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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537706/sodium-rivals-silver-as-single-atom-active-centers-for-catalyzing-abatement-of-formaldehyde
#1
Yaxin Chen, Jiayi Gao, Zhiwei Huang, Meijuan Zhou, Junxiao Chen, Chao Li, Zhen Ma, Jianmin Chen, Xingfu Tang
The development of efficient alkali-based catalysts for the abatement of formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous air pollutant, is economically desirable. Here we comparatively study the catalytic performance of two single-atom catalysts, Na1/HMO and Ag1/HMO (HMO = Hollandite manganese oxide), in the complete oxidation of HCHO at low temperatures, in which the products are only CO2 and H2O. These catalysts are synthesized by anchoring single sodium ions or silver atoms on HMO(001) surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns with structural refinement together with transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate that single sodium ions on the HMO(001) surfaces of Na1/HMO have the same local structures as silver atoms of Ag1/HMO...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514123/-telemedicine-a-novel-service-in-pediatric-emergency-care
#2
Alon Nevet, Yves Bitton, Lior Wolf, Yehezkel Waisman
INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is a field that deals with monitoring and caring for patients who are physically apart from the caregivers, so they cannot communicate without technological means. The use of telemedicine has been recognized by a number of official organizations worldwide. This article reviews a unique service, "pediatrician online", provided by Clalit HMO, through Medtrix Ltd, with Schneider Children's Hospital specialists' supervision. With this service, parents can receive medical consultation from pediatricians beyond community clinic hours...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505592/human-norovirus-inhibition-by-a-human-milk-oligosaccharide
#3
Anna Koromyslova, Shailesh Tripathi, Vasily Morozov, Horst Schroten, Grant S Hansman
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Norovirus interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be important for an infection. In this study, we identified the HBGA binding pocket for an emerging GII genotype 17 (GII.17) variant using X-ray crystallography. The GII.17 variant bound the HBGA with an equivalent set of residues as the leading pandemic GII.4 variants. These structural data highlights the conserved nature of HBGA binding site between prevalent GII noroviruses...
May 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490677/dietary-human-milk-oligosaccharides-but-not-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-increase-circulating-natural-killer-cell-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-memory-t-cell-populations-in-noninfected-and-rotavirus-infected-neonatal-piglets
#4
Sarah S Comstock, Min Li, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465766/biologic-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drugs-in-a-national-privately-insured-population-utilization-expenditures-and-price-trends
#5
Christopher B Atzinger, Jeff J Guo
BACKGROUND: Spending on biologic drugs is a significant driver of drug expenditures for payers in private health plans. Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are some of the most effective and costly treatments in a physician's arsenal. Understanding the total annual expenditure, the average cost per prescription, and the impact of cost-sharing is important for drug benefit managers. OBJECTIVE: To assess drug utilization, expenditures, out-of-pocket (OOP) cost, and price trends of biologic DMARDs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a large managed care organization...
February 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462601/neonatal-factors-among-subjects-diagnosed-with-a-pervasive-developmental-disorder-in-the-us
#6
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
PURPOSE: Contradictory studies suggest that some neonatal factors may be associated with a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) diagnosis, but limited data is available from longitudinal, prospective medical record assessments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present hypothesis-testing longitudinal, case-control study evaluated birth characteristics among cases diagnosed with a PDD in comparison to controls by examining prospectively collected automated medical records within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454988/physicians-perceptions-of-factors-influencing-the-treatment-decision-making-process-for-men-with-low-risk-prostate-cancer
#7
Kimberly Davis, Paula Bellini, Charlotte Hagerman, Riley Zinar, Daniel Leigh, Richard Hoffman, David Aaronson, Stephen Van Den Eeden, George Phillips, Kathryn Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians' attitudes regarding multiple factors that may influence recommendations for AS vs. AT given the central role physicians play in the treatment-decision making process. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews to assess factors that physicians consider important when recommending AS vs. AT, as well as physicians' perceptions of what their patients consider important in the decision. Participants included urologists (N=11), radiation oncologists (N=12), and primary care physicians (N=10), from both integrated and fee-for-service healthcare settings...
