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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768179/intestinal-epithelial-wnt-signaling-mediates-acetylcholine-triggered-host-defense-against-infection
#1
Sid Ahmed Labed, Khursheed A Wani, Sakthimala Jagadeesan, Abdul Hakkim, Mehran Najibi, Javier Elbio Irazoqui
Regulated antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal epithelium is key to defense against infection and to microbiota homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate such expression is necessary for understanding immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease and for developing safe and effective therapies. We used Caenorhabditis elegans in a preclinical approach to discover mechanisms of antimicrobial gene expression control in the intestinal epithelium. We found an unexpected role for the cholinergic nervous system...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692859/emblic-leafflower-phyllanthus-emblica-l-fruits-ameliorate-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-dysfunction-in-hyperglycemia-an-underlying-mechanism-involved-in-ellagitannin-metabolite-urolithin-a
#2
Junxuan Zhou, Cong Zhang, Guo-Hua Zheng, Zhenpeng Qiu
Ellagitannins in Phyllanthus emblica L. (emblic leafflower fruits) have been thought of as the beneficial constituents for ameliorating endocrinal and metabolic diseases including diabetes. However, the effect of emblic leafflower fruits on diabetic vascular complications involved in ellagitannin-derived urolithin metabolites is still rare. In this study, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent relaxation in aortas was facilitated upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption in the single dose streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603740/nicotine-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-under-cyclic-tensile-stress-through-canonical-wnt-pathway-and-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#3
W Yu, B Hu, X Shi, Z Cao, M Ren, Z He, J Lin, H Deng, R Hu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, affects cell metabolism, proliferation, adhesion and, importantly, the osteogenic differentiation of fibroblasts. Approximately 15% of all orthodontic patients are adults among who one-fifth are smokers. Hence, it is necessary to have insight into the effects of nicotine on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs during orthodontic tooth movement. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of nicotine on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) under the application of cyclic tensile stress...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603107/low-level-laser-irradiation-at-a-high-power-intensity-increased-human-endothelial-cell-exosome-secretion-via-wnt-signaling
#4
Hesam Saghaei Bagheri, Monireh Mousavi, Aysa Rezabakhsh, Jafar Rezaie, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Alireza Nourazarian, Çigir Biray Avci, Habib Tajalli, Mehdi Talebi, Ahmad Oryan, Majid Khaksar, Masoumeh Kazemi, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri, Shahrooz Ghaderi, Bakiye Goker Bagca, Reza Rahbarghazi, Emel Sokullu
The distinct role of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on endothelial exosome biogenesis remains unclear. We hypothesize that laser irradiation of high dose in human endothelial cells (ECs) contributes to the modulation of exosome biogenesis via Wnt signaling pathway. When human ECs were treated with LLLI at a power density of 80 J/cm2 , the survival rate reduced. The potential of irradiated cells to release exosomes was increased significantly by expressing genes CD63, Alix, Rab27a, and b. This occurrence coincided with an enhanced acetylcholine esterase activity, pseudopodia formation, and reduced zeta potential value 24 h post-irradiation...
