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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935267/methylphenidate-doses-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorders
#1
Charlotte Skoglund, Lena Brandt, Brian D'Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, Johan Franck
Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD) are increasingly being treated with central stimulant medication despite limited evidence for its effectiveness. Lack of longitudinal follow-up studies of dosing and adverse effects has resulted in conflicting treatment guidelines. This study aims to explore whether individuals with ADHD and comorbid SUD are treated with higher stimulant doses than individuals with ADHD only, and whether doses increase over time as a sign of tolerance, a core symptom of addiction...
September 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934622/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-how-healthcare-professionals-close-encounters-with-people-with-dementia-in-the-acute-hospital-setting
#2
Rebecca Allwood, Alison Pilnick, Rebecca O'Brien, Sarah Goldberg, Rowan H Harwood, Suzanne Beeke
Around a quarter of hospital beds in the UK are occupied by patients living with dementia (PWD), and communication impairments are common across all types of dementia, often exacerbated by the hospital environment. Unsurprisingly, healthcare professionals (HCPs) report particular challenges in caring for this patient group, whilst trying to recognise and value their personhood as per the underpinning ethos of person-centred care. However, whilst there is a growing body of research that underlines the importance of communication in dementia care, there is far less that actually examines this communication in real time interaction...
September 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930844/health-related-quality-of-life-assessment-in-surgical-patients-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-single-center-analysis-from-mainland-china
#3
Juxiang Gou, Wenjie Cheng, Jianyong Lei, Qian Pan, Wei You, Ming Cai, Huairong Tang, Yali Lei, Zhihui Li, Rixiang Gong, Jinqiang Zhu
Even with a favorable prognosis, the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients remains unclear and conflicting. Thus, in the present study, we compared the HRQoL of PTC patients with that of the general population (GP).The study was performed in our thyroid and parathyroid surgery department, and 186 PTC patients who had undergone thyroidectomy were included. The exclusion criteria were an age < 18 years, no follow-up, and the presence of other malignant neoplasms...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929270/mode-of-treatment-governs-curcumin-response-on-doxorubicin-induced-toxicity-in-cardiomyoblasts
#4
Aditi Jain, Vibha Rani
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer drug with severe reported cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular risks associated with present cancer therapeutics demand urgent attention. There has been a growing interest in naturally occurring compounds to improve the therapeutic index as well as prevent non-tumour tissues from sustaining chemotherapy-induced damages. In the present study, the effects of curcumin, a polyphenol isolated from Curcuma longa and well known for its anti-oxidative, anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties, was studied in relation to the Dox-induced cardiotoxicity...
September 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915839/risk-of-mortality-among-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-their-first-degree-relatives-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#5
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, Jane A Driver, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Jaume Forés-Martos, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders that may persist into adulthood. ASD and ADHD tend to run in families and may have a significant negative impact on the health and longevity of those with the disorder and their relatives. The aim of this study will be to analyze the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies...
September 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910477/humanitarian-struggle-in-burma-s-conflict-zones
#6
Moe Gyo
The Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), a community- based health organization, provides primary health care to ethnic people in conflict, remote, and internally displaced areas, in Burma (aka Myanmar), controlled by ethnic armed organizations fighting against the Burma government. Its services include both curative and preventative health care through a network of 1,425 health personnel including community health workers and village-embedded traditional birth attendants and village health workers. The BPHWT organizational and program model may prove useful to Special Operations medical actions in support of insurgent movements and conversely with a host nation's counterinsurgency strategies, which include the extension of its health services into areas that may be remote and/or inhabited by indigenous people and have insurgency potential...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905725/ethics-students-go-to-the-jail
#7
Oliver Schirokauer, Thomas A Tallman, Leah Jeunnette, Despina Mavrakis, Monica L Gerrek
This article describes an educational initiative in which clinical ethics students, who were either in a bioethics master's degree program or in the fourth year of medical school, spent two days observing health care in an urban jail. Students submitted reflections about their experience, in which they drew attention to concerns about privacy, physical restriction, due care, drug addiction, mistrust, and the conflicting expectations that arise when incarcerated people become patients. The rotation was of great value to the students both because it exposed them to many of the ethical issues that arise in a correctional setting and because it deepened their understanding of various ethical concerns that are pervasive in health care...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894970/timing-of-surgery-for-ruptured-supratentorial-arteriovenous-malformations
#8
Ahmad Hafez, Elias Oulasvirta, Päivi Koroknay-Pál, Mika Niemelä, Juha Hernesniemi, Aki Laakso
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting opinions regarding the optimal waiting time to perform surgery after rupture of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to achieve the best possible outcome. OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors influencing outcomes for ruptured supratentorial AVMs after surgery, paying particular attention to the timing of the surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 59 patients admitted to our center between 2000 and 2014 for surgical treatment of ruptured supratentorial AVMs...
