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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167539/chemically-modified-human-serum-albumin-potently-blocks-entry-of-ebola-pseudoviruses-and-virus-like-particles
#1
Haoyang Li, Fei Yu, Shuai Xia, Yufeng Yu, Qian Wang, Ming Lv, Yan Wang, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
Ebola virus (EBOV), causative pathogen of the deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD), can be transmitted via contact with EVD patients, including sexual contact with EVD survivors. At present, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic is available. In this study, we compared eight anhydride-modified proteins for their inhibitory activity against entry of the pseudovirus (PsV) carrying the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV Zaire or Sudan species. We found that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified human serum albumin (HP-HSA) was most effective in inhibiting entry of both Zaire-PsV and Sudan-PsV, with EC50 at nanomolar level, more potent than EBOV-neutralizing antibody, MIL77-2 (4G7)...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140390/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-seroprevalence-surveys-of-ebolavirus-infection
#2
Hilary Bower, Judith R Glynn
Asymptomatic ebolavirus infection could greatly influence transmission dynamics, but there is little consensus on how frequently it occurs or even if it exists. This paper summarises the available evidence on seroprevalence of Ebola, Sudan and Bundibugyo virus IgG in people without known ebolavirus disease. Through systematic review, we identified 51 studies with seroprevalence results in sera collected from 1961 to 2016. We tabulated findings by study population, contact, assay, antigen and positivity threshold used, and present seroprevalence point estimates and 95% confidence intervals...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097814/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-from-outbreaks-in-some-states-of-northern-nigeria-2013-2015
#3
D O Ehizibolo, A Haegeman, A R De Vleeschauwer, J U Umoh, H M Kazeem, E C Okolocha, K De Clercq, S Van Borm
Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak...
January 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068340/phylogeography-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-africa-and-the-arabian-peninsula
#4
Abdallah M Samy, A Townsend Peterson, Matthew Hall
Rift Valley Fever is an acute zoonotic viral disease caused by Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) that affects ruminants and humans in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. We used phylogenetic analyses to understand the demographic history of RVFV populations, using sequence data from the three minigenomic segments of the virus. We used phylogeographic approaches to infer RVFV historical movement patterns across its geographic range, and to reconstruct transitions among host species. Results revealed broad circulation of the virus in East Africa, with many lineages originating in Kenya...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066813/risks-posed-by-reston-the-forgotten-ebolavirus
#5
REVIEW
Diego Cantoni, Arran Hamlet, Martin Michaelis, Mark N Wass, Jeremy S Rossman
Out of the five members of the Ebolavirus family, four cause life-threatening disease, whereas the fifth, Reston virus (RESTV), is nonpathogenic in humans. The reasons for this discrepancy remain unclear. In this review, we analyze the currently available information to provide a state-of-the-art summary of the factors that determine the human pathogenicity of Ebolaviruses. RESTV causes sporadic infections in cynomolgus monkeys and is found in domestic pigs throughout the Philippines and China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that RESTV is most closely related to the Sudan virus, which causes a high mortality rate in humans...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055328/human-and-dromedary-camel-infection-with-camelpox-virus-in-eastern-sudan
#6
Abdelmalik I Khalafalla, Fatima Abdelazim
We provide evidence for the zoonotic nature of camelpox virus by reporting infections that involved dromedary camels and three camel herders in Showak area of eastern Sudan between September and December 2014. The skin lesions in the camel herders consisted of erythema, vesicles, and pustules that involved arms, hands, legs, back, and abdomen and resolved within less than 2 months with no human-to-human transmission. The diagnosis was achieved through molecular technique, virus isolation in cell culture, and partial genome sequencing...
