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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740618/ethical-issues-associated-with-medical-tourism-in-africa
#1
REVIEW
John J O Mogaka, Lucia Mupara, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni
Global disparities in medical technologies, laws, economic inequities, and social-cultural differences drive medical tourism (MT), the practice of travelling to consume healthcare that is either too delayed, unavailable, unaffordable or legally proscribed at home. Africa is simultaneously a source and destination for MT. MT however, presents a new and challenging health ethics frontier, being largely unregulated and characterized by policy contradictions, minority discrimination and conflict of interest among role-players...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736420/better-parenting-through-biomedical-modification-a-case-for-pluralism-deference-and-charity
#2
David Wasserman
In this paper, I will argue that the moral assessment of the prenatal selection and postnatal modification biotechnologies requires a nuanced approach, which pays close attention to the variety of sometimes conflicting parental roles and reasons involved in decisions for and against their use. I will focus on several related but distinct reasons that parents have, or give, for modifying existing children or selecting future children. Many of these reasons are expressed in terms of more effective parenting. Because there is a plurality of legitimate parental goals, I will conclude that assessing parental interventions requires us to adjudicate conflicts or tradeoffs among those goals...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734975/how-consumers-are-affected-by-product-descriptions-in-online-shopping-event-related-potentials-evidence-of-the-attribute-framing-effect
#3
Jia Jin, Wuke Zhang, Mingliang Chen
Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732503/opium-trade-and-the-spread-of-hiv-in-the-golden-crescent
#4
REVIEW
Syeda Ayesha Farooq, Mohammad Hafiz Rasooly, Syed Hani Abidi, Kayvon Modjarrad, Syed Ali
The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent...
July 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731362/greater-cognitive-deficits-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-among-individuals-with-genetic-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#5
Dayna A Johnson, Jacqueline Lane, Rui Wang, Michelle Reid, Ina Djonlagic, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Stephen R Rapp, Luenda E Charles, Ruth O'Hara, Richa Saxena, Susan Redline
RATIONALE: There are conflicting findings regarding the link between sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Investigate associations between indicators of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and assess effect modification by the apolipoprotein ε-4 (APOE-ε4) allele. METHODS: A diverse population (N=1,752) underwent Type 2 in-home polysomnography, which included measurement of % sleep time <90% oxyhemoglobin saturation (%Sat<90%) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)...
July 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727577/nurses-exploring-the-spirituality-of-their-patients-with-cancer-participant-observation-on-a-medical-oncology-ward
#6
Jacqueline van Meurs, Wim Smeets, Kris C P Vissers, Marieke Groot, Yvonne Engels
BACKGROUND: Attention for spirituality should be an integral part of professionals' caregiving. Particularly, nurses caring for patients with cancer might have opportunities to give attention to this dimension. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gain insight in the way and extent to which nurses during daily caregiving observe and explore spiritual issues of hospitalized patients with cancer. METHODS: We performed an ethnographic study with participant observation...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727526/zika-and-reproductive-rights-in-brazil-challenge-to-the-right-to-health
#7
Pablo K Valente
The Zika virus epidemic rapidly spread across Brazil and Latin America, gaining international attention because of the causal relationship between Zika and birth defects. The high number of cases in Brazil has been attributed to a failure of the state to contain the epidemic and protect the affected people, especially women. Therefore, the public health crisis created by Zika exposed a stark conflict between Brazil's constitutional right to health and the long-standing violation of reproductive rights in the country...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722647/what-factors-are-associated-with-autonomous-and-controlled-motivation-for-hearing-help-seekers
#8
Jason Ridgway, Louise Hickson, Christopher Lind
BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment is prevalent in older adults. Motivation is important in people's choice to seek help for their hearing and whether to adopt or not adopt hearing aids. PURPOSE: To investigate associations between sociodemographic and audiometric characteristics and autonomous and controlled motivation among a sample of hearing help-seekers. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative approach was taken for this cross-sectional cohort study...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722552/evaluation-of-regional-project-to-strengthen-national-health-research-systems-in-four-countries-in-west-africa-lessons-learned
#9
Issiaka Sombié, Jude Aidam, Gabriela Montorzi
BACKGROUND: Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. METHODS: The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721355/simultaneously-estimating-the-task-related-and-stimulus-evoked-components-of-hemodynamic-imaging-measurements
#10
Max Charles Herman, Mariana M B Cardoso, Bruss Lima, Yevgeniy B Sirotin, Aniruddha Das
Task-related hemodynamic responses contribute prominently to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. They reflect behaviorally important brain states, such as arousal and attention, and can dominate stimulus-evoked responses, yet they remain poorly understood. To help characterize these responses, we present a method for parametrically estimating both stimulus-evoked and task-related components of hemodynamic responses from subjects engaged in temporally predictable tasks. The stimulus-evoked component is modeled by convolving a hemodynamic response function (HRF) kernel with spiking...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719760/for-whom-the-mind-wanders-and-when-varies-across-laboratory-and-daily-life-settings
#11
Michael J Kane, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Bridget A Smeekens, Matt E Meier, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects' TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects' momentary attempts to concentrate...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717729/middle-eastern-conflicts-implications-for-refugee-health-in-the-european-union-and-middle-eastern-host-countries
#12
Michael Silbermann, Michel Daher, Rejin Kebudi, Omar Nimri, Mazin Al-Jadiry, Lea Baider
