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Sudan virus

Adrián Lázaro-Frías, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro, Karl Ljungberg, Mart Ustav, Peter Liljeström, César Muñoz-Fontela, Mariano Esteban, Juan García-Arriaza
Zaire and Sudan ebolavirus species cause a severe disease in humans and non-human primates (NHPs) characterized by high mortality rate. There are no licensed therapies or vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD), and the recent 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need of EVD-specific medical countermeasures. Here, we have generated and characterized head-to-head the immunogenicity and efficacy of five vaccine candidates against Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) based on the highly attenuated poxvirus vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), expressing either the virus glycoprotein (GP) or GP together with the virus protein 40 (VP40) forming virus-like particles (VLPs)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Samantha E Zak, Anna Z Wec, Daniel Hofmann, Sergey Shulenin, Russell R Bakken, M Javad Aman, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye, Jonathan R Lai
Filoviruses (family Filoviridae ) include five ebolaviruses and Marburg virus. These pathogens cause a rapidly progressing and severe viral disease with high mortality rates (generally 30%-90%). Outbreaks of filovirus disease are sporadic and, until recently, were limited to less than 500 cases. However, the 2013-2016 epidemic in western Africa, caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), illustrated the potential of filovirus outbreaks to escalate to a much larger scale (over 28,000 suspected cases). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the envelope glycoprotein represent a promising therapeutic platform for managing filovirus infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Benoit Callendret, Jort Vellinga, Kerstin Wunderlich, Ariane Rodriguez, Robin Steigerwald, Ulrike Dirmeier, Cedric Cheminay, Ariane Volkmann, Trevor Brasel, Ricardo Carrion, Luis D Giavedoni, Jean L Patterson, Chad E Mire, Thomas W Geisbert, Jay W Hooper, Mo Weijtens, Jutta Hartkoorn-Pasma, Jerome Custers, Maria Grazia Pau, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Roland Zahn
The search for a universal filovirus vaccine that provides protection against multiple filovirus species has been prompted by sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus infections. A good prophylactic vaccine should be able to provide protection to all known filovirus species and as an upside potentially protect from newly emerging virus strains. We investigated the immunogenicity and protection elicited by multivalent vaccines expressing glycoproteins (GP) from Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and Marburg virus (MARV)...
2018: PloS One
Freya M Shearer, Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, David M Pigott, Oliver J Brady, Moritz U G Kraemer, Fatima Marinho, Sergio Yactayo, Valdelaine E M de Araújo, Aglaêr A da Nóbrega, Nancy Fullman, Sarah E Ray, Jonathan F Mosser, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Stephen S Lim, Robert C Reiner, Catherine L Moyes, Simon I Hay, Nick Golding
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. An effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, Aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity to spread further internationally...
February 1, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Mohamed A Kenawy, Yousrya M Abdel-Hamid, John C Beier
This article reviews and discusses the historical and recent status of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Egypt and the other African countries based on the available and scattered reports. The recent outbreaks in African countries were reviewed and mapped out. Four major epidemics have been recorded in Egypt (1977, 1978, 1993 and 2003). The outbreak resulted in unpredicted human disease with severe clinical manifestations and heavy mortality as well as many abortions and deaths in sheep, goats, cattle, water buffalo and camels...
January 31, 2018: Acta Tropica
Mohamed A Ahmed, Manal E Sharif, Duria A Rayis, Abubakr M Nasr, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: Previous published studies have reported conflicting results of association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and preeclampsia. There was no published data on HBV and preeclampsia in Africa including Sudan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between HBsAg seropositivity and preeclampsia. METHODS: A case -controls study (200 women in each arm) was conducted at Saad Abualila Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The cases were women with preeclampsia and the controls were healthy pregnant women...
January 22, 2018: Virology Journal
Sebastian Napp, Veronique Chevalier, Núria Busquets, Paolo Calistri, Jordi Casal, Mohamed Attia, Rehab Elbassal, Heba Hosni, Hatem Farrag, Noura Hassan, Rasha Tawfik, Sohair Abd Elkader, Shahin Bayomy
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis, which may cause significant losses for the livestock sector and have serious public health implications. Egypt has been repeatedly affected by RVF epidemics, mainly associated to the importation of animals from sub-Saharan countries, where the disease is endemic. The objective of our study was the improvement of the surveillance and control strategies implemented in Egypt. In order to do that, first we evaluated the legal trade of live animals into and within Egypt...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Polina Brangel, Ariel Sobarzo, Claudio Parolo, Benjamin S Miller, Philip D Howes, Sigal Gelkop, Julius J Lutwama, John M Dye, Rachel A McKendry, Leslie Lobel, Molly M Stevens
Ebola virus disease causes widespread and highly fatal epidemics in human populations. Today, there is still great need for point-of-care tests for diagnosis, patient management and surveillance, both during and post outbreaks. We present a point-of-care test comprising an immunochromatographic strip and a smartphone reader, which detects and semiquantifies Ebola-specific antibodies in human survivors. We developed a Sudan virus glycoprotein monoplex platform and validated it using sera from 90 human survivors and 31 local noninfected controls...
January 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Eric D Laing, Ian H Mendenhall, Martin Linster, Dolyce H W Low, Yihui Chen, Lianying Yan, Spencer L Sterling, Sophie Borthwick, Erica Sena Neves, Julia S L Lim, Maggie Skiles, Benjamin P Y-H Lee, Lin-Fa Wang, Christopher C Broder, Gavin J D Smith
To determine whether fruit bats in Singapore have been exposed to filoviruses, we screened 409 serum samples from bats of 3 species by using a multiplex assay that detects antibodies against filoviruses. Positive samples reacted with glycoproteins from Bundibugyo, Ebola, and Sudan viruses, indicating filovirus circulation among bats in Southeast Asia.
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shui-Ping Yang, Wei Zhao, Pei-Pei Hu, Ke-Yang Wu, Zhi-Hong Jiang, Li-Ping Bai, Min-Min Li, Jin-Xiang Chen
Reactions of La(NO3 )3 ·6H2 O with the polar, tritopic quaternized carboxylate ligands N-carboxymethyl-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H3 CmdcpBr) and N-(4-carboxybenzyl)-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H3 CbdcpBr) afford two water-stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of {[La4 (Cmdcp)6 (H2 O)9 ]}n (1, 3D) and {[La2 (Cbdcp)3 (H2 O)10 ]}n (2, 2D). MOFs 1 and 2 absorb the carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-tagged probe DNA (P-DNA) and quench the fluorescence of FAM via a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process...
December 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
A Nagy, T C Mettenleiter, E M Abdelwhab
H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco...
December 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Demetrius Matassov, Chad E Mire, Theresa Latham, Joan B Geisbert, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Krystle N Agans, Dean J Kobs, Morgan Q S Wendling, Amanda Burnaugh, Thomas L Rudge, Carol L Sabourin, Michael A Egan, David K Clarke, Thomas W Geisbert, John H Eldridge
Previous studies demonstrated that a single intramuscular (IM) dose of an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vector (Vesiculovax™, rVSV-N4CT1) expressing the glycoprotein (GP) from the Mayinga strain of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) protected nonhuman primates (NHP) from lethal challenge with EBOV Kikwit and Makona strains. Here we studied the immunogenicity of an expanded range of attenuated rVSV vectors expressing filovirus GP in mice. Based on data from those studies an optimal attenuated tri-valent rVSV vector formulation was identified which included rVSV vectors expressing EBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) or Angola strain of Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) GPs...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
I V Dolzhikova, E A Tokarskaya, A S Dzharullaeva, A I Tukhvatulin, D V Shcheblyakov, O L Voronina, S I Syromyatnikova, S V Borisevich, V B Pantyukhov, V F Babira, L V Kolobukhina, B S Naroditsky, D Y Logunov, A L Gintsburg
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the most dangerous infections affecting humans and animals. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in 1976 in Sudan and Zaire. Since then, more than 20 outbreaks have occurred; the largest of which (2014-2016) evolved into an epidemic in West Africa and claimed the lives of more than 11,000 people. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent epidemics, there was no licensed vaccine for EVD at the beginning of the latest outbreak. The development of the first vaccines for EVD started in 1980 and has come a long technological way, from inactivated to genetically engineered vaccines based on recombinant viral vectors...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
