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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339693/neuronal-signaling-repertoire-in-the-mammalian-sperm-functionality
#1
Alfredo Ramírez-Reveco, Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil, Ilona I Concha
The common embryonic origin has been a recurrent explanation to understand the presence of "neural receptors" in sperm. However, this designation has conditioned a bias marked by the classical neurotransmission model, dismissing the possibility that neurotransmitters can play specific roles in the sperm function by themselves. For instance, the launching of acrosome reaction, a fundamental sperm function, includes several steps that recall the process of presynaptic secretion. Unlike of postsynaptic neuron, whose activation is mediated by molecular interaction between neurotransmitter and postsynaptic receptors, the oocyte activation is not mediated by receptors, but by cytosolic translocation of sperm phospholipase (PLCζ)...
February 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339172/maternal-high-fat-diet-consumption-enhances-offspring-susceptibility-to-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#2
Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) may alter the offspring intestinal immune system, thereby enhancing susceptibility toward inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of maternal HFD on offspring intestinal health using a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Dams were provided with either HFD (60%) or control diet. After weaning, female offspring from both groups were kept on 45% HFD...
March 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339060/chronological-changes-in-the-expression-of-phosphorylated-tau-and-5%C3%A2-amp%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinase-in-the-brain-of-senescence%C3%A2-accelerated-p8-mice
#3
Hak-Su Kim, Sohee Moon, Sujin Kim, Min-Jae Lee, Min Hwa Suk, Dong-Ho Park, Dong Wun Shin, Chang-Shin Park, Ju-Hee Kang
Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), a non‑transgenic animal model used for researching sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), presents AD pathologies and overall dysregulation in brain energy metabolism, which is one of the early pathogenic characteristics of AD. In the present study, the authors examined chronological changes in the expression patterns of phosphorylated tau and of proteins related to energy metabolism to evaluate the association of tau phosphorylation and metabolism, using young‑ (2‑months‑old), middle‑ (5‑months‑old) and old‑aged (10‑months‑old) SAMP8...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338958/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-skin-of-hylarana-guentheri
#4
Zhu Dong, Wenjie Luo, Hengren Zhong, Manchuriga Wang, Yanting Song, Shiming Deng, Yingxia Zhang
The cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the skin of Hylarana guentheri were identified, namely temporin (five peptides, termed temporin-GHa-GHd and temporin-GUa), brevinin-1 (one peptide, brevinin-1GUb), and brevinin-2 (eight peptides, brevinin-2GHd-2GHj, and brevinin-2GHb). Eleven of the 14 peptides have novel primary structures. Synthesized temporin GHa-GHd have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as fungus (Candida albicans)...
March 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338622/phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-as-a-therapeutic-approach-to-neuroprotection-and-repair
#5
REVIEW
Eric P Knott, Mazen Assi, Sudheendra N R Rao, Mousumi Ghosh, Damien D Pearse
A wide diversity of perturbations of the central nervous system (CNS) result in structural damage to the neuroarchitecture and cellular defects, which in turn are accompanied by neurological dysfunction and abortive endogenous neurorepair. Altering intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammation and immune regulation, neural cell death, axon plasticity and remyelination has shown therapeutic benefit in experimental models of neurological disease and trauma. The second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP), are two such intracellular signaling targets, the elevation of which has produced beneficial cellular effects within a range of CNS pathologies...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337254/amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-energy-balance-in-breast-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Hong Zhao, Yelda C Orhan, Xiaoming Zha, Ecem Esencan, Robert T Chatterton, Serdar E Bulun
Cancer growth and metastasis depends on the availability of energy. Energy-sensing systems are critical in maintaining a balance between the energy supply and utilization of energy for tumor growth. A central regulator in this process is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In times of energy deficit, AMPK is allosterically modified by the binding of increased levels of AMP and ADP, making it a target of specific AMPK kinases (AMPKKs). AMPK signaling prompts cells to produce energy at the expense of growth and motility, opposing the actions of insulin and growth factors...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337140/antioxidant-and-anti-tyrosinase-activities-of-phenolic-extracts-from-rape-bee-pollen-and-inhibitory-melanogenesis-by-camp-mitf-tyr-pathway-in-b16-mouse-melanoma-cells
#7
Liping Sun, Yan Guo, Yanxin Zhang, Yongliang Zhuang