September 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893255/oncologist-burnout-and-compassion-fatigue-investigating-time-pressure-at-work-as-a-predictor-and-the-mediating-role-of-work-family-conflict
#9
Sibyl Kleiner, Jean E Wallace
BACKGROUND: Oncologists are at high risk of poor mental health. Prior research has focused on burnout, and has identified heavy workload as a key predictor. Compassion fatigue among physicians has generally received less attention, although medical specialties such as oncology may be especially at risk of compassion fatigue. We contribute to research by identifying predictors of both burnout and compassion fatigue among oncologists. In doing so, we distinguish between quantitative workload (e...
September 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889788/exploring-perspectives-on-restraint-during-medical-procedures-in-paediatric-care-a-qualitative-interview-study-with-nurses-and-physicians
#10
Edel Jannecke Svendsen, Reidar Pedersen, Anne Moen, Ida Torunn Bjørk
The aim of this study was to explore nurses' and physicians' perspectives on and reasoning about the use of restraint during medical procedures on newly admitted preschoolers in somatic hospital care. We analysed qualitative data from individual interviews with a video recall session at the end with seven physicians and eight nurses. They had earlier participated in video recorded peripheral vein cannulations on preschool children. The data were collected between May 2012 and May 2013 at a paediatric hospital unit in Norway...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888280/intergenerational-transmission-of-parent-child-relationship-quality-evidence-from-a-multi-actor-survey
#11
Karsten Hank, Veronika Salzburger, Merril Silverstein
Intergenerational transmission is a long-standing interest of social science research. However, little attention has been devoted to the study of transmission of relationship quality between several generations of family members. Exploiting multigenerational multi-actor data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we estimate multilevel models to investigate whether, in three-generation families, relationship quality between the middle generation and the oldest (that is, grandparent) generation predicts relationship quality between the youngest generation of adolescent children and the middle generation...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881932/health-facility-management-and-access-a-qualitative-analysis-of-challenges-to-seeking-healthcare-for-children-under-five-in-uganda
#12
Elizabeth Palchik Allen, Wilson Winstons Muhwezi, Dorcus Kiwanuka Henriksson, Anthony Kabanza Mbonye
While several studies have documented the various barriers that caretakers of children under five routinely confront when seeking healthcare in Uganda, few have sought to capture the ways in which caretakers themselves prioritize their own barriers to seeking services. To that end, we asked focus groups of caretakers to list their five greatest challenges to seeking care on behalf of children under five. Using qualitative content analysis, we grouped responses according to four categories: (1) geographical access barriers; (2) facility supplies, staffing, and infrastructural barriers; (3) facility management and administration barriers (e...
