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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142131/single-dose-trivalent-vesiculovax-vaccine-protects-macaques-from-lethal-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-challenge
#1
Demetrius Matassov, Chad E Mire, Theresa Latham, Joan B Geisbert, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Krystle N Agans, Dean J Kobs, Morgan Q S Wendling, Amanda Burnaugh, Thomas L Rudge, Carol L Sabourin, Michael A Egan, David K Clarke, Thomas W Geisbert, John H Eldridge
Previous studies demonstrated that a single intramuscular (IM) dose of an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vector (Vesiculovax™, rVSV-N4CT1) expressing the glycoprotein (GP) from the Mayinga strain of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) protected nonhuman primates (NHP) from lethal challenge with EBOV Kikwit and Makona strains. Here we studied the immunogenicity of an expanded range of attenuated rVSV vectors expressing filovirus GP in mice. Based on data from those studies an optimal attenuated tri-valent rVSV vector formulation was identified which included rVSV vectors expressing EBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) or Angola strain of Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) GPs...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104771/virus-vectored-ebola-vaccines
#2
I V Dolzhikova, E A Tokarskaya, A S Dzharullaeva, A I Tukhvatulin, D V Shcheblyakov, O L Voronina, S I Syromyatnikova, S V Borisevich, V B Pantyukhov, V F Babira, L V Kolobukhina, B S Naroditsky, D Y Logunov, A L Gintsburg
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the most dangerous infections affecting humans and animals. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in 1976 in Sudan and Zaire. Since then, more than 20 outbreaks have occurred; the largest of which (2014-2016) evolved into an epidemic in West Africa and claimed the lives of more than 11,000 people. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent epidemics, there was no licensed vaccine for EVD at the beginning of the latest outbreak. The development of the first vaccines for EVD started in 1980 and has come a long technological way, from inactivated to genetically engineered vaccines based on recombinant viral vectors...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031848/local-national-and-regional-viral-haemorrhagic-fever-pandemic-potential-in-africa-a-multistage-analysis
#3
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
October 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021820/introduction-of-p16-ink4a-as-a-surrogate-biomarker-for-hpv-in-women-with-invasive-cervical-cancer-in-sudan
#4
Hina Sarwath, Devendra Bansal, Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mahmoud Mohamed, Ali A Sultan, Shahinaz Bedri
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with highest incidence reported in Eastern Africa in 2012. The primary goal of this study was to study the expression of p16(INK4a) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and determine relation with clinico-pathological parameters. This study further explored the correlation of p16(INK4a) immunostaining with another proliferation marker, Ki-67 and to study if human papillomavirus (HPV) IHC can be used as a marker for detection of virus in high-grade dysplasia...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986842/testing-experimental-therapies-in-a-guinea-pig-model-for-hemorrhagic-fever
#5
Gary Wong, Yuhai Bi, Gary Kobinger, George F Gao, Xiangguo Qiu
Hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the deadliest pathogens known to humans, and often, licensed medical countermeasures are unavailable to prevent or treat infections. Guinea pigs are a commonly used animal for the preclinical development of any experimental candidates, typically to confirm data generated in mice and as a way to validate and support further testing in nonhuman primates. In this chapter, we use Sudan virus (SUDV), a lethal filovirus closely related to Ebola virus, as an example of the steps required for generating a guinea pig-adapted isolate that is used to test a monoclonal antibody-based therapy against viral hemorrhagic fevers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980080/complete-genome-sequence-of-datura-leaf-curl-virus-a-novel-begomovirus-infecting-datura-innoxia-in-sudan-related-to-begomoviruses-causing-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-disease
#6
Heyam S Mohammed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussein, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé
Several species in the genus Datura (family Solanaceae) are hosts for begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae), both in the New World and the Old World. Here, we report the genome characterization of two isolates of a novel Old World monopartite begomovirus infecting Datura innoxia in Sudan, which we propose to be named "datura leaf curl virus" (DaLCV). Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that DaLCV isolates are related to begomoviruses causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease, a global menace for tomato crops...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890093/mechanistic-and-fc-requirements-for-inhibition-of-sudan-virus-entry-and-in-vivo-protection-by-a-synthetic-antibody
#7
Daniel Hofmann, Samantha E Zak, Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Eva Mittler, Russell R Bakken, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye, Jonathan R Lai
The Sudan virus (SUDV), an ebolavirus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with human case fatality rates of ∼50%. Previous work from our lab demonstrated the synthetic antibody F4 potently inhibits viral entry and protects against lethal virus challenge in mice [Chen et al., ACS Chem. Biol., 2014, 9, 2263-2273]. Here, we explore mechanistic requirements as well as contribution of the Fc region and function on neutralization and in vivo protection. Live cell imaging demonstrates that the antibody colocalizes with vesicular stomatitis virus particles containing the Sudan virus glycoprotein (VSV-GPSUDV) and that the antibody is rapidly degraded within cellular endosomes...
