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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409907/national-imaging-trends-after-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#1
Jessica C Dai, Justin S Ahn, Sarah K Holt, Philip C May, Mathew D Sorensen, Jonathan D Harper
PURPOSE: Follow up imaging after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) serves to detect post-operative complications, residual fragments, and silent hydronephrosis. However, the timing and optimal imaging modality remain poorly defined. Herein, we describe imaging utilization patterns after PCNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the MarketScan® database, we identified patients 17-64 years old who underwent PCNL between 2007-2014. Imaging modalities were identified by CPT, ICD-9, and ICD-10 codes and tracked for 1 year following PCNL, including computed tomography (CT), renal ultrasound (US), abdominal x-ray (KUB), and intravenous pyelogram (IVP)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400645/expanding-canadian-medicare-to-include-a-national-pharmaceutical-benefit-while-controlling-expenditures-possible-lessons-from-israel
#2
Bruce Rosen
In Canada, there is an ongoing debate about whether to expand Medicare to include a national pharmaceutical benefit on a universal basis. The potential health benefits are understood to be significant, but there are ongoing concerns about affordability. In Israel, the National Health Insurance benefits package includes a comprehensive pharmaceutical benefit. Nonetheless, per capita pharmaceutical spending is well below that of Canada and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development average. This paper highlights seven strategies that Israel has employed to constrain pharmaceutical spending: (1) prioritizing new technologies, subject to a global budget constraint; (2) using regulations and market power to secure fair and reasonable prices; (3) establishing an efficient pharmaceutical distribution system; (4) promoting effective prescribing behavior; (5) avoiding artificial inflation of consumer demand; (6) striking an appropriate balance between respect for IP rights, access and cost containment; and (7) developing a shared societal understanding about the value and limits of pharmaceutical spending...
February 5, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400410/discussion-group-networks-in-occupational-medicine-a-tool-for-continuing-education-to-promote-the-integration-of-workers-with-disabilities
#3
Lilah Rinsky-Halivni, Yehuda Lerman
BACKGROUND: Despite their legal rights, individuals with disabilities face numerous obstacles to integration in the workplace which can result in their discharge from the labor force. Currently occupational physicians have few resources to help decide whether to integrate disabled workers in pre-placement, or in cases of return-to-work. METHODS: A network of 13 discussion groups comprised of the occupational physicians of each regional clinic of a large Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in Israel was created to deal with disability management dilemmas...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377120/human-milk-oligosaccharides-attenuate-antigen-antibody-complex-induced-chemokine-release-from-human-intestinal-epithelial-cell-lines
#4
Sehrish Zehra, Ibrahim Khambati, Megan Vierhout, M Firoz Mian, Rachael Buck, Paul Forsythe
There has been increased interest in the use of dietary ingredients, including prebiotics such as human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as therapeutic strategies for food allergy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of HMOs is important to realizing their therapeutic potential. Here we demonstrate that the HMO, 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL) inhibited chemokine (IL-8 and CCL20) release from T-84 and HT-29 cells stimulated with antigen-antibody complex, TNFα or PGE2 ; an effect that was PPARγ dependent and associated with decreased activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372119/cominigut-a-small-volume-in-vitro-colon-model-for-the-screening-of-gut-microbial-fermentation-processes
#5
Maria Wiese, Bekzod Khakimov, Sebastian Nielsen, Helena Sørensen, Frans van den Berg, Dennis Sandris Nielsen
Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336526/human-milk-oligosaccharides-as-promising-antivirals
#6
REVIEW
Vasily Morozov, Grant Hansman, Franz-Georg Hanisch, Horst Schroten, Clemens Kunz
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are diverse unconjugated carbohydrates that are highly abundant in human breast milk. These glycans are investigated in the context of exhibiting multiple functions in infant growth and development. They seem to provide protection against infectious diseases, including a number of poorly manageable viral infections. Although the potential mechanism of the HMO antiviral protection is rather broad, much of the current experimental work has focused on studying of HMO antiadhesive properties...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334815/impact-of-medication-adherence-on-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-major-bleeding-and-deep-vein-thrombosis-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-using-novel-oral-anticoagulants
#7
Chinmay G Deshpande, Stephen Kogut, Robert Laforge, Cynthia Willey
OBJECTIVES: Our study examined the impact of adherence to Novel Oral Anticoagulants (dabigatran and rivaroxaban) [NOACs] on ischemic-stroke (IS), major-bleeding (MB), deep-vein-thrombosis and pulmonary-embolism (DVTPE) risk in a large, nationwide, propensity-matched sample. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study utilized data from a US commercial insurance database (2010-2012). Adults patients with ≥1 diagnosis of atrial fibrillation/flutter (ICD-9 427.31/32), >1 prescription of NOACs and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥1 were included...
