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Apoptosis, autophagy, caspases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531143/a-4-phenoxyphenol-derivative-exerts-inhibitory-effects-on-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-through-regulating-autophagy-and-apoptosis-accompanied-by-downregulating-%C3%AE-tubulin-expression
#1
Wen-Tsan Chang, Wangta Liu, Yi-Han Chiu, Bing-Hung Chen, Shih-Chang Chuang, Yen-Chun Chen, Yun-Tzh Hsu, Mei-Jei Lu, Shean-Jaw Chiou, Chon-Kit Chou, Chien-Chih Chiu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cancer worldwide. Advanced HCCs are usually resistant to anticancer drugs, causing unsatisfactory chemotherapy outcomes. In this study, we showed that a 4-phenoxyphenol derivative, 4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)phenoxy]phenol (4-HPPP), exerts an inhibitory activity against two HCC cell lines, Huh7 and Ha22T. We further investigated the anti-HCC activities of 4-HPPP, including anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our results showed that higher dosage of 4-HPPP downregulates the expression of α-tubulin and causes nuclear enlargement in both the Huh-7 and Ha22T cell lines...
May 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527032/methylone-and-mdpv-activate-autophagy-in-human-dopaminergic-sh-sy5y-cells-a-new-insight-into-the-context-of-%C3%AE-keto-amphetamines-related-neurotoxicity
#2
Maria João Valente, Cristina Amaral, Georgina Correia-da-Silva, José Alberto Duarte, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Márcia Carvalho
Autophagy has an essential role in neuronal homeostasis and its dysregulation has been recently linked to neurotoxic effects of a growing list of psychoactive drugs, including amphetamines. However, the role of autophagy in β-keto amphetamine (β-KA) designer drugs-induced neurotoxicity has hitherto not been investigated. In the present study, we show that two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), elicit morphological changes consistent with autophagy and neurodegeneration, including formation of autophagic vacuoles and neurite retraction in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526407/sirtuin-inhibition-leads-to-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-porcine-preimplantation-blastocysts
#3
Min Gyeong Kim, Duk Hyoun Kim, Hye Ran Lee, Jun Sung Lee, Su Jin Jin, Hoon Taek Lee
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent class III histone deacetylase proteins that play a crucial role in several cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, and lifespan. Previous studies have shown that sirtuin inhibition leads to embryonic developmental arrest and oxidative stress in porcine and murine. However, sirtuin-mediated mechanisms have not been examined in porcine preimplantation blastocysts. We therefore investigated the relationship between sirtuins and autophagy. Embryos were cultured with 100 μM sirtinol (SIRT1/2 inhibitor) in NCSU-23 media after in vitro fertilization...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524116/inhibition-of-autophagy-promotes-salinomycin-induced-apoptosis-via-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-pi3k-akt-mtor-and-erk-p38-mapk-dependent-signaling-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#4
Kwang-Youn Kim, Kwang-Il Park, Sang-Hun Kim, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Sul-Gi Park, Young Woo Kim, Young-Kyo Seo, Jin-Yeul Ma, Soon-Cheol Ahn
Recently, the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis has become an important factor in chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Inhibition of autophagy may be an effective strategy to improve the treatment of chemo-resistant cancer by consistent exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs. However, no reports have clearly elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, we assessed whether salinomycin, a promising anticancer drug, induces apoptosis and elucidated potential antitumor mechanisms in chemo-resistant prostate cancer cells...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523456/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-administration-significantly-improves-outcome-after-retinal-ischemia-in-rats
#5
Biji Mathew, Jacqueline N Poston, John C Dreixler, Leianne Torres, Jasmine Lopez, Ruth Zelkha, Irina Balyasnikova, Maciej S Lesniak, Steven Roth
PURPOSE: Ischemia-associated retinal degeneration is one of the leading causes of vision loss, and to date, there are no effective treatment options. We hypothesized that delayed injection of bone-marrow stem cells (BMSCs) 24 h after the onset of ischemia could effectively rescue ischemic retina from its consequences, including apoptosis, inflammation, and increased vascular permeability, thereby preventing retinal cell loss. METHODS: Retinal ischemia was induced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130-135 mmHg for 55 min...
May 18, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522565/integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-inhibition-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-lung-injury-in-an-autophagy-dependent-manner
#6
Dan Zhang, Chichi Li, Yuanlin Song, Jian Zhou, Yuping Li, Jing Li, Chunxue Bai
Integrin αvβ5 mediates pulmonary endothelial barrier function and acute lung injury (LI), but its roles in cell apoptosis and autophagy are unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the significance of αvβ5 in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis and LI and to explore the relationship between αvβ5 and autophagy. Human pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) were pretreated with an αvβ5-blocking antibody (ALULA) and challenged with oxygen-glucose deprivation/oxygen-glucose restoration, which mimics I/R; then, cellular autophagy and apoptosis were detected, and cell permeability was assessed...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518408/s-adenosylmethionine-mediated-apoptosis-is-potentiated-by-autophagy-inhibition-induced-by-chloroquine-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Donatella Delle Cave, Vincenzo Desiderio, Laura Mosca, Concetta Paola Ilisso, Luigi Mele, Michele Caraglia, Giovanna Cacciapuoti, Marina Porcelli
The naturally-occurring sulfonium compound S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is an ubiquitous sulfur-nucleoside that represents the main methyl donor in numerous methylation reactions. In recent years, it has been shown that AdoMet possesses antiproliferative properties in various cancer cells, but the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the effect induced by AdoMet have been only in part investigated. In the present study, we found that AdoMet strongly inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 by inducing both autophagy and apoptosis...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513279/w09-a-novel-autophagy-enhancer-induces-autophagy-dependent-cell-apoptosis-via-activation-of-the-egfr-mediated-ras-raf1-map2k-mapk1-3-pathway
#8
Pinghu Zhang, Zuguo Zheng, Li Ling, Xiaohui Yang, Ni Zhang, Xue Wang, Maozhi Hu, Yu Xia, Yiwen Ma, Haoran Yang, Yunyi Wang, Hongqi Liu
The EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) signaling pathway is frequently deregulated in many malignancies. Therefore, targeting the EGFR pathway is regarded as a promising strategy for anticancer drug discovery. Herein, we identified a 2-amino-nicotinonitrile compound (w09) as a novel autophagy enhancer, which potently induced macroautophagy/autophagy and consequent apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that EGFR-mediated activation of the RAS-RAF1-MAP2K-MAPK1/3 signaling pathway played a critical role in w09-induced autophagy and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells...
May 17, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508718/frondoside-a-induces-aif-associated-caspase-independent-apoptosis-in-burkitt-lymphoma-cells
#9
Sergey A Dyshlovoy, Stefanie Rast, Jessica Hauschild, Katharina Otte, Winfried H Alsdorf, Ramin Madanchi, Vladimir I Kalinin, Alexandra S Silchenko, Sergey A Avilov, Judith Dierlamm, