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prebiotics probiotics infant

Brandy L Frost, Biren P Modi, Tom Jaksic, Michael S Caplan
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has long remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. While the mainstay of treatment for this devastating condition remains largely supportive, research efforts continue to be directed toward understanding pathophysiology as well as how best to approach surgical management when indicated. Observations: In this review, we first examine recent medical observations, including overviews on the microbiome and a brief review of the use of probiotics...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Nirunya Buntin, Tipparat Hongpattarakere, Jarmo Ritari, François P Douillard, Lars Paulin, Sjef Boeren, Sudarshan A Shetty, Willem M de Vos
: The draft genome of L. plantarum isolated from Asian fermented foods, infant feces and shrimp intestines were sequenced and compared to those of well-studied strains. Among twenty-eight strains of L. plantarum, the variation of genomic features involved in the ecological adaptation were elucidated. The genome sizes ranged from approximately 3.1 to 3.5 Mb, of which about 2,932 to 3,345 of protein-coding sequences (CDS) were predicted. The food derived isolates contained higher number of carbohydrate metabolism associated genes than those from infant feces...
November 4, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
A Forsberg, C E West, S L Prescott, M C Jenmalm
Reduced intensity and diversity of microbial exposure is considered a major factor driving abnormal postnatal immune maturation and increasing allergy prevalence, particularly in more affluent regions. Quantitatively, the largest important source of early immune-microbial interaction, the gut microbiota, is of particular interest in this context, with variations in composition and diversity in the first months of life associated with subsequent allergy development. Attempting to restore the health consequences of the 'dysbiotic drift' in modern society, interventions modulating gut microbiota for allergy prevention have been evaluated in several randomized placebo-controlled trials...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yvan Vandenplas, Muath Abdurrahman Alturaiki, Wafaa Al-Qabandi, Fawaz AlRefaee, Ziad Bassil, Bassam Eid, Ahmed El Beleidy, Ali Ibrahim Almehaidib, Pierre Mouawad, Maroun Sokhn
This paper covers algorithms for the management of regurgitation, constipation and infantile colic in infants. Anti-regurgitation formula may be considered in infants with troublesome regurgitation, while diagnostic investigations or drug therapy are not indicated in the absence of warning signs. Although probiotics have shown some positive evidence for the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the evidence is not strong enough to make a recommendation. A partially hydrolyzed infant formula with prebiotics and β-palmitate may be considered as a dietary intervention for functional constipation in formula fed infants...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
M Camilleri, S-Y Park, E Scarpato, A Staiano
BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is a frequent problem in neonates and infants. This review addresses current management including the results for nutrient modifications; soy-based formulas; and prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. PURPOSE: Given the evidence that there is still an unmet clinical need, as current treatments are incompletely efficacious, we have examined the evidence around three hypothetical mechanisms that could potentially be involved in etiopathogenesis of infantile colic: immaturity of bile acid mechanisms that alter intraluminal and absorptive mechanisms, immaturity in motility and alterations in the microbiome...
September 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kelly Green Corkins, Teresa Shurley
Infant formulas are designed to be a substitute for breast milk. Since they are sole source of nutrition for growing and developing infants, they are highly regulated by the government. All ingredients in infant formulas must be considered "generally recognized as safe." Manufacturers are continually modifying their products to make them more like breast milk. Functional ingredients added to infant formula include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides, prebiotics, and probiotics. The most common breast milk substitutes are standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, which include subcategories of organic and breast milk supplementation, and come in standard dilutions of 19 or 20 calories per ounce...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard You Wu, Philip M Sherman
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Dominik D Alexander, Jian Yan, Lauren C Bylsma, Robert S Northington, Dominik Grathwohl, Philippe Steenhout, Peter Erdmann, Evelyn Spivey-Krobath, Ferdinand Haschke
BACKGROUND: High protein intake during infancy may contribute to obesity later in life in infants who are not exclusively breastfed. Lowering the protein content of infant formula so it is closer to that of mature breast milk may reduce long-term risk of overweight or obesity in formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of whey-predominant formulas with a protein content of 1.8 g/100 kcal (lower than that in most current formulas and closer to breast milk) on infant growth by comparing against WHO growth standards and breastfed infants...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daotong Li, Pan Wang, Pengpu Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
The interplay between the host and host-associated gut microbiota is an area of increasing interest during the recent decade. From young infants to elderly people, from primitive tribes to modern societies, accumulating evidence has suggested the association of critical physiological roles of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of a variety of human metabolic, immunological and neurological diseases. Importantly, it appears that the relationship between the gut microbiota and disease is bidirectional, instead of causal or consequential...