September 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822816/genetically-modified-rabies-virus-vectored-ebola-virus-disease-vaccines-are-safe-and-induce-efficacious-immune-responses-in-mice-and-dogs
#8
Lei Shuai, Xijun Wang, Zhiyuan Wen, Jinying Ge, Jinliang Wang, Dandan Zhao, Zhigao Bu
Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause EBOV disease (EVD) with high case fatality in humans. Currently, EVD vaccines are still under development in several countries. Here, we generated two recombinant rabies viruses (RABVs), rERAG333E/ZGP and rERAG333E/SGP, expressing the Zaire EBOV glycoprotein (ZGP) or Sudan EBOV glycoprotein (SGP) gene based on a modified ERA vaccine strain (rERAG333E) vector platform. The recombinant RABVs retained growth properties similar to those of the vector virus in BSR cell culture and efficiently expressed ZGP or SGP...
August 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780120/vaccines-against-ebola-virus
#9
Navin Venkatraman, Daniel Silman, Pedro M Folegatti, Adrian V S Hill
We have just witnessed the largest and most devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease, which highlighted the urgent need for development of an efficacious vaccine that could be used to curtail future outbreaks. Prior to 2014, there had been limited impetus worldwide to develop a vaccine since the virus was first discovered in 1976. Though too many lives were lost during this outbreak, it resulted in the significantly accelerated clinical development of a number of candidate vaccines through an extraordinary collaborative global effort coordinated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and involving a number of companies, trial centres, funders, global stakeholders and agencies...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774342/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-among-the-one-humped-camel-camelus-dromedaries-in-central-sudan
#10
Hajer M Suliman, Ibrahim A Adam, Shamseldin I Saeed, Sanaa A Abdelaziz, Eltahir M Haroun, Imadeldin E Aradaib
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF is typically asymptomatic in animals but can be highly fatal in humans approaching case fatality rate of approximately 30%. In the present investigation, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with CCHFV seropositivity among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan...
August 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747200/rubella-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-and-preeclampsia
#11
Shimos A Alshareef, Ahmed M Eltom, Abubakr M Nasr, Hamdan Z Hamdan, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a major health problem. Although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal seropositivity of rubella, Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and preeclampsia. METHOD: A case -controls study (90 women in each arm) was conducted at Saad Abualila Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan...