December 16, 2017: Lancet
Hina Sarwath, Devendra Bansal, Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mahmoud Mohamed, Ali A Sultan, Shahinaz Bedri
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with highest incidence reported in Eastern Africa in 2012. The primary goal of this study was to study the expression of p16(INK4a) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and determine relation with clinico-pathological parameters. This study further explored the correlation of p16(INK4a) immunostaining with another proliferation marker, Ki-67 and to study if human papillomavirus (HPV) IHC can be used as a marker for detection of virus in high-grade dysplasia...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Gary Wong, Yuhai Bi, Gary Kobinger, George F Gao, Xiangguo Qiu
Hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the deadliest pathogens known to humans, and often, licensed medical countermeasures are unavailable to prevent or treat infections. Guinea pigs are a commonly used animal for the preclinical development of any experimental candidates, typically to confirm data generated in mice and as a way to validate and support further testing in nonhuman primates. In this chapter, we use Sudan virus (SUDV), a lethal filovirus closely related to Ebola virus, as an example of the steps required for generating a guinea pig-adapted isolate that is used to test a monoclonal antibody-based therapy against viral hemorrhagic fevers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Heyam S Mohammed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussein, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé
Several species in the genus Datura (family Solanaceae) are hosts for begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae), both in the New World and the Old World. Here, we report the genome characterization of two isolates of a novel Old World monopartite begomovirus infecting Datura innoxia in Sudan, which we propose to be named "datura leaf curl virus" (DaLCV). Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that DaLCV isolates are related to begomoviruses causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease, a global menace for tomato crops...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
Daniel Hofmann, Samantha E Zak, Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Eva Mittler, Russell R Bakken, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye, Jonathan R Lai
The Sudan virus (SUDV), an ebolavirus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with human case fatality rates of ∼50%. Previous work from our lab demonstrated the synthetic antibody F4 potently inhibits viral entry and protects against lethal virus challenge in mice [Chen et al., ACS Chem. Biol., 2014, 9, 2263-2273]. Here, we explore mechanistic requirements as well as contribution of the Fc region and function on neutralization and in vivo protection. Live cell imaging demonstrates that the antibody colocalizes with vesicular stomatitis virus particles containing the Sudan virus glycoprotein (VSV-GPSUDV) and that the antibody is rapidly degraded within cellular endosomes...
September 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
Lei Shuai, Xijun Wang, Zhiyuan Wen, Jinying Ge, Jinliang Wang, Dandan Zhao, Zhigao Bu
Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause EBOV disease (EVD) with high case fatality in humans. Currently, EVD vaccines are still under development in several countries. Here, we generated two recombinant rabies viruses (RABVs), rERAG333E/ZGP and rERAG333E/SGP, expressing the Zaire EBOV glycoprotein (ZGP) or Sudan EBOV glycoprotein (SGP) gene based on a modified ERA vaccine strain (rERAG333E) vector platform. The recombinant RABVs retained growth properties similar to those of the vector virus in BSR cell culture and efficiently expressed ZGP or SGP...
August 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
Navin Venkatraman, Daniel Silman, Pedro M Folegatti, Adrian V S Hill
We have just witnessed the largest and most devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease, which highlighted the urgent need for development of an efficacious vaccine that could be used to curtail future outbreaks. Prior to 2014, there had been limited impetus worldwide to develop a vaccine since the virus was first discovered in 1976. Though too many lives were lost during this outbreak, it resulted in the significantly accelerated clinical development of a number of candidate vaccines through an extraordinary collaborative global effort coordinated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and involving a number of companies, trial centres, funders, global stakeholders and agencies...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
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