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Apoptosis, autophagy, caspases

Zi-Qiang Bao, Ting-Ting Liao, Wei-Rong Yang, Yi Wang, Hong-Yan Luo, Xian-Zhong Wang
This study aimed to determine whether heat stress (HS) could induce autophagy in immature boar Sertoli cells (SCs) and test whether HS-induced autophagy could regulate lactate secretion by SCs. Cultured immature boar SCs were incubated at 43 °C for 30 minutes. The ratio of LC3B-II to LC3B-I and the mRNA transcript levels of LC3B showed time-dependent changes 0 to 48 hours after HS treatment, which peaked at 24 hours and increased by 30.25% or 260%, respectively, compared with control SCs. The density of autolysosomes, which were labeled with a red dye, was higher at 24 hours than at any other time point...
September 15, 2016: Theriogenology
Longbin Zheng, Ying Li, Xuesong Li, Jiayuan Kou, Zhaoyu Zhong, Yueqing Jiang, Zhongni Liu, Ye Tian, Liming Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is considered a new approach for the treatment of atherosclerosis. We previously confirmed that hydroxyl acetylated curcumin (HAC) was a sonosensitizer. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of THP-1 macrophage apoptosis and autophagy induced by HAC mediated SDT (HAC-SDT). METHODS: Cell viability was measured using a CCK-8 assay. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), sub-cellular HAC localization, BAX and cytochrome C translocation, LC3 expression, monodansylcadaverine staining and Dil-labeled oxidized low density lipoprotein (Dil-ox-LDL) uptake...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kai-Chih Hung, Hui-Ju Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Anya Maan-Yuh Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation form a vicious cycle in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD); activated microglia is the main location of neuroinflammation. A Chinese medicine book, "Shanghan Lun", known as the "Treatises on Cold damage Diseases" has suggested that Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is effective in treating CNS diseases. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of baicalein, a phenolic flavonoid in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, remain to be explored...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Prabhakar Bastola, Lisa Neums, Frank J Schoenen, Jeremy Chien
Valosin-containing protein (VCP) or p97, a member of AAA-ATPase protein family, has been associated with various cellular functions including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), Golgi membrane reassembly, autophagy, DNA repair, and cell division. Recent studies identified VCP and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) as synthetic lethal targets in ovarian cancer. Here, we describe the preclinical activity of VCP inhibitors in ovarian cancer. Results from our studies suggest that quinazoline-based VCP inhibitors initiate G1 cell cycle arrest, attenuate cap-dependent translation and induce programmed cell death via the intrinsic and the extrinsic modes of apoptosis...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Oncology
Shan Wang, Meifang He, Linmei Li, Zhihua Liang, Zehong Zou, Ailin Tao
PURPOSE: Cell-in-cell structures are created by one living cell entering another homotypic or heterotypic living cell, which usually leads to the death of the internalized cell, specifically through caspase-dependent cell death (emperitosis) or lysosome-dependent cell death (entosis). Although entosis has attracted great attention, its occurrence is controversial, because one cell line used in its study (MCF-7) is deficient in caspase-3. METHODS: We investigated this issue using MCF-7 and A431 cell lines, which often display cell-in-cell invasion, and have different levels of caspase-3 expression...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
Suman Kumar Tripathy, Umasankar De, Niranjan Dehury, Paltan Laha, Manas Kumar Panda, Hyung Sik Kim, Srikanta Patra
Six mononuclear Ir complexes (1-6) using polypyridyl-pyrazine based ligands (L1 and L2) and {[cp*IrCl(μ-Cl)]2 and [(ppy)2Ir(μ-Cl)]2} precursors have been synthesised and characterised. Complexes 1-5 have shown potent anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, LNCap, Ishikawa, DU145, PC3 and SKOV3) while complex 6 is found to be inactive. Flow cytometry studies have established that cellular accumulation of the complexes lies in the order 2 > 1 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 6 which is in accordance with their observed cytotoxicity...
