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Sudan virus

Maria Baudin, Ammar M Jumaa, Huda J E Jomma, Mubarak S Karsany, Göran Bucht, Jonas Näslund, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander, Nahla Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes infections in animals and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever lead to mass abortions in livestock, but such abortions have not been identified in human bezings. Our aim was to investigate the cause of miscarriages in febrile pregnant women in an area endemic for Rift Valley fever. METHODS: Pregnant women with fever of unknown origin who attended the governmental hospital of Port Sudan, Sudan, between June 30, 2011, and Nov 17, 2012, were sampled at admission and included in this cross-sectional study...
September 27, 2016: Lancet Global Health
Juliana Ferreira Barbosa, Sônia Maria de Figueiredo, Sandra Lyon, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is azooanthroponosis affecting both rural and peri-urban areas, and can also spread into urban areas. Although more than 90% of new cases are reported from six countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and Sudan, VL has emerged in many countries in the world, presenting new cases in new countries of occurrence. Thus, studies concerning epidemiological aspects in different world regions are very meaningful.In this purpose, this study aimed analyze 89 cases of VL, treated between June 2006 and June 2014 at Eduardo de Menezes Hospital (HEM), a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases situated in Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil...
September 21, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Robert W Cross, Matthew L Boisen, Molly M Millett, Diana S Nelson, Darin Oottamasathien, Jessica N Hartnett, Abigal B Jones, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, Mohamed Fullah, Zachary A Bornholdt, Marnie L Fusco, Dafna M Abelson, Shunichiro Oda, Bethany L Brown, Ha Pham, Megan M Rowland, Krystle N Agans, Joan B Geisbert, Megan L Heinrich, Peter C Kulakosky, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, Brima Kargbo, Momoh Gbetuwa, Sahr M Gevao, Russell B Wilson, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Kelly R Pitts, Sheik Humarr Khan, Donald S Grant, Thomas W Geisbert, Luis M Branco, Robert F Garry
BACKGROUND:  Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. METHODS:  Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Krystle N Agans, Emily P Thi, Amy C H Lee, Karla A Fenton, Thomas W Geisbert
BACKGROUND:  Convalescent serum and blood were used to treat patients during outbreaks of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) infection in 1976 and 1995, with inconclusive results. During the recent 2013-2016 West African epidemic, serum/plasma from survivors of ZEBOV infection was used to treat patients in the affected countries and several repatriated patients. The effectiveness of this strategy remains unknown. METHODS:  Nine rhesus monkeys were experimentally infected with ZEBOV-Makona...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Toni Rieger, Romy Kerber, Hussein El Halas, Elisa Pallasch, Sophie Duraffour, Stephan Günther, Stephan Ölschläger
BACKGROUND:  Diagnosis of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) requires laboratory testing. METHODS:  The RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and the derived RealStar Zaire Ebolavirus RT-PCR kit were validated using in vitro transcripts, supernatant of infected cell cultures, and clinical specimens from patients with EVD. RESULTS:  The Filovirus Screen kit detected EBOV, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, Reston virus, and Marburg virus and differentiated between the genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus The amount of filovirus RNA that could be detected with a probability of 95% ranged from 11 to 67 RNA copies/reaction on a LightCycler 480 II...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Seth D Judson, Robert Fischer, Andrew Judson, Vincent J Munster
Ebola virus disease afflicts both human and animal populations and is caused by four ebolaviruses. These different ebolaviruses may have distinct reservoir hosts and ecological contexts that determine how, where, and when different ebolavirus spillover events occur. Understanding these virus-specific relationships is important for preventing transmission of ebolaviruses from wildlife to humans. We examine the ecological contexts surrounding 34 human index case infections of ebolaviruses from 1976-2014. Determining possible sources of spillover from wildlife, characterizing the environment of each event, and creating ecological niche models to estimate habitats suitable for spillover, we find that index case infections of two ebolaviruses, Ebola virus and Sudan virus, have occurred under different ecological contexts...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Cécile Desbiez, Eric Verdin, Mark Tepfer, Catherine Wipf-Scheibel, Pauline Millot, Gasim Dafalla, Hervé Lecoq
Two members of the genus Ipomovirus (family Potyviridae) are known to infect cucurbits: cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), which is emerging throughout the Mediterranean Basin, and squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which has been described in America and the Caribbean Basin, and more recently in Israel. In this work, an ipomovirus different from CVYV and SqVYV, tentatively named coccinia mottle virus (CocMoV), was detected in a sample of the cucurbit Coccinia grandis collected in central Sudan in 2012...
October 2016: Archives of Virology
N A Elmardi, M A Bakheit, A I Khalafalla
A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene) of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90) and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1). Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb...