September 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881246/avoiding-harm-and-supporting-autonomy-are-under-prioritised-in-cancer-screening-policies-and-practices
#13
Lisa Parker, Stacy Carter, Jane Williams, Kristen Pickles, Alexandra Barratt
The ethical principles of avoiding harm and supporting autonomy are relevant to cancer-screening policy. We argue that more attention needs to be given to implementing them. Cancer screening may deliver excessive harms due to low-value or outdated screening programs and from poorly communicated screening options that leave people with heavy burdens of decision-making. Autonomy is inadequately supported due to limited opportunities for people to understand downsides of screening and because of institutional and societal pressures in favour of screening...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880349/-parental-alienation-and-the-controversy-surrounding-psychiatric-diagnostics
#14
C Migchels, D De Wachter
The phenomenon of parental alienation can arise when a child allies with one parent and refuses to have contact with the other parent. The concept has attracted a great deal of attention over the last few years. There has been controversy about whether parental alienation should be recognised as a psychiatric syndrome of the alienated child caught up in a conflict between supporters and opponents.<br/> AIM: To try to determine whether parental alienation belongs to psychiatric diagnostics.<br/> METHOD: We made a careful study of various databases in order to find literature relating to parental alienation...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879596/interaction-between-attentional-systems-and-episodic-memory-encoding-the-impact-of-conflict-on-binding-of-information
#15
Marco Sperduti, Allan Armougum, Dominique Makowski, Philippe Blondé, Pascale Piolino
Episodic memory (EM) is defined as a long-term memory system that stores information that can be retrieved along with details of the context of the original events (binding). Several studies have shown that manipulation of attention during encoding can impact subsequent memory performance. An influential model of attention distinguishes between three partially independent attentional networks: the alerting, the orienting and the executive or conflict resolution component. To date, the impact of the engagement of these sub-systems during encoding on item and relational context binding has not been investigated...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878726/the-family-alliance-model-a-way-to-study-and-characterize-early-family-interactions
#16
Nicolas Favez, France Frascarolo, Hervé Tissot
The aim of this paper is to present the family alliance (FA) model, which is designed to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the early family. FA is defined as the coordination a family can reach when fulfilling a task, such as playing a game or having a meal. According to the model, being coordinated as a family depends on four interactive functions: participation (all members are included), organization (members assume differentiated roles), focalization (family shares a common theme of activity), affect sharing (there is empathy between members)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878455/relationship-of-visual-dependence-to-age-balance-attention-and-vertigo
#17
Shu-Chun Lee
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of increased visual dependence to age, balance, attention, and vertigo. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve younger, 12 visually independent (VI) older and 12 visually dependent (VD) older adults were assessed for levels of visual dependence using Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) tilt values, balance ability using the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (CTSIB), and attentional requirements through the dual-task paradigm and experience of vertigo by completing the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ)...
August 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875990/clinical-and-pre-clinical-evidence-for-functional-interactions-of-cannabidiol-and-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
#18
Douglas L Boggs, Jacques D Nguyen, Daralyn Morgenson, Michael A Taffe, Mohini Ranganathan
The plant Cannabis sativa, commonly called cannabis or marijuana, has been used for its psychotropic and mind-altering side effects for millennia. There has been growing attention in recent years on its potential therapeutic efficacy as municipalities and legislative bodies in the United States, Canada, and other countries grapple with enacting policy to facilitate the use of cannabis or its constituents for medical purposes. There are over 550 chemical compounds and over 100 phytocannabinoids isolated from cannabis, including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD)...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874957/evolution-of-stereoscopic-imaging-in-surgery-and-recent-advances
#19
REVIEW
Katie Schwab, Ralph Smith, Vanessa Brown, Martin Whyte, Iain Jourdan
In the late 1980s the first laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed prompting a sudden rise in technological innovations as the benefits and feasibility of minimal access surgery became recognised. Monocular laparoscopes provided only two-dimensional (2D) viewing with reduced depth perception and contributed to an extended learning curve. Attention turned to producing a usable three-dimensional (3D) endoscopic view for surgeons; utilising different technologies for image capture and image projection. These evolving visual systems have been assessed in various research environments with conflicting outcomes of success and usability, and no overall consensus to their benefit...
August 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870854/opposite-effects-of-binge-drinking-on-consciously-vs-subliminally-induced-cognitive-conflicts
#20
Ann-Kathrin Stock, Nicole Wolff, Christian Beste
Binge-drinking is very prevalent and potentially harmful, yet very little is known about the specificity of its effects on behavior and the underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms. While it is generally accepted that alcohol impairs top-down cognitive control and conflict monitoring, it has remained unclear whether this also applies to subliminally triggered conflicts, as alcohol may not impair automated processes to the same extent. To investigate this, we used a within-subjects design in a sample of n = 22 healthy young male subjects who performed a complex response conflict paradigm while an EEG was recorded...
September 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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