July 26, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729706/sudan-ebolavirus-long-recovered-survivors-produce-gp-specific-abs-that-are-of-the-igg1-subclass-and-preferentially-bind-fc%C3%AE-ri
#12
Olga Radinsky, Avishay Edri, Michael Brusilovsky, Shlomit Fedida-Metula, Ariel Sobarzo, Orly Gershoni-Yahalom, Julius Lutwama, John Dye, Leslie Lobel, Angel Porgador
Ebolavirus is a highly lethal pathogen, causing a severe hemorrhagic disease with a high fatality rate. To better understand immune correlates of protection by virus specific IgG, we investigated the evolution of the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)-activating capabilities of antiviral IgG in serum samples of long recovered survivors. To this end, longitudinal serum samples from survivors of Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) infection, studied over years, were examined for the presence of Ebola-GP specific IgG subclasses, and for their binding to FcγRs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724616/marburg-virus-survivor-immune-responses-are-th1-skewed-with-limited-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#13
Spencer W Stonier, Andrew S Herbert, Ana I Kuehne, Ariel Sobarzo, Polina Habibulin, Chen V Abramovitch Dahan, Rebekah M James, Moses Egesa, Stephen Cose, Julius Julian Lutwama, Leslie Lobel, John M Dye
Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719276/high-hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-among-displaced-persons-in-south-sudan
#14
Andrew S Azman, Malika Bouhenia, Anita S Iyer, John Rumunu, Richard Lino Laku, Joseph F Wamala, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Justin Lessler, Etienne Gignoux, Francisco J Luquero, Daniel T Leung, Emily S Gurley, Iza Ciglenecki
AbstractLarge protracted outbreaks of hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been documented in displaced populations in Africa over the past decade though data are limited outside these exceptional settings. Serological studies can provide insights useful for improving surveillance and disease control. We conducted an age-stratified serological survey using samples previously collected for another research study from 206 residents of an internally displaced person camp in Juba, South Sudan. We tested serum for anti-HEV antibodies (IgM and IgG) and estimated the prevalence of recent and historical exposure to the virus...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669763/new-species-in-the-papaya-ringspot-virus-cluster-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-prsv-lineage
#15
C Desbiez, C Wipf-Scheibel, P Millot, E Verdin, G Dafalla, H Lecoq
The "Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster" of cucurbit-infecting potyviruses contains five acknowledged species that have similar biological, serological and molecular properties. Additional data suggest there are other uncharacterized species from various locations in the world that likely belong to the PRSV cluster including a new PRSV-like virus reported from Sudan in 2003. Molecular and biological data indicated that the virus from Sudan belongs to a new species, tentatively named wild melon vein banding virus (WMVBV)...
September 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653188/guide-to-the-correct-use-of-filoviral-nomenclature
#16
Jens H Kuhn
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) currently recognizes three genera and seven species as part of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae. Eight distinct filoviruses (Bundibugyo virus, Ebola virus, Lloviu virus, Marburg virus, Ravn virus, Reston virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) have been assigned to these seven species. This chapter briefly summarizes the status quo of filovirus classification and focuses on the importance of differentiating between filoviral species and filoviruses and the correct use of taxonomic and vernacular filovirus names and abbreviations in written and oral discourse...
June 27, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651007/urban-chikungunya-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
John M Humphrey, Natalie B Cleton, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marshall J Glesby, Marion P G Koopmans, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643203/nonhuman-primate-models-of-ebola-virus-disease
#18
Richard S Bennett, Louis M Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Laura Bollinger, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley
Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is associated with four ebolaviruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Taï Forest virus. To date, no documented cases of human disease have been associated with Reston virus. Here, we describe the nonhuman primate (NHP) models that currently serve as gold standards for testing ebolavirus vaccines and therapeutic agents and elucidating underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis. Although multiple models have been explored over the past 50 years, the predominance of published work has been performed in macaque models...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615211/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotyped-with-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-serves-as-a-protective-non-infectious-vaccine-against-ebola-virus-challenge-in-mice
#19
Nicholas J Lennemann, Andrew S Herbert, Rachel Brouillette, Bethany Rhein, Russell A Bakken, Katherine J Perschbacher, Ashley L Cooney, Catherine L Miller-Hunt, Patrick Ten Eyck, Julia Biggins, Gene Olinger, John M Dye, Wendy Maury
The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592526/novel-cross-reactive-monoclonal-antibodies-against-ebolavirus-glycoproteins-show-protection-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#20
James Duehr, Teddy John Wohlbold, Lisa Oestereich, Veronika Chromikova, Fatima Amanat, Madhusudan Rajendran, Sergio Gomez-Medina, Ignacio Mena, Benjamin R tenOever, Adolfo García-Sastre, Christopher F Basler, Cesar Munoz-Fontela, Florian Krammer
Out of an estimated 31,100 cases since their discovery in 1976, ebolaviruses have caused approximately 13,000 deaths. The vast majority (∼11,000) of these occurred during the 2013-2016 West African epidemic. Three out of five species in the genus are known to cause Ebola Virus Disease in humans. Several monoclonal antibodies against the ebolavirus glycoprotein are currently in development as therapeutics. However, there is still a paucity of monoclonal antibodies that can cross-react between the glycoproteins of different ebolavirus species, and the mechanism of these monoclonal antibody therapeutics is still not understood in detail...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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