April 25, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416607/human-milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-growth-of-group-b-streptococcus
#8
Ann E Lin, Chloe A Autran, Alexandra Szyszka, Tamara Escajadillo, Mia Huang, Kamil Godula, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Amanda L Lewis, Kelly S Doran, Victor Nizet, Lars Bode
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide development of the infant's immune system and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS, independent of host immunity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392148/molecular-insight-into-evolution-of-symbiosis-between-breast-fed-infants-and-a-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-bifidobacterium-longum
#9
Chihaya Yamada, Aina Gotoh, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Ayako Katayama-Ikegami, Junko Hirose, Shin Kurihara, Takatoshi Arakawa, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Shujiro Okuda, Takane Katayama, Shinya Fushinobu
Breast-fed infants generally have a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota with recent studies indicating that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) selectively promote bifidobacterial growth. Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses a glycoside hydrolase family 20 lacto-N-biosidase for liberating lacto-N-biose I from lacto-N-tetraose, an abundant HMO unique to human milk, while Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum has a non-classified enzyme (LnbX). Here, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of LnbX and provide evidence for creation of a novel glycoside hydrolase family, GH136...
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386692/the-usefulness-of-mr-defecography-in-the-evaluation-of-pelvic-floor-dysfunction-our-experience-using-3t-mri
#10
Mahasen S Al-Najar, Ahmed F Ghanem, Saif Aldeen S AlRyalat, Nosaiba T Al-Ryalat, Sultan O Alhajahjeh
PURPOSE: To assess the usefulness of MR defecography in evaluating pelvic floor dysfunction, and to correlate several pelvic organ abnormalities with each other and with patients' symptoms and characteristics. METHODS: MR defecographic examinations performed in 3T MRI machine of 95 patients (70 females, 25 males; mean age 48) were retrospectively reviewed. Pelvic organ abnormalities from all three compartments were recorded, including the anorectal junction descent, anterior rectocele, and cystocele...
April 6, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382625/smoking-and-obesity-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Mathilde Versini, Shmuel Tiosano, Doron Comaneshter, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Arnon D Cohen, Howard Amital
BACKGROUND: Both smoking and obesity have been demonstrated as risk factors in several autoimmune diseases. Little is known about the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and both smoking and obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between SLE, tobacco consumption and body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from the largest Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in Israel, the Clalit Health Services, we searched for an association between SLE, smoking and obesity...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381523/human-milk-oligosaccharide-composition-predicts-risk-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#12
Chloe A Autran, Benjamin P Kellman, Jae H Kim, Elizabeth Asztalos, Arlin B Blood, Erin C Hamilton Spence, Aloka L Patel, Jiayi Hou, Nathan E Lewis, Lars Bode
OBJECTIVE: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and often fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Markers to identify at-risk infants as well as therapies to prevent and treat NEC are limited and urgently needed. NEC incidence is significantly lower in breast-fed compared with formula-fed infants. Infant formula lacks human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), such as disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), which prevents NEC in neonatal rats. However, it is unknown if DSLNT also protects human preterm infants...
April 5, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377082/comparative-analysis-of-native-and-permethylated-human-milk-oligosaccharides-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Stéphanie Oursel, Sophie Cholet, Christophe Junot, François Fenaille
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) represent the third most abundant components of milk after lactose and lipids. HMOs are indigestible by the suckling infant but can act as prebiotics and have significant biological functions regarding the organism defense against pathogens (such as bacteria or viruses) by preventing interactions with their receptors. Although constituted of only five distinct monosaccharide building blocks, HMOs are highly structurally diverse compounds with many co-existing structural isomers...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356278/what-s-normal-oligosaccharide-concentrations-and-profiles-in-milk-produced-by-healthy-women-vary-geographically
#14
Michelle K McGuire, Courtney L Meehan, Mark A McGuire, Janet E Williams, James Foster, Daniel W Sellen, Elizabeth W Kamau-Mbuthia, Egidioh W Kamundia, Samwel Mbugua, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, Linda J Kvist, Gloria E Otoo, Sarah L Brooker, William J Price, Bahman Shafii, Caitlyn Placek, Kimberly A Lackey, Bianca Robertson, Susana Manzano, Lorena Ruíz, Juan M Rodríguez, Rossina G Pareja, Lars Bode
Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability.Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations...