Until very recently, health care in conflict settings was based on a model developed in the second half of the twentieth century. Things have changed, and present civil wars, such as those that are currently taking place in the Middle East, do not address the complexity of the ongoing armed conflicts in countries such as Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. These conflicts have caused a significant increase in the number of refugees in the region, as well as in Europe. Hundreds of thousands of refugees succeed in settling in mid- and north-European countries, and their health issues are becoming of great importance...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716774/social-considerations-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-southern-israel
#13
Jonathan Taylor, Chase Neff
Chronic diseases pose unique social challenges beyond traditional health considerations that require specific attention. In this report, we examine the case of a middle-aged woman with ulcerative colitis, living in Southern Israel. Trust between the patient and physician is shown to positively influence a variety of therapeutic outcomes and should be considered a fundamental component of successful care. In context of the military conflict between Israel and Gaza, the needs of patients with chronic diseases cannot be forgotten...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715711/sustained-attention-ability-in-schizophrenia-investigation-of-conflict-monitoring-mechanisms
#14
Marc Hoonakker, Nadège Doignon-Camus, José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro, Anne Bonnefond
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of the current study was to assess, with a time-on-task approach, sustained attention ability in schizophrenia, and to investigate conflict monitoring underlying this ability. METHODS: Behavioral and event-related potentials data (N2 and P3a amplitudes) were recorded in a long-lasting sustained attention Go/NoGo task (sustained attention to response task, SART), over a period of 30min, in 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 pair-matched healthy subjects...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713300/new-technologies-smart-or-harm-work-family-boundaries-management-gender-differences-in-conflict-and-enrichment-using-the-jd-r-theory
#15
Chiara Ghislieri, Federica Emanuel, Monica Molino, Claudio G Cortese, Lara Colombo
Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood. Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and both work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712567/perceived-object-trajectory-is-influenced-by-others-tracking-movements
#16
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
In social interactions, it is highly salient to us where other people are looking. The ability to recover this information is critical to typical social development, helping us to coordinate our attention and behavior with others and understand their intentions and mental states [1-3]. The depth and direction in which another individual is fixating are specified jointly by their head position, eye deviation, and binocular vergence [4, 5]. It is hereto unknown, however, whether this dynamic visual information about others' focus of attention affects how we ourselves see the world...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705922/the-cochrane-collaboration-withdraws-a-review-on-methylphenidate-for-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Kim Boesen, Luis Carlos Saiz, Juan Erviti, Ole Jakob Storebø, Christian Gluud, Peter C Gøtzsche, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen
A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis is unusual but can be necessary. We provide a summary of the criticism that led to the withdrawal. We detail the methodological flaws of the withdrawn Cochrane systematic review and general issues of bias and shortcomings of the included ADHD trials: cross-over designs compared with parallel-group designs, exclusion of participants with psychiatric comorbidity, absence of 'functional outcomes' and use of clinical outcomes with limited relevance, short trial duration and small trial populations, broken blinding caused by easily recognisable side effects, combining outcome assessments by trial investigators and participants, outcome reporting bias, poor evaluation of cardiovascular and psychiatric harms and conflicts of interest of trialists and systematic reviewers...
July 13, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701934/neuronal-intra-individual-variability-masks-response-selection-differences-between-adhd-subtypes-a-need-to-change-perspectives
#18
Annet Bluschke, Witold X Chmielewski, Moritz Mückschel, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Due to the high intra-individual variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there may be considerable bias in knowledge about altered neurophysiological processes underlying executive dysfunctions in patients with different ADHD subtypes. When aiming to establish dimensional cognitive-neurophysiological constructs representing symptoms of ADHD as suggested by the initiative for Research Domain Criteria, it is crucial to consider such processes independent of variability. We examined patients with the predominantly inattentive subtype (attention deficit disorder, ADD) and the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD-C) in a flanker task measuring conflict control...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697184/insulin-action-and-resistance-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#19
Michael P Czech
Nutritional excess is a major forerunner of type 2 diabetes. It enhances the secretion of insulin, but attenuates insulin's metabolic actions in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. However, conflicting evidence indicates a lack of knowledge of the timing of these events during the development of obesity and diabetes, pointing to a key gap in our understanding of metabolic disease. This Perspective reviews alternate viewpoints and recent results on the temporal and mechanistic connections between hyperinsulinemia, obesity and insulin resistance...
July 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693722/safety-assessment-of-passing-relief-lanes-using-microsimulation-based-conflicts-analysis
#20
Salvatore Cafiso, Carmelo D'Agostino, Mariusz Kieć, Radoslaw Bak
The paper target is to analyze the influence of passing lane section and merging area lengths, which represent a critical part in the geometric design of passing lanes. The lack of observed data and the still limited implementation of short passing 2+1 lane in Poland do not allow to perform a reliable performance-based design of their length to balance context and economical restrains with operational and safety performances. Besides, defining the optimum geometric design from observed data is a reactive approach which require detailed observations and evaluations of the safety and operational performances for different geometric configurations...
July 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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