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David H Dreyfus
Epstein-Barr virus (also termed HHV-4, EBV), a component of the human virome or metagenome, is associated as a co-factor in many common human autoimmune diseases through epidemiologic evidence. Numerous EBV genes are functional as well as structural homologues of important immune response genes. For example, EBV-encoded BCRF1 is a functional homologue of IL-10, a critical cytokine regulator of immune tolerance. BZLF-1, an EBV-encoded transcription factor, contains regions with functional homology to both AP-1 and NF-κB DNA binding immune response regulatory factors...
July 15, 2016: Immunologic Research
Abdel-Rahman N Zekri, Dina Abdullah, Ahmed Osman, Mahmoud N El-Rouby, Naglaa Zayed, Gamal Esmat, Wafaa Elakel, Hanan Abdel Hafez
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: In chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), viral and host factors are known to be predictors for anti-viral therapy. IL-28B genotype strongly influences treatment outcome, while Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) co-infection could accelerate the course of chronic HCV infection. This study was conducted to assess whether EBV co-infection adds to the predictive value of IL-28B. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 105 patients with chronic HCV were classified according to their response to treatment into two groups: 38 sustained virological responders (SVRs) and 67 nonresponders (NRs)...
September 2015: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Ling Zhao, Fei Xie, Ting-ting Wang, Meng-yu Liu, Jia-la Li, Lei Shang, Zi-xuan Deng, Peng-xiang Zhao, Xue-mei Ma
Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for the control of a wide variety of pests, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by OPs may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Previous studies have demonstrated that a reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) could be induced by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether OPs could reactivate EBV through ROS accumulation. The Raji cells were treated with chlorpyrifos (CPF), one of the most commonly used OPs...
2015: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Caline G Matar, Udaya Shankari Rangaswamy, Brian S Wakeman, Neal Iwakoshi, Samuel H Speck
UNLABELLED: Gammaherpesviruses display tropism for B cells and, like all known herpesviruses, exhibit distinct lytic and latent life cycles. One well-established observation among members of the gammaherpesvirus family is the link between viral reactivation from latently infected B cells and plasma cell differentiation. Importantly, a number of studies have identified a potential role for a CREB/ATF family member, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), in trans-activating the immediate early BZLF-1 or BRLF1/gene 50 promoters of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), respectively...
October 2014: Journal of Virology
Loretta Fiorina, Mattia Ricotti, Alessandro Vanoli, Ombretta Luinetti, Elena Dallera, Roberta Riboni, Stefania Paolucci, Silvia Brugnatelli, Marco Paulli, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Fausto Baldanti, Vittorio Perfetti
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors may play a role in colon cancer. In this view, several studies investigated tumor samples for the presence of various viral DNA with conflicting results. FINDINGS: We undertook a systematic DNA analysis of 44 consecutive, prospectively collected primary tumor samples by real time and qualitative PCR for viruses of known or potential oncogenic role in humans, including polyomavirus (JCV, BKV, Merkel cell polyomavirus), HPV, HTLV, HHV-8 and EBV...
2014: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Madlen Loebel, Kristin Strohschein, Carolin Giannini, Uwe Koelsch, Sandra Bauer, Cornelia Doebis, Sybill Thomas, Nadine Unterwalder, Volker von Baehr, Petra Reinke, Michael Knops, Leif G Hanitsch, Christian Meisel, Hans-Dieter Volk, Carmen Scheibenbogen
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has long been discussed as a possible cause or trigger of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). In a subset of patients the disease starts with infectious mononucleosis and both enhanced and diminished EBV-specific antibody titers have been reported. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the EBV-specific memory B- and T-cell response in patients with CFS. While we observed no difference in viral capsid antigen (VCA)-IgG antibodies, EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-IgG titers were low or absent in 10% of CFS patients...
2014: PloS One
Julie Moran, Jonathan Dean, Andre De Oliveira, Marie O'Connell, Michael Riordan, Jeff Connell, Atif Awan, William W Hall, Jaythoon Hassan
Studies have identified solid organ transplant recipients who remain asymptomatic despite maintaining CHL. Factors which determine the CHL state remain poorly understood but are likely to involve immunological control of the viral infection. We monitored expression of PD-1, a marker of T-cell exhaustion and viral persistence, on CD8 T cells in patients who resolved EBV infection as determined by undetectable EBV DNA (REI) and CHL patients. PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells was increased in the first year post-transplant irrespective of EBV outcome, and most CD8 T cells continued to express PD-1 for up to three yr post-transplant...