January 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930961/novel-activities-by-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-interferon-antagonists-revealed-using-a-standardized-in-vitro-reporter-system
#7
Jonathan C Guito, César G Albariño, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Jonathan S Towner
Filoviruses are highly lethal in humans and nonhuman primates, likely due to potent antagonism of host interferon (IFN) responses early in infection. Filoviral protein VP35 is implicated as the major IFN induction antagonist, while Ebola virus (EBOV) VP24 or Marburg virus (MARV) VP40 are known to block downstream IFN signaling. Despite progress elucidating EBOV and MARV antagonist function, those for most other filoviruses, including Reston (RESTV), Sudan (SUDV), Taï Forest (TAFV), Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Ravn (RAVV) viruses, remain largely neglected...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928094/seroconversion-to-causes-of-febrile-illness-in-mongolian-peacekeepers-deployed-to-south-sudan
#8
Altangerel Enkhtsetseg, Rendoo Davadoorj, Stefan Fernandez, Duangrat Mongkolsirichaikul, Damdin Altantuul, Erdene Elbegdorj, Lkhagvasuren Ganchimeg, Samuel L Yingst
Immediately before deployment (Fall 2012) and after deployment (Spring 2013) in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations, Mongolian Armed Forces medical personnel obtained serum samples from the first contingent of Mongolian peacekeepers deploying to South Sudan to monitor serologic evidence of exposure to diseases that cause acute febrile illness. A total of 632 paired samples were tested for IgG antibody for the following (number of seroconversions in parentheses): Rickettsia (spotted fever and typhus groups) (25), West Nile fever virus (WNV) (23), Coxiella burnetii (causative agent of Q fever) (12), dengue virus (8), leptospirosis (6), chikungunya virus (0), Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus (0), Japanese encephalitis virus (0), and Rift Valley fever virus (0)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902321/the-serology-of-ebolavirus-a-wider-geographical-range-a-wider-genus-of-viruses-or-a-wider-range-of-virulence
#9
Magdalena Formella, Derek Gatherer
Viruses of the genus Ebolavirus are the causative agents of Ebola virus disease (EVD), of which there have been only 25 recorded outbreaks since the discovery of Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses in the late 1970s. Until the west African outbreak commencing in late 2013, EVD was confined to an area of central Africa stretching from the coast of Gabon through the Congo river basin and eastward to the Great Lakes. Nevertheless, population serological studies since 1976, most of which were carried out in the first two decades after that date, have suggested a wider distribution and more frequent occurrence across tropical Africa...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833652/molecular-detection-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-among-sudanese-population
#10
Ali Edreis, Mona Ali Mohamed, Nouh S Mohamed, Emmanuel E Siddig
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer arising from the nasopharynx that varies significantly from other cancers of the head and neck in its occurrence, causes, clinical behavior, and treatment. NPC caused by an interaction between infection with EBV and environmental and genetic factors, encompasses a multistep oncogenic process. The frequency of Epstein-Barr virus EBV among nasopharyngeal carcinoma is well known worldwide, however, in the Sudan there is barely a published data...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793730/full-genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-newly-emerged-qx-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus-from-sudan-reveals-distinct-spots-of-recombination
#11
Mahmoud M Naguib, Dirk Höper, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Ahmed M Setta, Mohamed Abed, Isabella Monne, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection continues to cause economically important diseases in poultry while different geno- and serotypes continue to circulate globally. Two infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) were isolated from chickens with respiratory disease in Sudan. Sequence analysis of the hypervariable regions of the S1 gene revealed a close relation to the QX-like genotype which has not been detected in Sudan before. Whole genome analysis of IBV/Ck/Sudan/AR251-15/2014 isolate by next generation sequencing revealed a genome size of 27,646 nucleotides harbouring 13 open reading frames: 5'-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782061/a%C3%A2-single%C3%A2-lineage%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-hepatitis%C3%A2-e%C3%A2-virus%C3%A2-causes%C3%A2-both%C3%A2-outbreaks%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-sporadic%C3%A2-hepatitis%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-sudan
#12
Adel Hussein Elduma, Mai Mohammed Adam Zein, Marie Karlsson, Isam M E Elkhidir, Heléne Norder
Few studies have reported sporadic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections during non-outbreak periods in Africa. In this study, the prevalence of HEV infection in Sudan was investigated in 432 patients with acute hepatitis from 12 localities in North Kordofan, and from 152 patients involved in smaller outbreaks of hepatitis in the neighbouring Darfur. HEV infection was diagnosed in 147 (25%) patients: 98 from Kordofan and 49 from Darfur. The mortality was 10%; six of the patients who died from the infection were pregnant women...
