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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780120/vaccines-against-ebola-virus
#1
Navin Venkatraman, Daniel Silman, Pedro M Folegatti, Adrian V S Hill
We have just witnessed the largest and most devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease, which highlighted the urgent need for development of an efficacious vaccine that could be used to curtail future outbreaks. Prior to 2014, there had been limited impetus worldwide to develop a vaccine since the virus was first discovered in 1976. Though too many lives were lost during this outbreak, it resulted in the significantly accelerated clinical development of a number of candidate vaccines through an extraordinary collaborative global effort coordinated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and involving a number of companies, trial centres, funders, global stakeholders and agencies...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774342/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-among-the-one-humped-camel-camelus-dromedaries-in-central-sudan
#2
Hajer M Suliman, Ibrahim A Adam, Shamseldin I Saeed, Sanaa A Abdelaziz, Eltahir M Haroun, Imadeldin E Aradaib
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF is typically asymptomatic in animals but can be highly fatal in humans approaching case fatality rate of approximately 30%. In the present investigation, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with CCHFV seropositivity among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan...
August 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747200/rubella-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-and-preeclampsia
#3
Shimos A Alshareef, Ahmed M Eltom, Abubakr M Nasr, Hamdan Z Hamdan, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a major health problem. Although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal seropositivity of rubella, Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and preeclampsia. METHOD: A case -controls study (90 women in each arm) was conducted at Saad Abualila Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan...
July 26, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729706/sudan-ebolavirus-long-recovered-survivors-produce-gp-specific-abs-that-are-of-the-igg1-subclass-and-preferentially-bind-fc%C3%AE-ri
#4
Olga Radinsky, Avishay Edri, Michael Brusilovsky, Shlomit Fedida-Metula, Ariel Sobarzo, Orly Gershoni-Yahalom, Julius Lutwama, John Dye, Leslie Lobel, Angel Porgador
Ebolavirus is a highly lethal pathogen, causing a severe hemorrhagic disease with a high fatality rate. To better understand immune correlates of protection by virus specific IgG, we investigated the evolution of the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)-activating capabilities of antiviral IgG in serum samples of long recovered survivors. To this end, longitudinal serum samples from survivors of Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) infection, studied over years, were examined for the presence of Ebola-GP specific IgG subclasses, and for their binding to FcγRs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724616/marburg-virus-survivor-immune-responses-are-th1-skewed-with-limited-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#5
Spencer W Stonier, Andrew S Herbert, Ana I Kuehne, Ariel Sobarzo, Polina Habibulin, Chen V Abramovitch Dahan, Rebekah M James, Moses Egesa, Stephen Cose, Julius Julian Lutwama, Leslie Lobel, John M Dye
Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719276/high-hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-among-displaced-persons-in-south-sudan
#6
Andrew S Azman, Malika Bouhenia, Anita S Iyer, John Rumunu, Richard Lino Laku, Joseph F Wamala, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Justin Lessler, Etienne Gignoux, Francisco J Luquero, Daniel T Leung, Emily S Gurley, Iza Ciglenecki
AbstractLarge protracted outbreaks of hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been documented in displaced populations in Africa over the past decade though data are limited outside these exceptional settings. Serological studies can provide insights useful for improving surveillance and disease control. We conducted an age-stratified serological survey using samples previously collected for another research study from 206 residents of an internally displaced person camp in Juba, South Sudan. We tested serum for anti-HEV antibodies (IgM and IgG) and estimated the prevalence of recent and historical exposure to the virus...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669763/new-species-in-the-papaya-ringspot-virus-cluster-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-prsv-lineage
#7
C Desbiez, C Wipf-Scheibel, P Millot, E Verdin, G Dafalla, H Lecoq
The "Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster" of cucurbit-infecting potyviruses contains five acknowledged species that have similar biological, serological and molecular properties. Additional data suggest there are other uncharacterized species from various locations in the world that likely belong to the PRSV cluster including a new PRSV-like virus reported from Sudan in 2003. Molecular and biological data indicated that the virus from Sudan belongs to a new species, tentatively named wild melon vein banding virus (WMVBV)...
June 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653188/guide-to-the-correct-use-of-filoviral-nomenclature
#8
Jens H Kuhn
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) currently recognizes three genera and seven species as part of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae. Eight distinct filoviruses (Bundibugyo virus, Ebola virus, Lloviu virus, Marburg virus, Ravn virus, Reston virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) have been assigned to these seven species. This chapter briefly summarizes the status quo of filovirus classification and focuses on the importance of differentiating between filoviral species and filoviruses and the correct use of taxonomic and vernacular filovirus names and abbreviations in written and oral discourse...