September 27, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Sara F Ferreiro, Natalia Vilariño, Cristina Carrera, M Carmen Louzao, Germán Santamarina, Antonio G Cantalapiedra, J Manuel Cifuentes, Andrés Crespo, Luis M Botana
Yessotoxins (YTX) and azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine toxins produced by phytoplanktonic dinoflagellates that get accumulated in filter feeding shellfish and finally reach human consumers through the food web. Both toxin classes are worldwide distributed, and food safety authorities have regulated their content in shellfish in many countries. Recently, YTXs and AZAs have been described as compounds with subacute cardiotoxic potential in rats owed to alterations of the cardiovascular function and ultrastructural heart damage...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Kishor Pant, Ajay K Yadav, Parul Gupta, Abhishek Singh Rathore, Baibaswata Nayak, Senthil K Venugopal
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) utilizes several mechanisms to survive in the host cells and one of the main pathways being autophagosome formation. Humic acid (HA), one of the major components of Mineral pitch, is an Ayurvedic medicinal food, commonly used by the people of the Himalayan regions of Nepal and India for various body ailments. We hypothesized that HA could induce cell death and inhibit HBV-induced autophagy in hepatic cells. Incubation of Hep G2.2.1.5 cells (HepG2 cells stably expressing HBV) with HA (100 μM) inhibited both cell proliferation and autophagosome formation significantly, while apoptosis induction was enhanced...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chi-Hao Wu, Hsin-Yuan Chen, Chia-Woei Wang, Tzong-Ming Shieh, Tsui-Chin Huang, Li-Chun Lin, Kai-Lee Wang, Shih-Min Hsia
Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer in women, typically with onset after menopause. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a licorice flavonoid, was previously shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor suppression effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of ISL on human endometrial cancer both in vitro and in vivo. We used telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (T-HESCs) and human endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, HEC-1A, and RL95-2 cells) as targets. The effects of ISL on cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis or autophagy-related protein expression were examined...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Virginie Deswaerte, Saleela M Ruwanpura, Brendan J Jenkins
Over the last decade it has emerged that inflammasome complexes provide a pivotal platform for the host innate immune system to respond to exogenous infectious microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and non-infectious environmental agents (cigarette smoke, pollution), as well as endogenous "danger" signals. Upon the canonical activation of inflammasomes, a key effector function is to catalyze, via caspase-1, the maturation of the potent pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which, in addition to chronic inflammatory responses have also been intimately linked to the inflammatory form of lytic cell death, pyroptosis...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Ming-Jie Pang, Zhun Yang, Xing-Lin Zhang, Zhao-Fang Liu, Jun Fan, Hong-Ying Zhang
AIM: Physcion is a major bioactive ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, which has an anthraquinone chemical structure and exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities including laxative, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-proliferative effects. In this study we investigated the effect of physcion on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo, as well as the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor action. METHODS: The nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 was treated with physcion, and cell viability was detected using MTT and colony formation assays...
October 3, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Paul Zarogoulidis, Savvas Petanidis, Kalliopi Domvri, Efrosini Kioseoglou, Doxakis Anestakis, Lutz Freitag, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wilfried Eberhardt
Chemoresistance is a major challenge in lung cancer treatment. Recent findings have revealed that autophagic mechanism contributes significantly to immunosuppressive related chemoresistance. For that reason, targeting autophagy-related immunosuppression is an important approach to reverse tumor drug resistance. In this study, we report for the first time that autophagy inhibition triggers upregulation of CD4(+), Foxp3(+) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in late metastatic lung cancer tissues. Furthermore, autophagy blockage induces chemosensitization to carboplatin, immune activation and cell cycle arrest...
September 16, 2016: Molecular Oncology
Guoliang Du, Zongmao Zhao, Yonghan Chen, Zonghao Li, Yaohui Tian, Zhifeng Liu, Bin Liu, Jianqiang Song
OBJECTIVE: Neuronal autophagy and apoptosis play an irreplaceable role in brain injury pathogenesis and may represent a hopeful target for treatment. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of quercetin-attenuated brain damage in a variety of brain injury models including traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, whether PI3K/Akt signaling pathway mediates the neuroprotection of quercetin following TBI is not well clarified. We sought to propose a hypothesis that quercetin could attenuate neuronal autophagy and apoptosis via enhancing PI3K/Akt signaling...