March 30, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557384/gsk3%C3%AE-inhibitor-promotes-myelination-and-mitigates-muscle-atrophy-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#5
Jian Weng, Yan-Hua Wang, Ming Li, Dian-Ying Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
Delay of axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is considered to be one of the main molecular mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly. We hold the hypothesis that the innervation of target muscle can be promoted by accelerating axon regeneration and decelerating muscle cell degeneration so as to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve injury...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510587/the-coordinated-activities-of-nachr-and-wnt-signaling-regulate-intestinal-stem-cell-function-in-mice
#6
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122956/characterization-of-age-related-penile-microvascular-hemodynamic-impairment-using-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-possible-role-of-increased-fibrogenesis
#7
Seung-Ryeol Lee, Ki-Ho Kim, Ho-Song You, Johnny Fu, Tung-Chin Mike Hsieh, Valmik Bhargava, M Raj Rajasekaran
Current technology for penile hemodynamic evaluations in small animals is invasive and has limitations. We evaluated a novel laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique to determine age-related changes in penile microvascular perfusion (PMP) and tested the role of cavernosal muscle (CC) fibrosis mediated by Wnt-TGF β 1 signaling pathways in a mouse model. Ten young (2-3 months) and old (24-28 months) wild-type C57BL6 male mice were subjected to PMP measured using a LSCI system. Penile blood flow (PBF, peak systolic velocity, PSV) was also measured using a color Doppler ultrasound for comparison...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607150/wnt3a-induces-the-expression-of-acetylcholinesterase-during-osteoblast-differentiation-via-the-runx2-transcription-factor
#8
Miranda L Xu, Cathy W C Bi, Etta Y L Liu, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes acetylcholine to terminate cholinergic transmission in neurons. Apart from this AChE activity, emerging evidence suggests that AChE could also function in other, non-neuronal cells. For instance, in bone, AChE exists as a proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked globular form in osteoblasts, in which it is proposed to play a noncholinergic role in differentiation. However, this hypothesis is untested. Here, we found that in cultured rat osteoblasts, AChE expression was increased in parallel with osteoblastic differentiation...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551099/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-plays-an-essential-role-in-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-mediated-neuroprotection-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-parkinson-s-disease-model
#9
Yuan Liu, Shuai Hao, Beibei Yang, Yi Fan, Xiaodong Qin, Yun Chen, Jun Hu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an incidence second only to Alzheimer's disease. The main pathological feature of PD is the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nicotinic receptor agonists are neuroprotective in several PD models and there is considerable evidence that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) are important therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the involvement of α7-nAChRs and underlying signaling mechanisms in PD pathogenesis are unclear...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521453/nicotine-may-promote-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-progression-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-wnt-pcp-signaling-pathways
#10
Chengze Wang, Xin Xu, Hairu Jin, Gangli Liu
To investigate the effects and the possible underlying mechanisms of nicotine stimulation on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) progression, a TSCC cell line Cal27 and 34 samples of paraffin-embedded TSCC were examined. Immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and TOP/FOP flash, CCK-8, wound healing and Transwell invasion assays were used to evaluate Cal27 in response to nicotine stimulation. We also investigated expression levels of related proteins of Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/PCP pathways in paraffin-embedded TSCC samples with or without a history of smoking by immunohistochemistry...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515212/regulation-of-wnt-signaling-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-by-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-protein-rig-3-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Pratima Pandey, Ashwani Bhardwaj, Kavita Babu
Perturbations in synaptic function could affect the normal behavior of an animal, making it important to understand the regulatory mechanisms of synaptic signaling. Previous work has shown that in Caenorhabditis elegans an immunoglobulin superfamily protein, RIG-3, functions in presynaptic neurons to maintain normal acetylcholine receptor levels at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study, we elucidate the molecular and functional mechanism of RIG-3. We demonstrate by genetic and BiFC (Bi-molecular Fluorescence Complementation) assays that presynaptic RIG-3 functions by directly interacting with the immunoglobulin domain of the nonconventional Wnt receptor, ROR receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), CAM-1, which functions in postsynaptic body-wall muscles...
July 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348167/wnt-proteins-contribute-to-neuromuscular-junction-formation-through-distinct-signaling-pathways
#12
Julien Messéant, Jérôme Ezan, Perrine Delers, Konstantin Glebov, Carmen Marchiol, Franck Lager, Gilles Renault, Fadel Tissir, Mireille Montcouquiol, Nathalie Sans, Claire Legay, Laure Strochlic
Understanding the developmental steps that shape formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) connecting motoneurons to skeletal muscle fibers is crucial. Wnt morphogens are key players in the formation of this specialized peripheral synapse, but their individual and collaborative functions and downstream pathways remain poorly understood at the NMJ. Here, we demonstrate through Wnt4 and Wnt11 gain-of-function studies in cell culture or in mice that Wnts enhance acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and motor axon outgrowth...
May 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073000/settling-a-nervous-stomach-the-neural-regulation-of-enteric-cancer
#13
Michelle Monje
The nervous system is emerging as a regulator of malignancy. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hayakawa et al. demonstrate a feedforward signaling loop in which tumor-derived nerve growth factor promotes enteric tumor innervation, and recruited nerves drive cancer growth through acetylcholine-regulated Wnt signaling and stimulation of further NGF release.