June 27, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651007/urban-chikungunya-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
John M Humphrey, Natalie B Cleton, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marshall J Glesby, Marion P G Koopmans, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643203/nonhuman-primate-models-of-ebola-virus-disease
#10
Richard S Bennett, Louis M Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Laura Bollinger, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley
Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is associated with four ebolaviruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Taï Forest virus. To date, no documented cases of human disease have been associated with Reston virus. Here, we describe the nonhuman primate (NHP) models that currently serve as gold standards for testing ebolavirus vaccines and therapeutic agents and elucidating underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis. Although multiple models have been explored over the past 50 years, the predominance of published work has been performed in macaque models...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615211/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotyped-with-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-serves-as-a-protective-non-infectious-vaccine-against-ebola-virus-challenge-in-mice
#11
Nicholas J Lennemann, Andrew S Herbert, Rachel Brouillette, Bethany Rhein, Russell A Bakken, Katherine J Perschbacher, Ashley L Cooney, Catherine L Miller-Hunt, Patrick Ten Eyck, Julia Biggins, Gene Olinger, John M Dye, Wendy Maury
The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592526/novel-cross-reactive-monoclonal-antibodies-against-ebolavirus-glycoproteins-show-protection-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#12
James Duehr, Teddy John Wohlbold, Lisa Oestereich, Veronika Chromikova, Fatima Amanat, Madhusudan Rajendran, Sergio Gomez-Medina, Ignacio Mena, Benjamin R tenOever, Adolfo García-Sastre, Christopher F Basler, Cesar Munoz-Fontela, Florian Krammer
Out of an estimated 31,100 cases since their discovery in 1976, ebolaviruses have caused approximately 13,000 deaths. The vast majority (∼11,000) of these occurred during the 2013-2016 West African epidemic. Three out of five species in the genus are known to cause Ebola Virus Disease in humans. Several monoclonal antibodies against the ebolavirus glycoprotein are currently in development as therapeutics. However, there is still a paucity of monoclonal antibodies that can cross-react between the glycoproteins of different ebolavirus species, and the mechanism of these monoclonal antibody therapeutics is still not understood in detail...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575582/an-immunoinformatics-derived-dna-vaccine-encoding-human-class-ii-t-cell-epitopes-of-ebola-virus-sudan-virus-and-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-is-immunogenic-in-hla-transgenic-mice
#13
Callie E Bounds, Frances E Terry, Leonard Moise, Drew Hannaman, William D Martin, Anne S De Groot, John J Suschak, Lesley C Dupuy, Connie S Schmaljohn
Immunoinformatics tools were used to predict human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II-restricted T cell epitopes within the envelope glycoproteins and nucleocapsid proteins of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) and the structural proteins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Selected epitopes were tested for binding to soluble HLA molecules representing five Class II alleles (DRB1*0101, DRB1*0301, DRB1*0401, DRB1*0701, and DRB1*1501). All but one of the 25 tested peptides bound to at least one of the DRB1 alleles, and four of the peptides bound at least moderately or weakly to all five DRB1 alleles...