November 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Kate Grimshaw, Kirsty Logan, Sinead O'Donovan, Mairead Kiely, Karine Patient, Jolanda van Bilsen, Kirsten Beyer, Dianne E Campbell, Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Linus Grabenhenrich, Gideon Lack, Clare Mills, Jean-Michel Wal, Graham Roberts
Recommendations and guidelines on the prevention of food allergy have changed in recent decades. The aim of this review of the current evidence and ongoing studies is to provide a comprehensive and up to date picture of prevention of food allergy for healthcare professionals. The review was undertaken as part of the European Union funded Integrated Approaches to Food Allergy and Allergen Management (iFAAM) study. This is a wide ranging project bringing together expertise across the breadth of food allergy research...
August 16, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Audrey Rivière, Marija Selak, David Lantin, Frédéric Leroy, Luc De Vuyst
With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sibylle Koletzko
Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". Unfortunately, misuse of the term probiotic is very common. According to the regulation of the European food safety authority (EFSA) health claims on pre- and probiotics are not judged as favorable. Scientific societies should give guidance to the consumers and health care professionals on the use of probiotics and prebiotics for prevention and disease management. There is currently no positive recommendation from international scientific medical societies to use prebiotics or probiotics for treatment of food allergy or other allergic manifestations and for prevention of food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ruggiero Francavilla, Fernanda Cristofori, Flavia Indrio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To report the indications and/or recommendations by Societies and Institutions for the use of probiotics and prebiotics in functional intestinal disorders in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS: A position by Societies and Institutions is available only for infant colic, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. Supplementation with the probiotic L reuteri DSM 17938 in breastfed term infants with colic appears to be effective in reducing crying, while still debated is its role in the prevention of colic...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Alessandro Fiocchi, Valentina Pecora, Lamia Dahdah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: there are accruing evidences on the role of the intestinal microbiota in the development of allergic diseases among infants. Elaborating on this theoretical basis, studies did assess the possibilities to prevent allergic diseases in infancy through manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. We review here such studies. RECENT FINDINGS: interventional studies led to conflicting conclusions on the possible role of probiotics and prebiotics in allergy prevention...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Nicole G Grady, Elaine O Petrof, Erika C Claud
The microbiome comprises all the microbes living in and on the human body. Human cells are greatly outnumbered by bacterial cells; thus human health depends on the health of the microbial ecosystem. For the immature preterm infant, the microbiome also influences intestinal and immune system development. This has implications for short term morbidities such as neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, but also long term health outcomes. Optimization of the preterm infant microbiome is a growing topic of interest...
December 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
M Rigo-Adrover, S Saldaña-Ruíz, K van Limpt, K Knipping, J Garssen, J Knol, A Franch, M Castell, F J Pérez-Cano
PURPOSE: Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and although more standardized studies are needed, there is evidence that probiotics can help to fight against RV and other infectious and intestinal pathologies. On the other hand, the effects of prebiotics have not been properly addressed in the context of an RV infection. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a protective role for a specific scGOS/lcFOS 9:1 prebiotic mixture (PRE) separately, the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (PRO) separately and the combination of the prebiotic mixture and the probiotic (synbiotic, SYN) in a suckling rat RV infection model...
April 25, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Hetu Parekh, Sami L Bahna
The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention...
April 2016: Pediatric Annals
Yvan Vandenplas
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is worldwide a common problem in infants and children. While AGE is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, it is mainly a problem with high socioeconomic impact in the rest of the world. Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and rapid refeeding remain the cornerstone of the management. However, ORS does not decrease the duration of diarrhea. There is evidence that selected strains of probiotics decrease the duration of AGE with 24 h, both in ambulatory care and in hospitalized children, resulting also in a decrease of the duration of hospitalization...
February 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Randi J Bertelsen, Elizabeth T Jensen, Tamar Ringel-Kulka
Gut colonization by beneficial bacteria in early life is necessary for establishing the gut mucosal barrier, maturation of the immune system and preventing infections with enteric pathogens. Mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and use of antibiotics are some of many factors that have been described to influence early life colonization. Dysbiosis, the absence of normal colonization, is associated with many disease conditions. Pre- and probiotics are commonly used as supplementation in infant formula, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides for stimulation of Bifidobacterium growth aiming to mimic the high levels of these commensal bacteria in the gut of breastfed infants...
February 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Adriana Nowak, Agata Czyżowska, Krzysztof Huben, Michał Sójka, Sławomir Kuberski, Anna Otlewska, Katarzyna Śliżewska
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens which are formed in meat cooked using high-temperature methods. The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health in humans of different ages, and especially in the elderly. However, the GI microbiota, whose metabolism and composition changes with age, may also be responsible for the activation of mutagenic substances reaching the colon with diet. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising in terms of reducing the destructive effects of HAAs...
June 2016: Anaerobe
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