Rape bee pollen possesses many nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its abundant nutrimental and bioactive components. In this study, free (FPE) and bound (BPE) phenolic extracts of rape bee pollen were obtained, phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and composition of phenolic acids was analyzed. In vitro antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase (TYR) activities of FPE and BPE were compared, and inhibitory melanogenesis of FPE was further evaluated. Results showed FPE and BPE contain total phenolic contents of 11...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336949/induction-of-apoptosis-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-camp-signaling-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#8
Bang-Jau You, Ni Tien, Miin-Huey Lee, Bo-Ying Bao, Yih-Shyuan Wu, Tsung-Chi Hu, Hong-Zin Lee
Apoptosis is an essential physiological process that controls many important biological functions. However, apoptosis signaling in relation to secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants and fungi remains a mystery. The fungus Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine worldwide, but the biosynthetic regulation of its active ingredients (ganoderic acids, GAs) is poorly understood. We investigated the role of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in fungal apoptosis and GA biosynthesis in G...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336942/selective-inhibitor-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-cbp-signaling-ameliorates-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mouse-model
#9
Yuko Tokunaga, Yosuke Osawa, Takahiro Ohtsuki, Yukiko Hayashi, Kenzaburo Yamaji, Daisuke Yamane, Mitsuko Hara, Keisuke Munekata, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara, Tsunekazu Hishima, Soichi Kojima, Kiminori Kimura, Michinori Kohara
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of serious liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. There are no anti-fibrotic drugs with efficacy against liver cirrhosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a β-catenin/CBP (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) inhibitor on liver fibrosis. The anti-fibrotic activity of PRI-724, a selective inhibitor of β-catenin/CBP, was assessed in HCV GT1b transgenic mice at 18 months after HCV genome expression...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336748/the-sweet-side-of-ampk-signaling-regulation-of-gfat1
#10
John W Scott, Jonathan S Oakhill
Maintaining a steady balance between nutrient supply and energy demand is essential for all living organisms and is achieved through the dynamic control of metabolic processes that produce and consume adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), the universal currency of energy in all cells. A key sensor of cellular energy is the adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is the core component of a signaling network that regulates energy and nutrient metabolism. AMPK is activated by metabolic stresses that decrease cellular ATP, and functions to restore energy balance by orchestrating a switch in metabolism away from anabolic pathways toward energy-generating catabolic processes...
March 23, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336441/chronic-stress-induced-dendritic-reorganization-and-abundance-of-synaptosomal-pka-dependent-cp-ampa-receptor-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression
#11
Eun-Surk Yi, Seikwan Oh, Jang-Kyu Lee, Yea-Hyun Leem
Chronic stress is a precipitating factor for disorders including depression. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate that interconnects with stress-modulated neural networks to generate emotion- and mood-related behaviors. The current study shows that 3 h per day of restraint stress for 14 days caused mice to exhibit long-term depressive behaviors, manifested by disrupted sociality and despair levels, which were rescued by fluoxetine. These behavioral changes corresponded with morphological and molecular changes in BLA neurons, including chronic stress-elicited increases in arborization, dendritic length, and spine density of BLA principal neurons...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336405/photoactivation-mechanism-of-a-bacterial-light-regulated-adenylyl-cyclase
#12
Robert Lindner, Elisabeth Hartmann, Miroslaw Tarnawski, Andreas Winkler, Daniel Frey, Jochen Reinstein, Anton Meinhart, Ilme Schlichting
Light-regulated enzymes enable organisms to quickly respond to changing light conditions. We characterize a photoactivatable adenylyl cyclase from Beggiatoa sp. (bPAC) that translates a blue light signal into production of the second messenger cyclic AMP. bPAC contains a BLUF photoreceptor domain that senses blue light using a flavin chromophore, linked to an adenylyl cyclase (AC) domain. We present a dark state crystal structure of bPAC that closely resembles the recently published structure of the homologous OaPAC from Oscillatoria acuminata...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335680/ampk-knockdown-in-placental-labyrinthine-progenitor-cells-results-in-restriction-of-critical-energy-resources-and-terminal-differentiation-failure
#13
Christopher A Waker, Renee E Albers, Richard L Pye, Savannah R Doliboa, Christopher N Wyatt, Thomas L Brown, Debra Ann Mayes
Placental abnormalities can cause Pregnancy-Associated Disorders including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental insufficiency that result in complications for both the mother and fetus. Trophoblast cells within the labyrinthine layer of the placenta facilitate the exchange of nutrients, gases, and waste between mother and fetus; therefore, the development of this cell layer is critical for fetal development. As trophoblast cells differentiate, it is assumed their metabolism changes with their energy requirements...