October 3, 2016: Neurological Research
Nem Singh, Sunphil Jang, Jae-Ho Jo, Dong Hwan Kim, Dae Won Park, InHye Kim, Hyunuk Kim, Se Chan Kang, Ki-Whan Chi
Three new cobalt-ruthenium heterometallic molecular rectangles, 1-3, were synthesized through the coordination-driven self-assembly of a new cobalt sandwich donor, (η(5) -Cp)Co[C4 -trans-Ph2 (4-Py)2 ] (L; Cp: cyclopentyl; Py: pyridine), and one of three dinuclear precursors, [(p-cymene)2 Ru2 (OO∩OO)2 Cl2 ] [OO∩OO: oxalato (A1 ), 5,8-dioxido-1,4-naphthoquinone (A2 ), or 6,11-dioxido-5,12-naphthacenedione (A3 )]. All of the self-assembled architectures were isolated in very good yield (92-94 %) and were fully characterized by spectroscopic analysis; the molecular structures of 2 and 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis...
September 30, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tanyarath Utaipan, Anan Athipornchai, Apichart Suksamrarn, Canussanun Jirachotikoon, Xiaohong Yuan, Monthon Lertcanawanichakul, Warangkana Chunglok
Carbazole alkaloids, a major constituent of Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel (Rutaceae), exhibit biological effects such as anticancer activity via the induction of apoptosis, and they represent candidate chemotherapeutic agents. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the oral cavity and a growing and serious health problem worldwide. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties and mechanisms of action of two carbazole alkaloids derived from M. koenigii leaves, mahanine and isomahanine, in the OSCC cell line CLS-354...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Ren-Jie Wei, Su-Shuan Lin, Wen-Ren Wu, Lih-Ren Chen, Chien-Feng Li, Han-De Chen, Chien-Ting Chou, Ya-Chun Chen, Shih-Shin Liang, Shang-Tao Chien, Yow-Ling Shiue
The objective was to investigate the upstream mechanisms of apoptosis which were triggered by a novel anti-microtubule drug, ABT-751, in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells. Effects of ABT-751 were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometric, alkaline comet, soft agar, immunoblotting, CytoID, green fluorescent protein-microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta detection, plasmid transfection, nuclear/cytosol fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, small-hairpin RNA interference and mitochondria/cytosol fractionation assays...
September 24, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Nazir M Khan, Mohammad Y Ansari, Tariq M Haqqi
Pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is multifactorial but interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to be an important mediator of cartilage degradation. Autophagy is an essential cellular homeostasis mechanism and has been proposed to protect against cartilage degradation and chondrocyte death under pathological conditions. We investigated the role of autophagy activated by sucrose, a natural disaccharide, in suppressing inflammatory mediator's expression and cell death under pathological conditions in human chondrocytes...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Maureen Redza-Dutordoir, Sarah Kassis, Hou Ve, Mélanie Grondin, Diana A Averill-Bates
Various toxic compounds produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress that threatens cellular homeostasis. Yet, lower doses of stress can stimulate defence systems allowing cell survival, whereas intense stress activates cell death pathways such as apoptosis. Mild thermal stress (40°C, 3h) induces thermotolerance, an adaptive survival response that renders cells less sensitive to subsequent toxic stress, by activating defence systems like heat shock proteins, antioxidants, anti-apoptotic and ER-stress factors...
September 22, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Farinoosh Fakharnia, Fariba Khodagholi, Leila Dargahi, Abolhassan Ahmadiani
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a complex channel of the inner membrane, the opening of which leads to mitochondrial swelling and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Here, we aimed to evaluate the role of the cyclophilin D (CypD) as a prominent mediator of mPTP, on necroptosis and autophagy as well as apoptosis, beyond the global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We showed that while cerebral I/R injury is accompanied by loss of MMP, mitochondrial swelling and programmed cell death, pretreatment with cyclosporine-A (CsA) as a potent inhibitor of CypD, led to partial but significant reduction in necroptosis markers, RIP1 and RIP3 as well as activity of glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) and glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), downstream enzymes of RIP3...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Malgorzata Kucinska, Hanna Piotrowska-Kempisty, Natalia Lisiak, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska, Walter H Granig, Martina Höferl, Walter Jäger, Martin Zehl, Marek Murias, Thomas Erker
Previously, it has been reported that molecules built on the benzanilide and thiobenzanilide scaffold are the promising groups of compounds with several biological activities including antifungal, antimycotic, antibacterial, spasmolytic, and anticancer ones. In this study the mechanism of action of one selected thiobenzanilide derivative N,N'-(1,2-phenylene)bis3,4,5-trifluorobenzothioamide (63T) with strongest cytotoxic activity has been investigated for the first time in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and normal lung derived fibroblast (CCD39Lu) in a cell culture model...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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