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Sudan virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333616/cross-sectional-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-dromedary-camels-and-other-mammals-in-egypt-august-2015-to-january-2016
#1
Mohamed Ali, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Kandeil, Mahmoud Shehata, Basma Elsokary, Mokhtar Gomaa, Naglaa Hassan, Ahmed El Sayed, Ahmed El-Taweel, Heba Sobhy, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Ihab El Masry, Abebe Wossene Wolde, Peter Daszak, Maureen Miller, Sophie VonDobschuetz, Emma Gardner, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Yilma Jobre Makonnen
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84...
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332721/rapid-detection-and-quantification-of-ebola-zaire-virus-by-one-step-real-time-quantitative-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#2
Young-Tae Ro, Anysha Ticer, Ricardo Carrion, Jean L Patterson
Since Ebola virus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, the rapid and accurate detection of the virus is essential both for controlling the infection and for preventing further transmission. Here, we introduce one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the rapid and quantitative detection of an Ebola Zaire strain using GP, VP24 or VP40 gene as a target. Routine assay conditions for hydrolysis probe detection were established by the manufacturer's protocol used in the assays...
March 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332652/the-impact-of-importation-of-live-ruminants-on-the-epizootiology-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-saudi-arabia
#3
I H A Abd El-Rahim, A H Asghar, A M Mohamed, S M Fat'hi
Approximately five million live ruminants are imported annually into Saudi Arabia. The majority of these animals are imported shortly before the pilgrimage season from Sudan and the Horn of Africa, where foot and mouth disease (FMD) is known to be enzootic. This study was designed to investigate the impact of the importation of these live ruminants on the epizootiology of FMD in Saudi Arabia. The authors carried out antibody testing on a total of 480 sheep and 233 cattle from the sacrificial livestock yards of the Saudi Project for Utilization of Hajj Meat, which performs ritual slaughter on behalf of pilgrims in the Holy City of Makkah...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321790/peste-des-petits-ruminants-infection-in-domestic-ruminants-in-sudan
#4
K S Intisar, Y H Ali, M A Haj, M A T Sahar, M M Shaza, A M Baraa, O M Ishag, Y M Nouri, K M Taha, E M Nada, A M Ahmed, A I Khalafalla, G Libeau, A Diallo
The existence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in domestic ruminants and camels in Sudan during 2008-2012 was investigated. Lung tissues and serum samples were randomly collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and camels at different areas of Sudan. A total of 12,384 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy 7413 sheep, 1988 camels, 1501 cattle, 1459 goats, and 23 gazelles at different areas in the Sudan. They were examined for PPR antibodies using competitive ELISA (cELISA). The overall detected seroprevalence of PPR in tested sera was 49...
March 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320320/antiviral-activity-of-pha767491-against-human-herpes-simplex-virus-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Jue Hou, Zili Zhang, Qiang Huang, Jun Yan, Xiaohu Zhang, Xiaoliang Yu, Guihua Tan, Chunfu Zheng, Feng Xu, Sudan He
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including oral-labial, genital lesions and life-threatening encephalitis. The antiviral nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir are currently used in anti-HSV therapies; however, clinical overuse of these drugs has led to the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop new anti-HSV agents. METHODS: To identify novel anti-HSV-1 compounds, we screened the LOPAC small scale library of 1280 bioactive compounds to identify inhibitors of HSV-1-induced necroptosis...