October 6, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764211/metagenomic-based-screening-and-molecular-characterization-of-cowpea-infecting-viruses-in-burkina-faso
#13
Essowè Palanga, Denis Filloux, Darren P Martin, Emmanuel Fernandez, Daniel Gargani, Romain Ferdinand, Jean Zabré, Zakaria Bouda, James Bouma Neya, Mahamadou Sawadogo, Oumar Traore, Michel Peterschmitt, Philippe Roumagnac
Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755595/the-ebola-virus-vp30-np-interaction-is-a-regulator-of-viral-rna-synthesis
#14
Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Crystal L Moyer, Dafna M Abelson, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692776/association-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-infection-with-miscarriage-in-sudanese-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Maria Baudin, Ammar M Jumaa, Huda J E Jomma, Mubarak S Karsany, Göran Bucht, Jonas Näslund, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander, Nahla Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes infections in animals and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever lead to mass abortions in livestock, but such abortions have not been identified in human beings. Our aim was to investigate the cause of miscarriages in febrile pregnant women in an area endemic for Rift Valley fever. METHODS: Pregnant women with fever of unknown origin who attended the governmental hospital of Port Sudan, Sudan, between June 30, 2011, and Nov 17, 2012, were sampled at admission and included in this cross-sectional study...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659611/an-8-year-retrospective-study-of-human-visceral-leishmaniasis
#16
Juliana Ferreira Barbosa, Sônia Maria de Figueiredo, Sandra Lyon, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is azooanthroponosis affecting both rural and peri-urban areas, and can also spread into urban areas. Although more than 90% of new cases are reported from six countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and Sudan, VL has emerged in many countries in the world, presenting new cases in new countries of occurrence. Thus, studies concerning epidemiological aspects in different world regions are very meaningful.In this purpose, this study aimed analyze 89 cases of VL, treated between June 2006 and June 2014 at Eduardo de Menezes Hospital (HEM), a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases situated in Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil...
September 21, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587634/analytical-validation-of-the-reebov-antigen-rapid-test-for-point-of-care-diagnosis-of-ebola-virus-infection
#17
Robert W Cross, Matthew L Boisen, Molly M Millett, Diana S Nelson, Darin Oottamasathien, Jessica N Hartnett, Abigal B Jones, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, Mohamed Fullah, Zachary A Bornholdt, Marnie L Fusco, Dafna M Abelson, Shunichiro Oda, Bethany L Brown, Ha Pham, Megan M Rowland, Krystle N Agans, Joan B Geisbert, Megan L Heinrich, Peter C Kulakosky, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, Brima Kargbo, Momoh Gbetuwa, Sahr M Gevao, Russell B Wilson, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Kelly R Pitts, Sheik Humarr Khan, Donald S Grant, Thomas W Geisbert, Luis M Branco, Robert F Garry
BACKGROUND:  Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. METHODS:  Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571900/passive-immunotherapy-assessment-of-convalescent-serum-against-ebola-virus-makona-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#18
Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Krystle N Agans, Emily P Thi, Amy C H Lee, Karla A Fenton, Thomas W Geisbert
BACKGROUND:  Convalescent serum and blood were used to treat patients during outbreaks of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) infection in 1976 and 1995, with inconclusive results. During the recent 2013-2016 West African epidemic, serum/plasma from survivors of ZEBOV infection was used to treat patients in the affected countries and several repatriated patients. The effectiveness of this strategy remains unknown. METHODS:  Nine rhesus monkeys were experimentally infected with ZEBOV-Makona...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549586/evaluation-of-realstar-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-kits-for-filovirus-detection-in-the-laboratory-and-field
#19
Toni Rieger, Romy Kerber, Hussein El Halas, Elisa Pallasch, Sophie Duraffour, Stephan Günther, Stephan Ölschläger
BACKGROUND:  Diagnosis of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) requires laboratory testing. METHODS:  The RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and the derived RealStar Zaire Ebolavirus RT-PCR kit were validated using in vitro transcripts, supernatant of infected cell cultures, and clinical specimens from patients with EVD. RESULTS:  The Filovirus Screen kit detected EBOV, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, Reston virus, and Marburg virus and differentiated between the genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus The amount of filovirus RNA that could be detected with a probability of 95% ranged from 11 to 67 RNA copies/reaction on a LightCycler 480 II...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494600/ecological-contexts-of-index-cases-and-spillover-events-of-different-ebolaviruses
#20
Seth D Judson, Robert Fischer, Andrew Judson, Vincent J Munster
Ebola virus disease afflicts both human and animal populations and is caused by four ebolaviruses. These different ebolaviruses may have distinct reservoir hosts and ecological contexts that determine how, where, and when different ebolavirus spillover events occur. Understanding these virus-specific relationships is important for preventing transmission of ebolaviruses from wildlife to humans. We examine the ecological contexts surrounding 34 human index case infections of ebolaviruses from 1976-2014. Determining possible sources of spillover from wildlife, characterizing the environment of each event, and creating ecological niche models to estimate habitats suitable for spillover, we find that index case infections of two ebolaviruses, Ebola virus and Sudan virus, have occurred under different ecological contexts...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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