May 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#15
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345865/human-milk-oligosaccharide-specificities-of-human-galectins-comparison-of-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-glycan-microarray-screening-results
#16
Km Shams-Ud-Doha, Elena N Kitova, Pavel I Kitov, Yves St-Pierre, John S Klassen
The affinities of thirty-two free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for four human galectin proteins, a stable mutant of hGal1 (hGal-1), a C-terminal fragment of hGal-3 (hGal-3C), hGal-7, and an N-terminal fragment of hGal-9 (hGal-9N), were measured using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The binding data show that each of the four galectins recognize the majority of the HMOs tested (hGal-1 binds thirty-two HMOs, hGal-3C binds twenty-six, hGal-7 binds thirty-one, and hGal-9N binds twenty-six)...
April 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329641/differences-in-incidence-and-persistence-of-atopic-dermatitis-by-race-ethnicity
#17
M Blomberg, S L Rifas-Shiman, Ca Jr Camargo, D R Gold, J P Thyssen, A A Litonjua, M W Gillman, M M Asgari, E Oken
BackgroundMost studies on racial disparities in childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) did not consider persistent AD or account for differences in vitamin D status.MethodsAmong 1418 children recruited from a Massachusetts HMO into the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we examined associations of child's race/ethnicity with maternal report of child's AD diagnosis by annual questionnaires. We used multivariable logistic regression adjusted for socio- demographics (maternal education, household income, smoking exposure, parental atopy, breastfeeding duration, child sex) and cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D, to estimate odds ratios (OR) of incident AD by early childhood (median age 3...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329356/sleep-disturbances-and-risk-of-hospitalization-and-inpatient-days-among-older-women
#18
Misti L Paudel, Brent C Taylor, Tien N Vo, Allyson M Kats, John T Schousboe, Li-Yung Lui, Charles E McCulloch, Lisa Langsetmo, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Susan Redline, Kristine Yaffe, Katie L Stone, Teresa A Hillier, Kristine E Ensrud
Study Objectives: Determine the associations of sleep disturbances with hospitalization risk among older women. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven women (mean age 83.6 years) participating in Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Year 16 (Y16) examination (2002-2004) linked with Medicare and/or HMO claims. At Y16 examination, sleep/wake parameters were measured by actigraphy (total sleep time [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], sleep latency [SL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) and subjective sleep measures (sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index] and daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale]) were assessed by questionnaire...
April 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259737/medication-adherence-molecular-monitoring-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-in-a-large-hmo
#19
Reina Haque, Jiaxiao Shi, Joanie Chung, Xiaoqing Xu, Chantal Avila, Christopher Campbell, Syed A Ahmed, Lei Chen, Joanne E Schottinger
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and molecular monitoring and the risk of disease progression or mortality among patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). DESIGN: We assembled a retrospective cohort of patients with CML (chronic phase, no prior cancer history, and confirmed to be Philadelphia chromosome positive) using data from electronic health records and chart reviews...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194144/trophic-interactions-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii-during-l-fucose-and-fucosyllactose-degradation
#20
Clarissa Schwab, Hans-Joachim Ruscheweyh, Vera Bunesova, Van Thanh Pham, Niko Beerenwinkel, Christophe Lacroix
Fucosyllactoses (2'- or 3'-FL) account for up to 20% of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Infant bifidobacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, utilize the lactose moiety to form lactate and acetate, and metabolize L-fucose to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Eubacterium hallii is a common member of the adult gut microbiota that can produce butyrate from lactate and acetate, and convert 1,2-PD to propionate. Recently, a Swiss cohort study identified E. hallii as one of the first butyrate producers in the infant gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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