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Apoptosis, autophagy, caspases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088315/paris-saponin-induced-autophagy-promotes-breast-cancer-cell-apoptosis-via-the-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#1
Zhan-Zhi Xie, Man-Mei Li, Peng-Fei Deng, Sheng Wang, Lei Wang, Xue-Ping Lu, Liu-Bing Hu, Zui Chen, Hui-Yang Jie, Yi-Fei Wang, Xiao-Xiao Liu, Zhong Liu
Paris saponins possess anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects. However, the anticancer effect of Paris saponins has not been well elucidated and the mechanisms underlying the potential function of Paris saponins in cancer therapy are needed to be further identify. In this study, we report that saponin compounds isolated from Paris polyphylla exhibited antitumor activity against breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Paris saponin XA-2 induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as evidenced by the activation of caspases and cleavage of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase...
January 11, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076888/caspase-mediated-beclin-1-dependent-autophagy-tuning-activity-and-apoptosis-promotion-by-surface-modified-hausmannite-nanoparticle
#2
Souvik Mondal, Anupam Giri, Yunjiao Zhang, Samir Kumar Pal, Wei Zhou, Long-Ping Wen
Hidden effects of nano-materials to induced autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, remain an exciting topic, in the level of material-protein interaction and subsequent cellular signaling features. Here, our studies show that surface modified hausmannite nanoparticles (Mn3 O4 NPs) can uniformly cleave/splice Beclin-1 protein and alter cellular mechanism on the emphasis of tuning autophagy and subsequently promote enhancement of apoptosis. Details investigation of Beclin-1 dependency and its uniform cleavage/splice pattern by surface modified Mn3 O4 NPs, shows tuning of cellular mechanism on emphasis of caspase mediated autophagy tuning...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075474/isomahanine-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-simultaneously-triggers-p38%C3%A2-mapk-mediated-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-multidrug-resistant-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#3
Tanyarath Utaipan, Anan Athipornchai, Apichart Suksamrarn, Surasak Chunsrivirot, Warangkana Chunglok
Advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is typically aggressive and closely correlated with disease recurrence and poor survival. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the most critical problem leading to therapeutic failure. Investigation of novel anticancer candidates targeting multidrug-resistant OSCC cells may provide a basis for developing effective strategies for OSCC treatment. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic mechanism of a carbazole alkaloid, namely isomahanine, in a multidrug‑resistant OSCC cell line CLS-354/DX...
January 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075440/the-metastasis-suppressor-gene-kiss-1-regulates-osteosarcoma-apoptosis-and-autophagy-processes
#4
Yiran Yin, Lian Tang, Lei Shi
The expression of the metastasis suppressor gene KISS-1 in osteosarcoma cells during apoptosis and autophagy was evaluated. MG-63 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with either KISS-1 overexpression or KISS-1 knockdown expression vector in vitro, and compared with cell lines transfected with empty vector. After 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of cell culture, the cell proliferation was examined. The MTT method was used to detect apoptosis by flow cytometry, and the mRNA levels of apoptosis and autophagy markers caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, LC3 and Beclin1 were assessed by RT-PCR...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067409/crosstalk-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-involvement-of-the-dual-role-of-autophagy-under-er-stress
#5
REVIEW
Shuling Song, Jin Tan, Yuyang Miao, Mengmeng Li, Qiang Zhang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common cellular stress response that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb cellular homeostasis, and induces cell apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis induced by ER stress. There are common upstream signaling pathways between autophagy and apoptosis induced by ER stress, including PERK/ATF4, IRE1α, ATF6 and Ca(2+) . Autophagy can not only block the induction of apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury, but also help to induce apoptosis...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060943/farnesoid-x-receptor-activation-attenuates-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#6
Laurens J Ceulemans, Len Verbeke, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Ricard Farré, Gert De Hertogh, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ina Jochmans, Diethard Monbaliu, Frederik Nevens, Jan Tack, Wim Laleman, Jacques Pirenne
INTRODUCTION: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is abundantly expressed in the ileum, where it exerts an enteroprotective role as a key regulator of intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis, as shown in pre-clinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Since intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is characterized by hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation and inflammation, we aimed to investigate, for the first time, if the FXR-agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) could attenuate intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059041/antitumor-activity-of-isosteroidal-alkaloids-from-the-plants-in-the-genus-veratrum-and-fritillaria
#7
Yuanhong Shang, Qingdan Du, Simei Liu, Maksorvor Staadler, Shu Wang, Dongdong Wang
Isosteroidal alkaloids are a category of promising bioactive compounds which mostly exist in plants of genus Veratrum and Fritillaria. The pharmacological activities of isosteroidal alkaloids include antihypertensive, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, antithrombosis, among others. Recently, some studies show that this kind of alkaloids exhibited significant antitumor activity. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review focusing on their antitumor activity and mechanism of their antitumor activity. To fill the gap, in this review, we summarized antitumor effects of the isosteroidal alkaloids from genus Veratrum and Fritillaria on different tumors and the mechanisms of their antitumor activity...