March 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240033/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-in-cattle-along-the-akagera-nyabarongo-rivers-rwanda
#6
Thérèse Umuhoza, Dirk Berkvens, Isidore Gafarasi, Joseph Rukelibuga, Borden Mushonga, Savino Biryomumaisho
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is caused by a zoonotic arbovirus that is endemic to eastern and southern Africa. It has also been reported in West and North Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, but people can also become infected while handling blood or other body fluids of animals and humans with RVF. In 2007, there was a large outbreak of RVF in Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and Somalia. Outbreaks were also reported in South Africa in 2008-2011. The epidemiology of RVF and factors for disease occurrence in Rwanda are neither clear nor documented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167539/chemically-modified-human-serum-albumin-potently-blocks-entry-of-ebola-pseudoviruses-and-virus-like-particles
#7
Haoyang Li, Fei Yu, Shuai Xia, Yufeng Yu, Qian Wang, Ming Lv, Yan Wang, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
Ebola virus (EBOV), causative pathogen of the deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD), can be transmitted via contact with EVD patients, including sexual contact with EVD survivors. At present, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic is available. In this study, we compared eight anhydride-modified proteins for their inhibitory activity against entry of the pseudovirus (PsV) carrying the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV Zaire or Sudan species. We found that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified human serum albumin (HP-HSA) was most effective in inhibiting entry of both Zaire-PsV and Sudan-PsV, with EC50 at nanomolar level, more potent than EBOV-neutralizing antibody, MIL77-2 (4G7)...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140390/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-seroprevalence-surveys-of-ebolavirus-infection
#8
Hilary Bower, Judith R Glynn
Asymptomatic ebolavirus infection could greatly influence transmission dynamics, but there is little consensus on how frequently it occurs or even if it exists. This paper summarises the available evidence on seroprevalence of Ebola, Sudan and Bundibugyo virus IgG in people without known ebolavirus disease. Through systematic review, we identified 51 studies with seroprevalence results in sera collected from 1961 to 2016. We tabulated findings by study population, contact, assay, antigen and positivity threshold used, and present seroprevalence point estimates and 95% confidence intervals...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097814/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-from-outbreaks-in-some-states-of-northern-nigeria-2013-2015
#9
D O Ehizibolo, A Haegeman, A R De Vleeschauwer, J U Umoh, H M Kazeem, E C Okolocha, K De Clercq, S Van Borm
Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak...
January 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068340/phylogeography-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-africa-and-the-arabian-peninsula
#10
Abdallah M Samy, A Townsend Peterson, Matthew Hall
Rift Valley Fever is an acute zoonotic viral disease caused by Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) that affects ruminants and humans in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. We used phylogenetic analyses to understand the demographic history of RVFV populations, using sequence data from the three minigenomic segments of the virus. We used phylogeographic approaches to infer RVFV historical movement patterns across its geographic range, and to reconstruct transitions among host species. Results revealed broad circulation of the virus in East Africa, with many lineages originating in Kenya...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066813/risks-posed-by-reston-the-forgotten-ebolavirus
#11
REVIEW
Diego Cantoni, Arran Hamlet, Martin Michaelis, Mark N Wass, Jeremy S Rossman
Out of the five members of the Ebolavirus family, four cause life-threatening disease, whereas the fifth, Reston virus (RESTV), is nonpathogenic in humans. The reasons for this discrepancy remain unclear. In this review, we analyze the currently available information to provide a state-of-the-art summary of the factors that determine the human pathogenicity of Ebolaviruses. RESTV causes sporadic infections in cynomolgus monkeys and is found in domestic pigs throughout the Philippines and China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that RESTV is most closely related to the Sudan virus, which causes a high mortality rate in humans...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055328/human-and-dromedary-camel-infection-with-camelpox-virus-in-eastern-sudan
#12
Abdelmalik I Khalafalla, Fatima Abdelazim
We provide evidence for the zoonotic nature of camelpox virus by reporting infections that involved dromedary camels and three camel herders in Showak area of eastern Sudan between September and December 2014. The skin lesions in the camel herders consisted of erythema, vesicles, and pustules that involved arms, hands, legs, back, and abdomen and resolved within less than 2 months with no human-to-human transmission. The diagnosis was achieved through molecular technique, virus isolation in cell culture, and partial genome sequencing...
