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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749469/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-harness-autophagy-to-induce-cell-death-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#1
Jun Zhang, Xia Qin, Bin Wang, Ge Xu, Zhexue Qin, Jian Wang, Lanxiang Wu, Xiangwu Ju, Diptiman D Bose, Feng Qiu, Honghao Zhou, Zhen Zou
Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are widely used, they have raised concerns of toxicity in humans. Previous studies have indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy are involved in the cytotoxicity of ZnONPs, but the regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and ROS remain to be elucidated. Herein, we comprehensively investigated the regulatory mechanism of autophagy and the link between autophagy and ROS in ZnONPs-treated lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that ZnONPs could induce autophagy, and this process could enhance the dissolution of ZnONPs in lysosomes to release zinc ions...
July 27, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749347/approximate-message-passing-reconstruction-of-quantitative-acoustic-microscopy-images
#2
J-H Kim, J Mamou, P R Hill, N Canagarajah, D Kouame, A Basarab, A Achim
A novel framework for compressive sensing (CS) data acquisition and reconstruction in quantitative acoustic microscopy (QAM) is presented. Three different compressive sensing patterns, adapted to the specifics of QAM systems, were investigated as an alternative to the current raster-scanning approach. They consist of diagonal sampling, a row random and a spiral scanning pattern and they can all significantly reduce both the acquisition time and the amount of sampled data. For subsequent image reconstruction, we design and implement an innovative technique, whereby a recently proposed approximate message passing (AMP) method is adapted to account for the underlying data statistics...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749007/reactive-oxygen-species-as-mediators-of-sperm-capacitation-and-pathological-damage
#3
REVIEW
R J Aitken
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748494/high-glucose-stimulates-cell-proliferation-and-collagen-iv-production-in-rat-mesangial-cells-through-inhibiting-ampk-katp-signaling
#4
Bei Zhang, Yong-Quan Shi, Jun-Jie Zou, Xiang-Fang Chen, Wei Tang, Fei Ye, Zhi-Min Liu
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the putative mechanisms underlying effects of KATP channel on high glucose (HG)-induced mesangial cell proliferation and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 and Collagen IV production. METHODS: Rat mesangial cells were subjected to whole cell patch clamp to record the KATP channel currents under high glucose (HG, 30 mM) condition. Cell proliferation was measured using a CCK-8 assay. The production of TIMP-2 and Collagen IV and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-signaling pathway activity was assessed by ELISA and Western blotting, respectively...
July 26, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748416/cryoprotective-effect-of-resveratrol-on-dna-damage-and-crucial-human-sperm-messenger-rnas-possibly-through-5-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#5
Maryam Shabani Nashtaei, Saeid Nekoonam, Mohammad Naji, Shabnam Bakhshalizadeh, Fardin Amidi
This work aimed at investigating the effect of resveratrol on (1) DNA integrity and (2) fertilizing capacity of sperm by quantifying the presence of key paternal transcripts considered as markers for male fertility (protamine 1 [PRM1] and protamine 2 [PRM2]) and pregnancy success (adducin 1 alpha [ADD1]) in cryopreserved human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The study populations was drawn from 22 normozoospermic healthy volunteers which were incubated with or without AMPK activator (resveratrol [RSV], 15 µM) or inhibitor (Compound C [CC], 30 µM) for 1 h and were then cryopreserved...
July 26, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748180/buwchitin-a-ruminal-peptide-with-antimicrobial-potential-against-enterococcus-faecalis
#6
Linda B Oyama, Jean-Adrien Crochet, Joan E Edwards, Susan E Girdwood, Alan R Cookson, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Kai Hilpert, Peter N Golyshin, Olga V Golyshina, Florence Privé, Matthias Hess, Hilario C Mantovani, Christopher J Creevey, Sharon A Huws
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gaining popularity as alternatives for treatment of bacterial infections and recent advances in omics technologies provide new platforms for AMP discovery. We sought to determine the antibacterial activity of a novel antimicrobial peptide, buwchitin, against Enterococcus faecalis. Buwchitin was identified from a rumen bacterial metagenome library, cloned, expressed and purified. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was assessed using a broth microdilution susceptibility assay to determine the peptide's killing kinetics against selected bacterial strains...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748119/uric-acid-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-renal-and-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Usama A A Sharaf El Din, Mona M Salem, Dina O Abdulazim
The association between uric acid (UA) on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn), dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities. These studies disclosed the strong association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, Htn, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and increased mortality among cardiac and CKD patients...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747869/effect-of-dietary-copper-addition-on-lipid-metabolism-in-rabbits
#8