March 23, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335578/exploring-the-antitumor-mechanism-of-high-dose-cytarabine-through-the-metabolic-perturbations-of-ribonucleotide-and-deoxyribonucleotide-in-human-promyelocytic-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#14
Zheng Li, Jian-Ru Guo, Qian-Qian Chen, Cai-Yun Wang, Wei-Jia Zhang, Mei-Cun Yao, Wei Zhang
Despite the apparent clinical benefits of high-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) over lower dose Ara-C in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy, the mechanism behind high-dose Ara-C therapy remains uncertain. In this study, a LC-MS-based method was carried out to investigate the metabolic alteration of ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) after treatment with Ara-C to reveal its antitumor mechanism. The metabolic results revealed that four nucleotides (ATP, ADP, CDP, and dCTP) could be used as potential biomarkers indicating the benefit of high-dose Ara-C over lower dose Ara-C treatment...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335466/a-specific-mixture-of-nutrients-suppresses-ovarian-cancer-a-2780-tumor-incidence-growth-and-metastasis-to-lungs
#15
Mohd Waheed Roomi, Tatiana Kalinovsky, Matthias Rath, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy in women, and fifth leading cause of death. Despite advances made in chemotherapy and surgery, the average time of clinical remission is approximately 2 years and the 5-year survival rate is 45%. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of a novel therapeutic approach to ovarian cancer treatment. We investigated the effect of a specific nutrient mixture (EPQ) containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, green tea extract, and quercetin on human ovarian cancer cell A-2780 in vivo and in vitro...
March 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335379/the-role-of-adenosine-signaling-in-headache-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Nathan T Fried, Melanie B Elliott, Michael L Oshinsky
Migraine is the third most prevalent disease on the planet, yet our understanding of its mechanisms and pathophysiology is surprisingly incomplete. Recent studies have built upon decades of evidence that adenosine, a purine nucleoside that can act as a neuromodulator, is involved in pain transmission and sensitization. Clinical evidence and rodent studies have suggested that adenosine signaling also plays a critical role in migraine headache. This is further supported by the widespread use of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, in several headache treatments...
March 13, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334808/downregulation-of-pathways-implicated-in-liver-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-of-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-mice-receiving-gene-therapy
#18
Goo-Young Kim, Joon Hyun Kwon, Jun-Ho Cho, Lisa Zhang, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term risks of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC). We have shown that the non-tumor-bearing (NT), recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-treated GSD-Ia mice (AAV-NT mice) expressing a wide range (0.9-63%) of normal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity maintain glucose homeostasis and display physiologic features mimicking animals living under calorie restriction (CR). We now show that in AAV-NT mice, the signaling pathways of the CR mediators, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin-1 are activated...
March 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333574/cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensors-and-innate-immune-regulation
#19
Daisuke Ori, Motoya Murase, Taro Kawai
During viral and bacterial infections, pathogen-derived cytosolic nucleic acids are recognized by the intracellular RNA sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma-differentiated gene 5 and intracellular DNA sensors, including cyclic-di-GMP-AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2, interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein 16, polymerase III, and so on. Binding of intracellular nucleic acids to these sensors activates downstream signaling cascades, resulting in the production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines to induce appropriate systematic immune responses...
March 23, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332637/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-chicken-nk-lysin-derived-peptide-cnk-2
#20
Woo H Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core α-helical region of cNK-lysin, have antimicrobial activity against apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria spp., via membrane disruption. In addition to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the immunomodulatory activity of AMPs mediated by their interactions with host cells is increasingly recognized...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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