December 2013: Pediatric Transplantation
Tetsuya Ikeda, Ryo Kobayashi, Yasunao Kogashiwa, Takehiro Matsuda, Naoyuki Kohno
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has many strains; however, it remains unclear whether a causal relationship exists between different regions and viral genetic variants in healthy persons. This study was designed to examine the relationship between EBV strains in tonsils and adenoids and peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals using different measurements of EBV strain polymorphism. This study examined whether EBV contains two or three copies of a tandem repeat sequence in the first intron of the BZLF-1 gene...
February 2014: Journal of Medical Virology
R M Leskowitz, X Y Zhou, F Villinger, M H Fogg, A Kaur, P M Lieberman, F Wang, H C Ertl
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leads to lifelong viral persistence through its latency in B cells. EBV-specific T cells control reactivations and prevent the development of EBV-associated malignancies in most healthy carriers, but infection can sometimes cause chronic disease and malignant transformation. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is the only viral protein consistently expressed during all forms of latency and in all EBV-associated malignancies and is a promising target for a therapeutic vaccine...
August 2013: Journal of Virology
Daniela F Angelini, Barbara Serafini, Eleonora Piras, Martina Severa, Eliana M Coccia, Barbara Rosicarelli, Serena Ruggieri, Claudio Gasperini, Fabio Buttari, Diego Centonze, Rosella Mechelli, Marco Salvetti, Giovanna Borsellino, Francesca Aloisi, Luca Battistini
It has long been known that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroprevalence and high immune reactivity to EBV and that infectious mononucleosis increases MS risk. This evidence led to postulate that EBV infection plays a role in MS etiopathogenesis, although the mechanisms are debated. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses to EBV latent (EBNA-3A, LMP-2A) and lytic (BZLF-1, BMLF-1) antigens in relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 113) and healthy donors (HD) (n = 43) and to investigate whether the EBV-specific CD8+ T cell response correlates with disease activity, as defined by clinical evaluation and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging...
2013: PLoS Pathogens
Hitoshi Sano, Keiko Nagata, Kaoru Kato, Kyousuke Kanai, Kiyoshige Yamamoto, Keisuke Okuno, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Hiromi Higaki-Mori, Hirotsugu Sugihara, Masako Kato, Ichiro Murakami, Susumu Kanzaki, Kazuhiko Hayashi
OBJECTIVES: To clarify characteristics on rabbit in vivo infection with type 2 EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA-2)-deleted Epstein-Barr virus (P3HR-1-EBV) and compare infectious efficacy of P3HR-1-EBV with previously reported prototype type 1 EBV from B95-8. METHODS: Twelve Japanese White rabbits were inoculated with P3HR-1-EBV via intranasal or intravenous routes and autopsied on day 70-84. RESULTS: In only 2 of 12 P3HR-1-EBV-inoculated rabbits, EBV-DNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
2013: Intervirology
David H Dreyfus, Yang Liu, Lucy Y Ghoda, Joseph T Chang
BACKGROUND: The carboxyl terminal of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) ZEBRA protein (also termed BZLF-1 encoded replication protein Zta or ZEBRA) binds to both NF-κB and p53. The authors have previously suggested that this interaction results from an ankyrin-like region of the ZEBRA protein since ankyrin proteins such as IκB interact with NF-κB and p53 proteins. These interactions may play a role in immunopathology and viral carcinogenesis in B lymphocytes as well as other cell types transiently infected by EBV such as T lymphocytes, macrophages and epithelial cells...
2011: Virology Journal
Bochra Gargouri, Rihab Nasr, Riadh ben Mansour, Saloua Lassoued, Malek Mseddi, Hammadi Attia, Abd el Fatteh El Feki, Jos Van Pelt
In a previous study, we have described oxidative stress during Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle induction. Oxidative stress was evidenced by the observed high MDA levels and the decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesised that the lower activities of the antioxidant enzymes decrease were the result of either the excessive production of reactive oxygen radical species (ROS) or a negative regulation of the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions. In an attempt to clarify this situation, EBV lytic cycle was induced in Raji cell line by a non-stressing dose of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate...