Liu Lei, Sui Xiaoyi, Li Fuchang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on lipid metabolism in rabbits. Our study showed dietary copper addition (5-45 mg/kg) increased body mass gain, but decreased fat and liver weights compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Copper (45 mg/kg) addition significantly increased the skeletal muscle weight, but inhibited cytoplasmic lipid accumulation in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, dietary copper addition (45 mg/kg) significantly increased plasma triglyceride levels but decreased very low density lipoprotein levels (P < 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747712/2-oxoadenosine-induces-cytotoxicity-through-intracellular-accumulation-of-2-oxo-atp-and-depletion-of-atp-but-not-via-the-p38-mapk-pathway
#9
Shinji Asada, Eiko Ohta, Yoriko Akimoto, Nona Abolhassani, Daisuke Tsuchimoto, Yusaku Nakabeppu
2-Oxoadenosine (2-oxo-Ado), an oxidized form of adenosine, is cytotoxic and induces growth arrest and cell death, which has potential as an anti-cancer drug. However, it is not well understood how 2-oxo-Ado exerts its cytotoxicity. We examined the effects of 2-oxo-Ado on non-tumour cells, namely immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast lines, and investigated mechanisms by which 2-oxo-Ado exerts its cytotoxicity. We found that cell death induced by 2-oxo-Ado is classical caspase-dependent apoptosis, and requires its sequential intracellular phosphorylation catalysed by adenosine kinase (ADK) and adenylate kinase 2, resulting in intracellular accumulation of 2-oxo-ATP accompanied by accumulation of 2-oxo-Ado in RNA and depletion of ATP...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747545/ampk-a-novel-target-for-treating-hepatic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Zhenxing Liang, Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Jing Xu, Wencheng Di, Zhi Yang, Wei Hu, Yang Yang
Fibrosis is a common process of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation following inflammatory injury. Fibrosis is involved in the pathogenesis of almost all liver diseases for which there is no effective treatment. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor that can ameliorate the process of hepatic fibrogenesis. Given the existing evidence, we first introduce the basic background of AMPK and hepatic fibrosis and the actions of AMPK in hepatic fibrosis. Second, we discuss the three phases of hepatic fibrosis and potential drugs that target AMPK...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747486/modifying-the-dietary-carbohydrate-to-protein-ratio-alters-the-postprandial-macronutrient-oxidation-pattern-in-liver-of-ampk-deficient-mice
#11
Tristan Chalvon-Demersay, Patrick C Even, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Benoit Viollet, Claire Gaudichon, Daniel Tomé, Marc Foretz, Dalila Azzout-Marniche
Background: Hepatic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity is sensitive to the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. However, the role of AMPK in metabolic adaptations to variations in dietary macronutrients remains poorly understood.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic AMPK in the adaptation of energy metabolism in response to modulation of the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio.Methods: Male 7-wk-old wild-type (WT) and liver AMPK-deficient (knockout) mice were fed either a normal-protein and normal-carbohydrate diet (NP-NC; 14% protein, 76% carbohydrate on an energy basis), a low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 5% protein, 85% carbohydrate), or a high-protein and low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 55% protein, 35% carbohydrate) for 3 wk...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747448/movement-disorder-in-gnao1-encephalopathy-associated-with-gain-of-function-mutations
#12
Huijie Feng, Benita Sjögren, Behirda Karaj, Vincent Shaw, Aysegul Gezer, Richard R Neubig
OBJECTIVE: To define molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical spectrum of epilepsy and movement disorder in individuals with de novo mutations in the GNAO1 gene. METHODS: We identified all GNAO1 mutations reported in individuals with epilepsy (early infantile epileptiform encephalopathy 17) or movement disorders through April 2016; 15 de novo mutant alleles from 25 individuals were introduced into the Gαo subunit by site-directed mutagenesis in a mammalian expression plasmid...
July 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746875/kmt5a-controls-hepatic-metabolic-pathways-by-facilitating-rna-pol-ii-release-from-promoter-proximal-regions
#13
Kostas C Nikolaou, Panagiotis Moulos, Vangelis Harokopos, George Chalepakis, Iannis Talianidis
H4K20 monomethylation maintains genome integrity by regulating proper mitotic condensation, DNA damage response, and replication licensing. Here, we show that, in non-dividing hepatic cells, H4K20Me1 is specifically enriched in active gene bodies and dynamically regulated by the antagonistic action of Kmt5a methylase and Kdm7b demethylase. In liver-specific Kmt5a-deficient mice, reduced levels of H4K20Me1 correlated with reduced RNA Pol II release from promoter-proximal regions. Genes regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism were most sensitive to impairment of RNA Pol II release...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746874/glycolytic-enzymes-coalesce-in-g-bodies-under-hypoxic-stress
#14
Meiyan Jin, Gregory G Fuller, Ting Han, Yao Yao, Amelia F Alessi, Mallory A Freeberg, Nathan P Roach, James J Moresco, Alla Karnovsky, Misuzu Baba, John R Yates, Aaron D Gitler, Ken Inoki, Daniel J Klionsky, John K Kim
Glycolysis is upregulated under conditions such as hypoxia and high energy demand to promote cell proliferation, although the mechanism remains poorly understood. We find that hypoxia in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces concentration of glycolytic enzymes, including the Pfk2p subunit of the rate-limiting phosphofructokinase, into a single, non-membrane-bound granule termed the "glycolytic body" or "G body." A yeast kinome screen identifies the yeast ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, Snf1p, as necessary for G-body formation...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746349/new-insights-on-the-regulation-of-the-adenine-nucleotide-pool-of-erythrocytes-in-mouse-models