April 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930961/novel-activities-by-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-interferon-antagonists-revealed-using-a-standardized-in-vitro-reporter-system
#13
Jonathan C Guito, César G Albariño, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Jonathan S Towner
Filoviruses are highly lethal in humans and nonhuman primates, likely due to potent antagonism of host interferon (IFN) responses early in infection. Filoviral protein VP35 is implicated as the major IFN induction antagonist, while Ebola virus (EBOV) VP24 or Marburg virus (MARV) VP40 are known to block downstream IFN signaling. Despite progress elucidating EBOV and MARV antagonist function, those for most other filoviruses, including Reston (RESTV), Sudan (SUDV), Taï Forest (TAFV), Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Ravn (RAVV) viruses, remain largely neglected...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928094/seroconversion-to-causes-of-febrile-illness-in-mongolian-peacekeepers-deployed-to-south-sudan
#14
Altangerel Enkhtsetseg, Rendoo Davadoorj, Stefan Fernandez, Duangrat Mongkolsirichaikul, Damdin Altantuul, Erdene Elbegdorj, Lkhagvasuren Ganchimeg, Samuel L Yingst
Immediately before deployment (Fall 2012) and after deployment (Spring 2013) in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations, Mongolian Armed Forces medical personnel obtained serum samples from the first contingent of Mongolian peacekeepers deploying to South Sudan to monitor serologic evidence of exposure to diseases that cause acute febrile illness. A total of 632 paired samples were tested for IgG antibody for the following (number of seroconversions in parentheses): Rickettsia (spotted fever and typhus groups) (25), West Nile fever virus (WNV) (23), Coxiella burnetii (causative agent of Q fever) (12), dengue virus (8), leptospirosis (6), chikungunya virus (0), Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus (0), Japanese encephalitis virus (0), and Rift Valley fever virus (0)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902321/the-serology-of-ebolavirus-a-wider-geographical-range-a-wider-genus-of-viruses-or-a-wider-range-of-virulence
#15
Magdalena Formella, Derek Gatherer
Viruses of the genus Ebolavirus are the causative agents of Ebola virus disease (EVD), of which there have been only 25 recorded outbreaks since the discovery of Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses in the late 1970s. Until the west African outbreak commencing in late 2013, EVD was confined to an area of central Africa stretching from the coast of Gabon through the Congo river basin and eastward to the Great Lakes. Nevertheless, population serological studies since 1976, most of which were carried out in the first two decades after that date, have suggested a wider distribution and more frequent occurrence across tropical Africa...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833652/molecular-detection-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-among-sudanese-population
#16
Ali Edreis, Mona Ali Mohamed, Nouh S Mohamed, Emmanuel E Siddig
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer arising from the nasopharynx that varies significantly from other cancers of the head and neck in its occurrence, causes, clinical behavior, and treatment. NPC caused by an interaction between infection with EBV and environmental and genetic factors, encompasses a multistep oncogenic process. The frequency of Epstein-Barr virus EBV among nasopharyngeal carcinoma is well known worldwide, however, in the Sudan there is barely a published data...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793730/full-genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-newly-emerged-qx-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus-from-sudan-reveals-distinct-spots-of-recombination
#17
Mahmoud M Naguib, Dirk Höper, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Ahmed M Setta, Mohamed Abed, Isabella Monne, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection continues to cause economically important diseases in poultry while different geno- and serotypes continue to circulate globally. Two infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) were isolated from chickens with respiratory disease in Sudan. Sequence analysis of the hypervariable regions of the S1 gene revealed a close relation to the QX-like genotype which has not been detected in Sudan before. Whole genome analysis of IBV/Ck/Sudan/AR251-15/2014 isolate by next generation sequencing revealed a genome size of 27,646 nucleotides harbouring 13 open reading frames: 5'-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782061/a%C3%A2-single%C3%A2-lineage%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-hepatitis%C3%A2-e%C3%A2-virus%C3%A2-causes%C3%A2-both%C3%A2-outbreaks%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-sporadic%C3%A2-hepatitis%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-sudan
#18
Adel Hussein Elduma, Mai Mohammed Adam Zein, Marie Karlsson, Isam M E Elkhidir, Heléne Norder
Few studies have reported sporadic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections during non-outbreak periods in Africa. In this study, the prevalence of HEV infection in Sudan was investigated in 432 patients with acute hepatitis from 12 localities in North Kordofan, and from 152 patients involved in smaller outbreaks of hepatitis in the neighbouring Darfur. HEV infection was diagnosed in 147 (25%) patients: 98 from Kordofan and 49 from Darfur. The mortality was 10%; six of the patients who died from the infection were pregnant women...
October 6, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764211/metagenomic-based-screening-and-molecular-characterization-of-cowpea-infecting-viruses-in-burkina-faso
#19
Essowè Palanga, Denis Filloux, Darren P Martin, Emmanuel Fernandez, Daniel Gargani, Romain Ferdinand, Jean Zabré, Zakaria Bouda, James Bouma Neya, Mahamadou Sawadogo, Oumar Traore, Michel Peterschmitt, Philippe Roumagnac
Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755595/the-ebola-virus-vp30-np-interaction-is-a-regulator-of-viral-rna-synthesis
#20
Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Crystal L Moyer, Dafna M Abelson, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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