June 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558046/alfalfa-virus-s-a-new-species-in-the-family-alphaflexiviridae
#14
Lev G Nemchinov, Samuel C Grinstead, Dimitre S Mollov
A new species of the family Alphaflexiviridae provisionally named alfalfa virus S (AVS) was discovered in alfalfa samples originating from Sudan. A complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome consisting of 8,349 nucleotides excluding the 3' poly(A) tail was determined by high throughput sequencing (HTS) on an Illumina platform. NCBI BLAST searches revealed that the virus shares the greatest degree of sequence identity with members of the family Alphaflexiviridae, genus Allexivirus. The AVS genome contains six computationally-predicted open reading frames (ORF) encoding viral replication protein, triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1), TGB2, TGB3-like protein, unknown 38...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545034/characterization-of-sudan-ebolavirus-infection-in-ferrets
#15
Andrea Kroeker, Shihua He, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Gary Wong, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Xiangguo Qiu
Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreaks in Africa are highly lethal; however, the development and testing of novel antivirals and vaccines for this virus has been limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Non-human primates (NHP) remain the gold standard for modeling filovirus disease, but they are not conducive to screening large numbers of experimental compounds and should only be used to test the most promising candidates. Therefore, other smaller animal models are a valuable asset. We have recently developed a guinea-pig adapted SUDV virus that is lethal in guinea pigs...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539856/natural-regulatory-anticoagulants-proteins-among-sudanese-patients-with-dengue-virus-infection
#16
Bashir Abdrhman Bashir, Osman Khalaf Allah Saeed
THE COAGULATION SYSTEM: Abnormalities in natural physiologic anticoagulants are observed in dengue infection. Laboratory values such as protein C (PC), protein S (PS), and antithrombin (AT) indicate this problem on the coagulation system in dengue. Recently, an interrelationship between dengue and the levels of natural anticoagulants has been observed. OBJECTIVE: The study conducted to find out the effect of dengue on the natural anticoagulant proteins. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Port Sudan Teaching Hospital from February 2013 to June 2014 for 334 cases of dengue caused by dengue virus, 217 (65%) males and 117 (35%) were females along with 101 cases of control 64 (63...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539437/spontaneous-mutation-at-amino-acid-544-of-the-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-potentiates-virus-entry-and-selection-in-tissue-culture
#17
John B Ruedas, Jason T Ladner, Chelsea R Ettinger, Suryaram Gummuluru, Gustavo Palacios, John H Connor
Ebolaviruses have a surface glycoprotein (GP1,2) that is required for virus attachment and entry into cells. Mutations affecting GP1,2 functions can alter virus growth properties. We generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding Ebola virus Makona variant GP1,2 (rVSV-MAK-GP) and observed emergence of a T544I mutation in the Makona GP1,2 gene during tissue culture passage in certain cell lines. The T544I mutation emerged within two passages when VSV-MAK-GP was grown on Vero E6, Vero, and BS-C-1 cells but not when it was passaged on Huh7 and HepG2 cells...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533877/-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-and-its-associated-factors-in-senegalese-military-personnel-sent-on-mission-to-darfur
#18
Moustapha Diop, Assane Diouf, Said Malaobé Seck, Gora Lo, Daye Ka, Aminata Massaly, Alassane Dieye, Ndeye Maguette Fall, Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse-Diallo, Khardiata Diallo-Mbaye, Ndèye Aissatou Lakhe, Louise Fortes-Déguénonvo, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Maserigne Soumaré, Moussa Seydi
INTRODUCTION: In Senegal, 85% of the adult population have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and about 11% of them are chronic surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. This infection is poorly documented among Senegalese Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBsAg in Senegalese military personnel on mission to Darfur (Sudan) and to identify its associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among Senegalese military personnel stationed in Darfur from 1 July 2014 to 31 July 2014...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525756/immunization-elicited-broadly-protective-antibody-reveals-ebolavirus-fusion-loop-as-a-site-of-vulnerability
#19
Xuelian Zhao, Katie A Howell, Shihua He, Jennifer M Brannan, Anna Z Wec, Edgar Davidson, Hannah L Turner, Chi-I Chiang, Lin Lei, J Maximilian Fels, Hong Vu, Sergey Shulenin, Ashley N Turonis, Ana I Kuehne, Guodong Liu, Mi Ta, Yimeng Wang, Christopher Sundling, Yongli Xiao, Jennifer S Spence, Benjamin J Doranz, Frederick W Holtsberg, Andrew B Ward, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye, Xiangguo Qiu, Yuxing Li, M Javad Aman
While neutralizing antibodies are highly effective against ebolavirus infections, current experimental ebolavirus vaccines primarily elicit species-specific antibody responses. Here, we describe an immunization-elicited macaque antibody (CA45) that clamps the internal fusion loop with the N terminus of the ebolavirus glycoproteins (GPs) and potently neutralizes Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. CA45, alone or in combination with an antibody that blocks receptor binding, provided full protection against all pathogenic ebolaviruses in mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466035/analysis-of-ebola-virus-polymerase-domains-to-find-strain-specific-differences-and-to-gain-insight-on-their-pathogenicity
#20
Seema Patel, Snigdha Patel
Ebola virus, a member of the family Filoviridae has caused immense morbidity and mortality in recent times, especially in West Africa. The infection characterized by chills, fever, diarrhea, and myalgia can progress to hemorrhage and death. Hence, it is a high priority area to better understand its biology in order to expedite vaccine development pipelines. In this regard, this study analyzes the domains in RNA polymerase of fifteen publicly-available Ebola isolates belonging to three strains (Zaire, Sudan and Reston)...
September 2016: Virusdisease
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