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Lauren D Wu, L Renee Ruhaak, Carlito B Lebrilla
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a highly abundant constituent in human milk, and its protective and prebiotic properties have attracted considerable attention. HMOs have been shown to directly and indirectly benefit the overall health of the infant due to a number of functions including serving as a beneficial food for gut bacteria, block to pathogens, and aiding in brain development. Researchers are currently exploring whether these structures may act as possible disease and nutrition biomarkers. Because of this, rapid-throughput methods are desired to investigate biological activity in large patient sets...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dania Hirsch, Gloria Tsvetov, Yossi Manisterski, Nirit Aviran-Barak, Varda Nadler, Sandra Alboim, Vered Kopel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of Cushing's syndrome (CS) in patients with significant hypercortisoluria and the performance of urinary free cortisol (UFC) screening. DESIGN: Retrospective file review. METHODS: The computerized database of a publicly funded health maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel was searched for all patients who underwent 24-hour UFC testing in 2005-2014 with a result of more than twice the upper limit of normal (ULN)...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Emma Elison, Louise K Vigsnaes, Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Julie Rasmussen, Nikolaj Sørensen, Bruce McConnell, Thierry Hennet, Morten O A Sommer, Peter Bytzer
The gut microbiota has been established as an important player influencing many aspects of human physiology. Breast milk, the first diet for an infant, contains human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) that shape the infant's gut microbiota by selectively stimulating the growth of specific bacteria, especially bifidobacteria. In addition to their bifidogenic activity, the ability of HMO to modulate immune function and the gut barrier makes them prime candidates to restore a beneficial microbiota in dysbiotic adults and provide health benefits...
October 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Pauline Bondue, Sébastien Crèvecoeur, François Brose, Georges Daube, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Mansel W Griffiths, Gisèle LaPointe, Véronique Delcenserie
Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yossef Lomnicky, Daniel Kurnik, Ronen Loebstein, Itzhak Katzir, Janet Vesterman-Landes, Nava Siegelmann-Danieli
BACKGROUND: Modern drug therapy accounts for a major share of health expenditure and challenges public provider resources. The objective of our study was to compare drug expenditure trends for ten major drug classes over 16 years at Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), the 2(nd) largest healthcare organization in Israel. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of drug expenditure per HMO beneficiary between the years 1998-2014. Trends in annual mean drug expenditures per MHS member were compared among 10 major drug classes...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Daniel J Merenstein, Frank J D'Amico, Shlomo Vinker, Stephen Petterson, Amnon Lahad
BACKGROUND: There is pressure in the U.S. system to move away from fee-for-service models to a more pre-paid system, which may result in decreased costs, but the impact on evidence-based care is unclear. We examined a large pre-paid Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) in Israel to see if evidence-based guidelines are followed for prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of ambulatory visits from 2002 to 2011 of patients age >75 receiving care from Clalit Health Services was conducted...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Jeffrey L Fellows, Richard A Mularski, Michael C Leo, Charles J Bentz, Lisa A Waiwaiole, Melanie C Francisco, Kimberly Funkhouser, Catherine M Stoney
INTRODUCTION: Linking outpatient cessation services to bedside counseling for hospitalized smokers can improve long-run quit rates. Adding an assisted referral (AR) offer to a tobacco treatment specialist consult service fits the team approach to care in U.S. hospitals. DESIGN: A two-arm patient-randomized trial tested the effectiveness of adding an AR offer to outpatient smoking-cessation services and interactive voice recognition (AR+IVR) follow-up to a usual care (UC) tobacco-cessation consult for hospitalized smokers...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Peter S W Davies
BACKGROUND: One mechanism by which early life environment may influence long term health is through modulation of the gut microbiota. It is widely accepted that the optimal source of nutrition in early life is breast milk, with Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) thought to play an important role in nourishing the developing microbiota. However, mothers with inactive secretor genes have altered HMO composition and quantities in their breast milk. In this pilot study we examine the influence of secretor status and breast-feeding on microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age...
2016: PloS One
S H Lum, A Turner, M Guiver, D Bonney, T Martland, E Davies, M Newbould, J Brown, S Morfopoulou, J Breuer, R Wynn
Neuroinvasive astrovirus (VA1-HMO-C) is an emerging life-threatening infection in immunocompromised hosts. We describe an 8-month-old child who died of VA1/HMO-C encephalitis following bone marrow transplantation. The diagnosis was only made post-mortem using RNA deep sequencing of the brain. Repeat analysis of the post-mortem brain tissue using PCR specific primers for VA1/HMO-C was positive. Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C should be included in the evaluation of patients with similar encephalitis. This article is protected by copyright...
September 15, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Viktoria Dotz, Rüdiger Adam, Günter Lochnit, Horst Schroten, Clemens Kunz
Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized...
September 9, 2016: Glycobiology
Roi Sagy, Maya Amitai, Abraham Weizman, Dov Aizenberg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between depression, satisfaction with life, and primary healthcare services consumption. METHODS: A random sample of primary healthcare clinic patients agreed to complete self-report questionnaires on demographics and physical activity, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Visual Analog Scale for Happiness. Treating physicians completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) for each patient...