December 2011: Biological Trace Element Research
Manuel Guerreiro, Il-Kang Na, Anne Letsch, Doreen Haase, Sandra Bauer, Christian Meisel, Andy Roemhild, Petra Reinke, Hans-Dieter Volk, Carmen Scheibenbogen
EBV infection leads to life-long viral persistence. Although EBV infection can result in chronic disease and malignant transformation, most carriers remain disease-free as a result of effective control by T cells. EBV-specific IFN-gamma-producing T cells could be demonstrated in acute and chronic infection as well as during latency. Recent studies, however, provide evidence that assessing IFN-gamma alone is insufficient to assess the quantity and quality of a T-cell response. Using overlapping peptide pools of latent EBV nuclear antigen 1 and lytic BZLF-1 protein and multicolor flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the majority of ex vivo EBV-reactive T cells in healthy virus carriers are indeed IL-2- and/or TNF-producing memory cells, the latter being significantly more frequent in BM...
June 2010: European Journal of Immunology
Saloua Lassoued, Bochra Gargouri, Abd el Fatteh El Feki, Hammadi Attia, Jos Van Pelt
While latent Epstein-Barr virus infection can be in vitro reactivated by various reagents such as 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and calcium ionophore, relatively little is known about in vivo physiological and biochemical factors implicated in this reactivation. Previous studies have described an association between oxidative stress and Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this present study, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress inductors: H2O2 and FeSO4 on reactivation of EBV through BZLF-1 gene expression...
October 2010: Biological Trace Element Research
Cindy M Chang, Kelly J Yu, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Allan Hildesheim, Kishor Bhatia
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous, gamma-1 lymphotrophic virus etiologically linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), endemic to Southern China, and Burkitt lymphoma (BL), endemic to equatorial Africa, both of which are rare elsewhere in the world. Why EBV is associated with different malignancies in different geographic regions remains puzzling and may be related to EBV genotypic variability through specific disease and geographic associations. We review the literature on sequence variation in EBV genes, focusing on LMP-1, EBNA-1, and BZLF-1 and their distribution by geography and disease...
August 2009: Virus Research
Shu-Chun Tsai, Sue-Jane Lin, Po-Wen Chen, Wen-Yi Luo, Te-Huei Yeh, Hsei-Wei Wang, Chi-Ju Chen, Ching-Hwa Tsai
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can modify the cytokine expression profiles of host cells and determine the fate of those cells. Of note, expression of interleukin-13 (IL-13) may be detected in EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma and the natural killer (NK) cells of chronic active EBV-infected patients, but its biologic role and regulatory mechanisms are not understood. Using cytokine antibody arrays, we found that IL-13 production is induced in B cells early during EBV infection. Furthermore, the EBV lytic protein, Zta (also known as the BZLF-1 product), which is a transcriptional activator, was found to induce IL-13 expression following transfection...
July 2, 2009: Blood
Kristin Ladell, Marcus Dorner, Ludwig Zauner, Christoph Berger, Franziska Zucol, Michele Bernasconi, Felix K Niggli, Roberto F Speck, David Nadal
Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is asymptomatic in children with immature immune systems but may manifest as infectious mononucleosis, a vigorous immune activation, in adolescents or adults with mature immune systems. Infectious mononucleosis and chronic immune activation are linked to increased risk for EBV-associated lymphoma. Here we show that EBV initiates progressive lytic infection by expression of BZLF-1 and the late lytic genes gp85 and gp350/220 in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from EBV-naive adults after EBV infection ex vivo...
August 2007: Cellular Microbiology
Torben Pottgiesser, Bernd Wolfarth, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, Georg Bauer
PURPOSE: To investigate the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serostatus in an athletic endurance population, especially the prevalence of complex aberrant EBV antibody patterns. In addition, the purpose was to determine whether serology in athletes is more complex than in the general population. METHODS: The study protocol included serological testing of 202 advanced endurance athletes (biathlon, cycling, nordic skiing (state to international level); mean age 19 +/- 4) and 200 control subjects (mean age 23 +/- 2)...
October 2006: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Angela M Hahn, Leslie E Huye, Shunbin Ning, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque, Joseph S Pagano
Virus infection stimulates potent antiviral responses; specifically, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection induces and activates interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7), which is essential for production of alpha/beta interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) and upregulates expression of Tap-2. Here we present evidence that during cytolytic viral replication the immediate-early EBV protein BZLF-1 counteracts effects of IRF-7 that are central to host antiviral responses. We initiated these studies by examining IRF-7 protein expression in vivo in lesions of hairy leukoplakia (HLP) in which there is abundant EBV replication but the expected inflammatory infiltrate is absent...
August 2005: Journal of Virology
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