January 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035061/cordycepin-induces-autophagy-mediated-c-flipl-degradation-and-leads-to-apoptosis-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Xinghui Yu, Jianya Ling, Xianfang Liu, Sen Guo, Yidan Lin, Xiangguo Liu, Ling Su
Cordycepin, a main active composition extracted from Cordyceps militaris, has been reported to exert anti-tumor activity in a broad spectrum of cancer types. However, the function of cordycepin on human non-small cell lung cancer cells is still obscure. Our present work showed that cordycepin inhibited cell growth by inducing apoptosis and autophagy in human NSCLC cells. Further study revealed that cordycepin triggered extrinsic apoptosis associated with down-regulation of c-FLIPL which suppresses the activity of caspase-8...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031534/autophagy-inhibition-enhances-photocytotoxicity-of-photosan-ii-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#9
Li Xiong, Zhipeng Liu, Guoqing Ouyang, Liangwu Lin, He Huang, Hongxiang Kang, Wei Chen, Xiongying Miao, Yu Wen
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an attractive therapeutic treatment for colorectal cancer because of its accessibility through endoscopy and its ability to selectively target tumors without destroying the anatomical integrity of the colon. We therefore investigated the therapeutic relevance of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in Photosan-II (PS-II)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PS-PDT) in in vitro and in vivo models for human colorectal cancer. We observed that PS-PDT-induced dose-dependently triggered apoptosis and autophagy in both SW620 and HCT116 cells...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031531/overendocytosis-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-particles-increases-apoptosis-and-triggers-autophagic-cell-death-in-human-osteosarcoma-cell-under-a-spinning-magnetic-field
#10
Shaohua Du, Jingxiong Li, Chonghua Du, Zhongming Huang, Guangnan Chen, Weiqi Yan
The toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is still a vital topic of debate and the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, overdose SPIONs could induce osteosarcoma cell death and the effects were exaggerated when combined with spinning magnetic field (SMF). In the combination group, mitochondrial transmembrane potential decrease more obviously and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to generate much higher in line with that of the apoptosis ratio. Meantime, amount of autophagy was induced...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026112/matrine-induces-akt-mtor-signalling-inhibition-mediated-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-cells
#11
Junqing Wu, Gang Hu, Yuqing Dong, Ruye Ma, Zhijie Yu, Songfu Jiang, Yixiang Han, Kang Yu, Shenghui Zhang
Pharmacological modulation of autophagy has been referred to as a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Matrine, a main alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait, has antitumour activity against acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML). Whether autophagy is involved in antileukaemia activity of matrine remains unobvious. In this study, we demonstrated that matrine inhibited cell viability and colony formation via inducing apoptosis and autophagy in AML cell lines HL-60, THP-1 and C1498 as well as primary AML cells...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012149/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis-triggered-by-sub-chronic-lead-exposure-in-mice-spleen-a-histopathological-study
#12
Giovanni Corsetti, Claudia Romano, Alessandra Stacchiotti, Evasio Pasini, Francesco S Dioguardi
Lead (Pb) is an environmental oncogenic metal that induces immunotoxicity and anaemia. Emerging evidence has linked Pb toxicity with endoplasmic reticulum-driven apoptosis and autophagy. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (Grp78 or binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP)), a master endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, drives macrophage activation and regulates protein folding and calcium flux in response to heavy metals. The spleen may be involved in Pb poisoning due to its crucial role in erythrocatheresis and immune response, although there are no data to support this theory...
December 24, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011299/apoptosis-inducing-factor-gene-depletion-inhibits-zearalenone-induced-cell-death-in-a-goat-leydig-cell-line
#13
Diqi Yang, Tingting Jiang, Pengfei Lin, Huatao Chen, Lei Wang, Nan Wang, Fan Zhao, Keqiong Tang, Dong Zhou, Aihua Wang, Yaping Jin
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a contaminant of human food and animal feedstuffs that causes health hazards. However, the signal pathways underlying ZEA toxicity remain elusive. The aims of this study were to determine which pathways are involved in ZEA-induced cell death and investigate the effect of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) on cell death during ZEA treatment in the immortalized goat Leydig cell line hTERT-GLC. This study showed that ZEA-induced cell death in hTERT-GLCs works via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the caspase-dependent pathway, the caspase-independent pathway and autophagy...
December 20, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009971/dacomitinib-a-new-pan-egfr-inhibitor-is-effective-in-killing-ovarian-cancer-cells
#14
Lei Xu, Huini Wu, Chao Jiang, Hongcai Wang, Bei Gao, Shumei Yan, Yushu Qi, Shufeng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in a variety of cancers and its inhibitors have been studied for over a decade. We aim to investigate the effects of dacomitinib, a second generation pan-EGFR inhibitor, on ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: By immunohistochemistry, we studied the clinical significance of EGFR expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The correlations between EGFR expression and the clinicopathological variables of patients with EOC were assessed using Pearson's X2 test...