January 16, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333864/non-digestible-carbohydrates-in-infant-formula-as-substitution-for-human-milk-oligosaccharide-functions-effects-on-microbiota-and-gut-maturation
#8
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329571/environmental-exposures-and-fetal-growth-the-haifa-pregnancy-cohort-study
#9
Rachel Golan, Itai Kloog, Ronit Almog, Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Maya Negev, Maya Jolles, Varda Shalev, Vered H Eisenberg, Gideon Koren, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Hagai Levine
BACKGROUND: The developing fetus is susceptible to environmental insults. Studying the effects of environmental exposures on fetal growth is essential for understanding the causal pathway between prenatal exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Here we describe the Haifa Pregnancy Cohort Study (HPCS) and discuss challenges and opportunities in applying "big data" paradigm. METHODS: Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), is the second largest Israeli health maintenance organization (HMO) providing care services to two million beneficiaries...
January 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310579/gene-trait-matching-across-the-bifidobacterium-longum-pan-genome-reveals-considerable-diversity-in-carbohydrate-catabolism-among-human-infant-strains
#10
Silvia Arboleya, Francesca Bottacini, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross, Douwe van Sinderen, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium longum is a common member of the human gut microbiota and is frequently present at high numbers in the gut microbiota of humans throughout life, thus indicative of a close symbiotic host-microbe relationship. Different mechanisms may be responsible for the high competitiveness of this taxon in its human host to allow stable establishment in the complex and dynamic intestinal microbiota environment. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity in a set of 20 B...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282087/do-beneficiaries-views-matter-in-healthcare-purchasing-decisions-experiences-from-the-nigerian-tax-funded-health-system-and-the-formal-sector-social-health-insurance-program-of-the-national-health-insurance-scheme
#11
Ogochukwu Ibe, Ayako Honda, Enyi Etiaba, Nkoli Ezumah, Kara Hanson, Obinna Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: Purchasing is a health financing function that involves the transfer of pooled resources to providers on behalf of a covered population. Little attention has been paid to the extent to which the views of that population  are reflected in purchasing decisions. This article explores how purchasers in two financing mechanisms: the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme (FSSHIP) operating under the Nigerian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), and the tax-funded health system perform their roles in light of their responsibilities to the populations...
December 28, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239412/screening-natural-libraries-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-against-lectins-using-car-esi-ms
#12
Amr El-Hawiet, Yajie Chen, Km Shams-Ud-Doha, Elena N Kitova, Pavel I Kitov, Lars Bode, Naim Hage, Franco H Falcone, John S Klassen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) afford many health benefits to breast-fed infants, such as protection against infection and regulation of the immune system, through the formation of non-covalent interactions with protein receptors. However, the molecular details of these interactions are poorly understood. Here, we describe the application of catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) for screening natural libraries of HMOs against lectins. The HMOs in the libraries were first identified based on molecular weights (MWs), ion mobility separation arrival times (IMS-ATs) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fingerprints of their deprotonated anions...
December 14, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221760/substrate-specificity-and-transfucosylation-activity-of-gh29-%C3%AE-l-fucosidases-for-enzymatic-production-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#13
Birgitte Zeuner, Jan Muschiol, Jesper Holck, Mateusz Lezyk, Mattias Raae Gedde, Carsten Jers, Jørn Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Anne S Meyer
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute a unique family of bioactive lactose-based molecules present in human breast milk. HMOs are of major importance for infant health and development but also virtually absent from bovine milk used for infant formula. Among the HMOs, the fucosylated species are the most abundant. Transfucosylation catalysed by retaining α-L-fucosidases is a new route for manufacturing biomimetic HMOs. Seven α-L-fucosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 29 were expressed, characterized in terms of substrate specificity and thermal stability, and shown to be able to catalyse transfucosylation...
December 5, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200355/comparing-the-effects-of-reference-pricing-and-centers-of-excellence-approaches-to-value-based-benefit-design
#14
Hui Zhang, David W Cowling, Matthew Facer
Various health insurance benefit designs based on value-based purchasing have been promoted to steer patients to high-value providers, but little is known about the designs' relative effectiveness and underlying mechanisms. We compared the impact of two designs implemented by the California Public Employees' Retirement System on inpatient hospital total hip or knee replacement: a reference-based pricing design for preferred provider organizations (PPOs) and a centers-of-excellence design for health maintenance organizations (HMOs)...