#15
William G O'Brien, Han Shawn Ling, Zhaoyang Zhao, Cheng Chi Lee
The observation that induced torpor in non-hibernating mammals could result from an increased AMP concentration in circulation led our investigation to reveal that the added AMP altered oxygen transport of erythrocytes. To further study the effect of AMP in regulation of erythrocyte function and systemic metabolism, we generated mouse models deficient in key erythrocyte enzymes in AMP metabolism. We have previously reported altered erythrocyte adenine nucleotide levels corresponding to altered oxygen saturation in mice deficient in both CD73 and AMPD3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745497/activity-of-isoliensinine-in-improving-the-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-via-activation-of-amp-activated-kinase-and-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#16
Xinzhou Yang, Mi Huang, Jie Yang, Jialin Wang, Sijian Zheng, Xinhua Ma, Jinyan Cai, Shihao Deng, Guangwen Shu, Guangzhong Yang
This study was designed to explore the effects and mechanism of isoliensinine (isolie) from embryos of Nelumbo nucifera on type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro study showed that isolie increased the GLUT4 translocation by 2.5 folds in L6 cells. Furthermore, after 4 weeks treatment, the in vivo biochemical study indices revealed that isolie had a positive effect on decreasing serum insulin level (42.2 ± 5.10 vs 55.7 ± 6.33 mU/L, P < 0.05), and reducing fast blood glucose (9...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744851/post-translational-regulation-of-antiviral-innate-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Yilong Zhou, Chenxi He, Wang Lin, Baoxue Ge
The innate immune system initiates immune responses by pattern-recognition receptors (PRR). Virus-derived nucleic acids are sensed by the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family and the toll-like receptor (TLR) family as well as the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). These receptors activate IRF3/7 and NF-κB signaling pathways to induce the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines firing antiviral responses within the cell. However, to achieve a favorable outcome for the host, a balanced production of IFNs and activation of antiviral responses is required...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744004/sirt1-negatively-regulates-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-mediated-mast-cell-activation-through-ampk-and-ptp1b-dependent-processes
#18
Xian Li, Youn Ju Lee, Fansi Jin, Young Na Park, Yifeng Deng, Youra Kang, Ju Hye Yang, Jae-Hoon Chang, Dong-Young Kim, Jung-Ae Kim, Young-Chae Chang, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Makoto Murakami, Hyeun Wook Chang
Sirt1, a key regulator of metabolism and longevity, has recently been implicated in the regulation of allergic reactions, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that Sirt1 negatively regulates FcεRI-stimulated mast cell activation and anaphylaxis through two mutually regulated pathways involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Mast cell-specific knockout of Sirt1 dampened AMPK-dependent suppression of FcεRI signaling, thereby augmenting mast cell activation both in vitro and in vivo...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743914/cyclic-gmp-amp-ameliorates-diet-induced-metabolic-dysregulation-and-regulates-proinflammatory-responses-distinctly-from-sting-activation
#19
Xin Guo, Chang Shu, Honggui Li, Ya Pei, Shih-Lung Woo, Juan Zheng, Mengyang Liu, Hang Xu, Rachel Botchlett, Ting Guo, Yuli Cai, Xinsheng Gao, Jing Zhou, Lu Chen, Qifu Li, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Linglin Xie, Ke K Zhang, Jun-Yuan Ji, Yuqing Huo, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini, Pingwei Li, Chaodong Wu
Endogenous cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) binds and activates STING to induce type I interferons. However, whether cGAMP plays any roles in regulating metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here we show that exogenous cGAMP ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation and uniquely alters proinflammatory responses. In obese mice, treatment with cGAMP significantly decreases diet-induced proinflammatory responses in liver and adipose tissues and ameliorates metabolic dysregulation. Strikingly, cGAMP exerts cell-type-specific anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages, hepatocytes, and adipocytes, which is distinct from the effect of STING activation by DMXAA on enhancing proinflammatory responses...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743894/creb-regulates-distinct-adaptive-transcriptional-programs-in-astrocytes-and-neurons
#20
Luis Pardo, Luis Miguel Valor, Abel Eraso-Pichot, Angel Barco, Arantxa Golbano, Giles E Hardingham, Roser Masgrau, Elena Galea
The cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a primary hub of activity-driven genetic programs in neurons controlling plasticity, neurogenesis and survival. By contrast, the gene networks coordinated by CREB in astrocytes are unknown despite the fact that the astrocytic CREB is also activity-driven and neuroprotective. Herein we identified the transcriptional programs regulated by CREB in astrocytes as compared to neurons using, as study materials, transcriptome databases of astrocyte exposed to well-known activators of CREB-dependent transcription as well as publicly available transcriptomes of neuronal cultures...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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