January 9, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072465/splicing-regulation-and-dysregulation-of-cholinergic-genes-expressed-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#14
REVIEW
Kinji Ohno, Mohammad Alinoor Rahman, Mohammad Nazim, Farhana Nasrin, Yingni Lin, Jun-Ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda
We humans have evolved by acquiring diversity of alternative RNA metabolisms including alternative means of splicing and transcribing non-coding genes, and not by acquiring new coding genes. Tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific alternative RNA splicing is achieved by tightly regulated spatiotemporal regulation of expressions and activations of RNA-binding proteins that recognize their cognate splicing cis-elements on nascent RNA transcripts. Genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction are also alternatively spliced...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328992/r-spondin-2-promotes-acetylcholine-receptor-clustering-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-via-lgr5
#15
Hiroaki Nakashima, Bisei Ohkawara, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Takayasu Fukudome, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Hiroyuki Konishi, Tatsuya Okuno, Toshiro Yoshimura, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Gen Sobue, Hiroshi Kiyama, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno
At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering...
June 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151977/diverging-roles-for-lrp4-and-wnt-signaling-in-neuromuscular-synapse-development-during-evolution
#16
Leonor Remédio, Katherine D Gribble, Jennifer K Lee, Natalie Kim, Peter T Hallock, Nicolas Delestrée, George Z Mentis, Robert C Froemke, Michael Granato, Steven J Burden
Motor axons approach muscles that are prepatterned in the prospective synaptic region. In mice, prepatterning of acetylcholine receptors requires Lrp4, a LDLR family member, and MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase. Lrp4 can bind and stimulate MuSK, strongly suggesting that association between Lrp4 and MuSK, independent of additional ligands, initiates prepatterning in mice. In zebrafish, Wnts, which bind the Frizzled (Fz)-like domain in MuSK, are required for prepatterning, suggesting that Wnts may contribute to prepatterning and neuromuscular development in mammals...
May 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119269/roles-of-collagen-q-in-musk-antibody-positive-myasthenia-gravis
#17
REVIEW
Kinji Ohno, Kenji Otsuka, Mikako Ito
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) form a tetrameric protein complex on the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Binding of agrin to LRP4 triggers phosphorylation of MuSK. Activated MuSK drives clustering of acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Wnt ligands also directly bind to MuSK to induce AChR clustering. MuSK anchors the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/collagen Q (ColQ) complex to the synaptic basal lamina. In addition, an extracellular proteoglycan, biglycan, binds to MuSK...
November 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818866/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-pathophysiology-of-al-zheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-protein-protein-interactions-in-current-and-future-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Morten Skøtt Thomsen, Jesper Tobias Andreasen, Maria Arvaniti, Kristi Anne Kohlmeier
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued for decades as potential molecular targets to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their positioning within regions of the brain critical in learning and memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and their demonstrated role in processes underlying cognition such as synaptic facilitation, and theta and gamma wave activity. Historically, activity at these receptors is facilitated in AD by use of drugs that increase the levels of their endogenous agonist acetylcholine, and more recently nAChR selective ligands have undergone clinical trials...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074265/the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-a-mediator-of-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-target-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-down-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Stephen I Deutsch, Jessica A Burket, Maria R Urbano, Andrew D Benson
Currently, there are no medications that target core deficits of social communication and restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Adults with Down syndrome (DS) display a progressive worsening of adaptive functioning, which is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like histopathological changes in brain. Similar to persons with ASDs, there are no effective medication strategies to prevent or retard the progressive worsening of adaptive functions in adults with DS...
October 15, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26001208/nicotine-contributes-to-the-neural-stem-cells-fate-against-toxicity-of-microglial-derived-factors-induced-by-a%C3%AE-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#20
De-Qi Jiang, Mei-Dan Wei, Ke-Wan Wang, Yan-Xian Lan, Ning Zhu, Yong Wang
Recent studies have demonstrated that the molecules secreted from microglias play important roles in the cell fate determination of neural stem cells (NSCs), and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist treatment could reduce neuroinflammation in some neurodegenerative disease models, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not clear how nicotine plays a neuroprotective role in inflammation-mediated central nervous diseases, and its possible mechanisms in the process remain largely elusive. The aim of this study is to improve the survival microenvironment of NSCs co-cultured with microglias in vitro by weakening inflammation that mediated by accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)...
2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
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