December 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183179/taking-a-prebiotic-approach-to-early-immunomodulation-for-allergy-prevention
#15
Rachelle Pretorius, Susan L Prescott, Debra J Palmer
With increasing focus on nutritional strategies to counter the rising global burden of allergic disease, there has been a particular focus on prebiotic nutrients that are selectively utilized by host microorganisms to confer potential immunomodulatory benefits for disease prevention. Areas covered: In this review we examine maternal and infant dietary sources of prebiotics with a particular focus on non-digestible oligosaccharides, which undergo microbial fermentation by commensal gut bacteria to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA)...
January 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169133/alterations-of-mitochondrial-antioxidant-indexes-and-apoptosis-in-duck-livers-caused-by-molybdenum-or-and-cadmium
#16
Xueyan Dai, Chenghong Xing, Huabin Cao, Junrong Luo, Tiancheng Wang, Ping Liu, Xiaoquan Guo, Guoliang Hu, Caiying Zhang
Cadmium (Cd) and high Molybdenum (Mo) can lead to adverse reactions on animals, but the co-induced toxicity of Mo and Cd to liver in ducks was not well understood. To investigate the co-induced toxic effects of Mo combined with Cd on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis in duck livers. 240 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups (control, LMo group, HMo group, Cd group, LMoCd group and HMoCd group). After being treated for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days, liver mitochondrial antioxidant indexes, ceruloplasmin (CP), metallothionein (MT), Bak-1 and Caspase-3 genes mRNA expression levels, and ultrastructural changes were evaluated...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124935/enzymatic-and-chemoenzymatic-syntheses-of-disialyl-glycans-and-their-necrotizing-enterocolitis-preventing-effects
#17
Hai Yu, Xuebin Yan, Chloe A Autran, Yanhong Li, Sabrina Etzold, Joanna Latasiewicz, Bianca M Robertson, Jiaming Li, Lars Bode, Xi Chen
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and devastating intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Therapies to meet the clinical needs for this special and highly vulnerable population are extremely limited. A specific human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), was shown to contribute to the beneficial effects of breastfeeding as it prevented NEC in a neonatal rat model and was associated with lower NEC risk in a human clinical cohort study. Herein, gram-scale synthesis of two DSLNT analogs previously shown to have NEC preventing effect is described...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108433/the-human-milk-oligosaccharides-are-not-affected-by-pasteurization-and-freeze-drying
#18
Won-Ho Hahn, Jaehan Kim, Seunghyun Song, Suyeon Park, Nam Mi Kang
OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are known as important factors in neurologic and immunologic development of neonates. Moreover, freeze-drying seems to be a promising storage method to improve the processes of human milk banks. However, the effects of pasteurization and freeze-drying on HMOs were not evaluated yet. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the HMOs profiles of human milk collected before and after the pasteurization and freeze-drying. METHODS: Totally nine fresh human milk samples were collected from three healthy mothers at the first, second, and third week after delivery...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103653/enhanced-lead-and-cadmium-removal-using-biochar-supported-hydrated-manganese-oxide-hmo-nanoparticles-behavior-and-mechanism
#19
Shunli Wan, Jiayu Wu, Shanshan Zhou, Rui Wang, Bin Gao, Feng He
Hydrated manganese oxide (HMO) nanoparticles were impregnated into a peanut shell-derived biochar (BC) to obtain a remarkable nanocomposite adsorbent, HMO-BC, which overcomes the technical barriers of singly applying either HMO or BC in practical heavy metal-containing wastewater treatment. HMO-BC can effectively sequestrate Pb(II) and Cd(II) in a wide pH range of 3-7 and exhibited more preferable sorption than bare BC in the presence of high-level competing cations. BC also significantly lowered the Mn leaching at acidic pH...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034748/demographic-and-neonatal-risk-factors-for-childhood-asthma-in-the-usa
#20
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is the most common chronic condition diagnosed among children worldwide according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This study evaluated on a longitudinal basis prospectively collected medical records for demographic and neonatal information among USA (USA) children diagnosed with childhood asthma in comparison to controls. DESIGN: The vaccine safety data link (VSD) database was examined to identify cases (n = 5907) diagnosed with International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9) healthcare provider diagnosed childhood asthma (493...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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