November 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Misty Good, Chhinder P Sodhi, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Hongpeng Jia, Peng Lu, William B Fulton, Laura Y Martin, Thomas Prindle, Diego F Nino, Qinjie Zhou, Congrong Ma, John A Ozolek, Rachael H Buck, Karen C Goehring, David J Hackam
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a common disease in premature infants characterised by intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. The only effective preventative strategy against NEC is the administration of breast milk, although the protective mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesise that an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in breast milk, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), protects against NEC by enhancing intestinal mucosal blood flow, and we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying this protection. Administration of HMO-2'FL protected against NEC in neonatal wild-type mice, resulted in a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers and preserved the small intestinal mucosal architecture...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Clemens Kunz, Christina Meyer, Maria Carmen Collado, Lena Geiger, Izaskun García-Mantrana, Bibiana Bertua-Ríos, Cecilia Martínez-Costa, Christian Borsch, Silvia Rudloff
OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are considered to play an important role for the infant. As the biotechnical production of some HMOs is feasible today and clinical studies are being designed, the individual variation of the total amount of HMOs and of single components is of particular importance. Our objectives were to investigate whether differences exist between (i) term and preterm milk, (ii) milk from mothers with secretor or non-secretor status and (iii) a Lewis-blood group (a+b-), (a-b+) or (a-b-) pattern...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Brandon A Haghverdian, David J Wright, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: The most commonly used postacute care facility after total joint arthroplasty is a skilled nursing facility (SNF). However, little is known regarding the role of physical therapy achievements and insurance status on the decision to discharge from an SNF. In this study, we aim to compare functional outcomes and length of stay (LOS) at an SNF among patients with Medicare vs private health coverage. METHODS: We retrospectively collected physical therapy data for 114 patients who attended an SNF following acute hospitalization for total joint arthroplasty...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Nihaya Daoud, Samah Hayek, Aya Biderman, Abdallah Mashal, Yeal Bar-Zeev, Ofra Kalter-Leibovici
BACKGROUND: Receiving physician advice (PA) can increase patient's willingness to quit smoking and influence the 'stages of change' in quitting. However, less is known about this association among minority groups for whom cessation is more challenging. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether receiving advice on smoking cessation from a family physician is associated with the 'stages of change' in quitting smoking-i.e. pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation or action-among Arab minority men in Israel with high smoking prevalence...
September 2, 2016: Family Practice
Nicholas J Andreas, Asmaa Al-Khalidi, Mustapha Jaiteh, Edward Clarke, Matthew J Hyde, Neena Modi, Elaine Holmes, Beate Kampmann, Kirsty Mehring Le Doare
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60-89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs...
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Carolina Megumi Mizuno, Rohit Ghai, Aurélien Saghaï, Purificación López-García, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera
UNLABELLED: The deep sea is a massive, largely oligotrophic ecosystem, stretched over nearly 65% of the planet's surface. Deep-sea planktonic communities are almost completely dependent upon organic carbon sinking from the productive surface, forming a vital component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, despite their importance, viruses from the deep ocean remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the first complete genomes of deep-sea viruses assembled from metagenomic fosmid libraries...
2016: MBio
Huabin Cao, Feiyan Gao, Bing Xia, Qingyang Xiao, Xiaoquan Guo, Guoliang Hu, Caiying Zhang
The aims of this study were determining the co-induced effects of dietary Cadmium (Cd) and high intake of Molybdenum (Mo) on renal toxicity in ducks. 240 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups, which were treated with Mo or/and Cd at different doses added to the basal diet for 120 days. Ducks of control group were fed with basal diet, LMo and HMo groups were fed with 15mg/kg Mo and 100mg/kg Mo respectively; ducks of Cd group were provided with 4mg/kg Cd which was added into basal diet...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jasmine C C Davis, Sarah M Totten, Julie O Huang, Sadaf Nagshbandi, Nina Kirmiz, Daniel A Garrido, Zachery T Lewis, Lauren D Wu, Jennifer T Smilowitz, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla
Glycans in breast milk are abundant and found as either free oligosaccharides or conjugated to proteins and lipids. Free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) function as prebiotics by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria while preventing the binding of harmful bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells. Bacteria have adapted to the glycan-rich environment of the gut by developing enzymes that catabolize glycans. The decrease in HMOs and the increase in glycan digestion products give indications of the active enzymes in the microbial population...
September 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Diem-Lan Vu, Samuel Cordey, Francisco Brito, Laurent Kaiser
Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, single-stranded positive RNA viruses that belong to the Astroviridae family. While classical human astroviruses (HAstV) are a well-recognized cause of acute non-bacterial diarrhea among young children worldwide, novel astroviruses, named HAstV-MLB and HAstV-VA/HMO, have been identified recently in humans by molecular assays. They are phylogenetically more related to animal astroviruses than to classical human astroviruses, thus suggesting cross-species transmission. Serological studies demonstrated a surprisingly high seroprevalence in certain populations and highlighted a high infection rate in the early years of life...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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