participation, focus on community need, and clear conflicts of interest amongst providers. Additionally, specialists from other disciplines catering to different patient populations often provide CPD for family doctors. The Working Party on Education of the World Organisation of Family Doctors (WONCA) sought to develop global standards in CPD for family doctors...
February 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
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