November 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008958/zika-virus-infection-induces-mitosis-abnormalities-and-apoptotic-cell-death-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#15
Bruno S F Souza, Gabriela L A Sampaio, Ciro S Pereira, Gubio S Campos, Silvia I Sardi, Luiz A R Freitas, Claudio P Figueira, Bruno D Paredes, Carolina K V Nonaka, Carine M Azevedo, Vinicius P C Rocha, Antonio C Bandeira, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Ricardo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Milena B P Soares
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with severe complications both in the developing and adult nervous system. To investigate the deleterious effects of ZIKV infection, we used human neural progenitor cells (NPC), derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). We found that NPC are highly susceptible to ZIKV and the infection results in cell death. ZIKV infection led to a marked reduction in cell proliferation, ultrastructural alterations and induction of autophagy. Induction of apoptosis of Sox2(+) cells was demonstrated by activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9, and by ultrastructural and flow cytometry analyses...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006950/augmentation-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-gsno-controls-cigarette-smoke-induced-inflammatory-oxidative-stress-and-copd-emphysema-pathogenesis-by-restoring-cftr-function
#16
Manish Bodas, David Silverberg, Kyla Walworth, Kathryn A Brucia, Neeraj Vij
AIMS: Cigarette-smoke (CS) mediated CFTR-dysfunction, autophagy-impairment, and resulting inflammatory-oxidative/nitrosative stress leads to COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO)-signaling regulates lung function, and low serum NO-levels correlate with COPD severity. We aim to evaluate here the effects and mechanism(s) of GSNO-augmentation in COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. RESULTS: Our data shows that CFTR co-localizes with aggresome-bodies in the lungs of COPD subjects with increasing emphysema severity (GOLD I-IV) as compared to non-emphysema controls (GOLD-0)...
December 22, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004115/histone-deacetylase-8-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Mee-Young Ahn, Jung-Hoon Yoon
The overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has been observed in many cancers and inhibition of specific HDAC has emerged as a new target for cancer therapy. The present study examined the expression of HDAC8 and the inhibitory effect of HDAC8 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The expression of HDAC8 was measured in human OSCC tissues and OSCC cell lines using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. HDAC8 was knocked down in OSCC cells by transfection with HDAC8 siRNAs and cell proliferation was quantified...
January 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998869/-role-of-autophagy-in-fasudil-induced-rho-kinase-inhibition-for-protection-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#18
Hong-Wei Ye, Ting-Ting Fang, Xiao-Yu Gu, Ya Wang, Guang-Yu Zhu, Ying Yu, Qin Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of autophagy in ischemic myocardium of rats treated with fasudil for inhibiting Rho kinase. METHODS: The hearts isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion with or without treatment with fasudil or fasudil+Wort. The left ventricular hemodynamics were continuously recorded, and the coronary effluent was collected during the reperfusion to determine lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993642/the-effect-of-arsenite-on-spatial-learning-involvement-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis
#19
Behnoosh BonakdarYazdi, Fariba Khodagholi, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Azadeh Sharifzadeh, Ramesh Ahmadi, Mehdi Sanati, Hajar Mehdizadeh, Borna Payandehmehr, Leila Vali, Mehrnoush Moghaddasi Jahromi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Spatial learning plays a major role in one's information recording. Arsenic is one of ubiquitous environmental toxins with known neurological effects. However, studies investigating the effects of arsenic on spatial learning and related mechanisms are limited. This study was planned toexaminethe effects of bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of different concentrations of sodium arsenite (5, 10 and 100nM, 5µl/side) on spatial learning in Wistar rats. Moreover, we evaluated levels of LC3-II, Atg7 and Atg12 as reliable biomarkers of autophagy and caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as indicators of apoptosis in the hippocampus...
December 18, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986595/the-chac1-inhibited-notch3-pathway-is-involved-in-temozolomide-induced-glioma-cytotoxicity
#20
Peng-Hsu Chen, Wan-Lin Shen, Chwen-Ming Shih, Kuo-Hao Ho, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Cheng-Wei Lin, Chin-Cheng Lee, Ann-Jeng Liu, Ku-Chung Chen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the high-grade primary glioma in adults. Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent of the imidazotetrazine series, is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for clinical therapy. However, the expense of TMZ therapy and increasing drug resistance to TMZ decreases its therapeutic effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms of TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity to enhance the efficacy of TMZ in clinical GBM therapy. First, TMZ-mediated gene expression profiles and networks in U87-MG cells were identified by transcriptome microarray and bioinformatic analyses...
December 13, 2016: Neuropharmacology
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