2016: Open veterinary journal
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Muhammad Yasir, Sherif Ali El-Kafrawy, Ayman T Abbas, Magdi Ali Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed A Bakhashwain
Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Megan R Miller, Rebekah J McMinn, Vikram Misra, Tony Schountz, Marcel A Müller, Andreas Kurth, Vincent J Munster
Filoviruses are strongly associated with several species of bats as their natural reservoirs. In this study, we determined the replication potential of all filovirus species: Marburg marburgvirus, Taï Forest ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus. Filovirus replication was supported by all cell lines derived from 6 Old and New World bat species: the hammer-headed fruit bat, Buettikofer's epauletted fruit bat, the Egyptian fruit bat, the Jamaican fruit bat, the Mexican free-tailed bat and the big brown bat...
June 26, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Robert W Cross, Chad E Mire, Viktoriya Borisevich, Joan B Geisbert, Karla A Fenton, Thomas W Geisbert
Small-animal models have been developed for several Filoviridae species; however, serial adaptation was required to produce lethal infection. These adapted viruses have sequence changes in several genes, including those that modulate the host immune response. Nonhuman primate models do not require adaptation of filoviruses. Here, we describe lethal models of disease for Bundibugyo, Sudan, and Zaire species of Ebolavirus in the domestic ferret, using wild-type nonadapted viruses. Pathologic features were consistent with disease in primates...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mohammad Alkhamis, Robert J Hijmans, Abdullah Al-Enezi, Beatriz Martínez-López, Andres M Perea
Since 2005, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has severely impacted the economy and public health in the Middle East (ME) with Egypt as the most affected country. Understanding the high-risk areas and spatiotemporal distribution of the H5N1 HPAIV in poultry is prerequisite for establishing risk-based surveillance activities at a regional level in the ME. Here, we aimed to predict the geographic range of H5N1 HPAIV outbreaks in poultry in the ME using a set of environmental variables and to investigate the spatiotemporal clustering of outbreaks in the region...
May 2016: Avian Diseases
K Aminu, A S Jegede
BACKGROUND: Nigeria experienced her first outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the second-half of 2014. Since its first occurrence in Zaire and Sudan in 1976, most studies on EVD were clinically based and were carried out using biomedical approaches. No empirical social science/behavioural-oriented study exists on the deadly EVD in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the traditional healers' perception and attitude towards Ebola virus disease in Ibadan metropolis...
September 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
Robin Burk, Laura Bollinger, Joshua C Johnson, Jiro Wada, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Gustavo Palacios, Sina Bavari, Peter B Jahrling, Jens H Kuhn
Eight viruses are currently assigned to the family Filoviridae Marburg virus, Sudan virus and, in particular, Ebola virus have received the most attention both by researchers and the public from 1967 to 2013. During this period, natural human filovirus disease outbreaks occurred sporadically in Equatorial Africa and, despite high case-fatality rates, never included more than several dozen to a few hundred infections per outbreak. Research emphasis shifted almost exclusively to Ebola virus in 2014, when this virus was identified as the cause of an outbreak that has thus far involved more than 28 646 people and caused more than 11 323 deaths in Western Africa...
July 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Lieselotte Cnops, Peter Van den Eede, James Pettitt, Leo Heyndrickx, Birgit De Smet, Sandra Coppens, Ilse Andries, Theresa Pattery, Luc Van Hove, Geert Meersseman, Sari Van Den Herrewegen, Nicolas Vergauwe, Rein Thijs, Peter B Jahrling, David Nauwelaers, Kevin K Ariën
BACKGROUND:  The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa resulted in accelerated development of rapid diagnostic tests for emergency outbreak preparedness. We describe the development and evaluation of the Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test, a fully automated sample-to-result molecular diagnostic test for rapid detection of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). METHODS:  The Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test can simultaneously detect EBOV and SUDV in 200 µL of whole blood...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marieke Heijnen, Ghina R Mumtaz, Laith J Abu-Raddad
INTRODUCTION: The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. METHODS: The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015)...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Seyed Moayed Alavian, Hossein Haghbin
CONTEXT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cancer-related death worldwide. Although many factors including dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases can lead to HCC, globally most HCC cases are due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Considering the importance of these viral factors in most HCC cases and relative lack of literature from eastern Mediterranean region office of world health organization (EMRO) countries and the Middle East, we decided to perform this systematic review to find distribution of viral etiology of HCC in these regions...
March 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Atis Muehlenbachs, Olimpia de la Rosa Vázquez, Daniel G Bausch, Ilana J Schafer, Christopher D Paddock, Jean Paul Nyakio, Papys Lame, Eric Bergeron, Andrea M McCollum, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Brigid C Bollweg, Miriam Alía Prieto, Robert Shongo Lushima, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Stuart T Nichol, Wun-Ju Shieh, Ute Ströher, Pierre E Rollin, Sherif R Zaki
Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Berhanu Mekibib, Kevin K Ariën
Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history...
2016: Viruses
Ariel Sobarzo, Spencer W Stonier, Andrew S Herbert, David E Ochayon, Ana I Kuehne, Yael Eskira, Shlomit Fedida-Metula, Neta Tali, Eli C Lewis, Moses Egesa, Stephen Cose, Julius Julian Lutwama, Victoria Yavelsky, John M Dye, Leslie Lobel
Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000-2001). Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined...
2016: Viruses
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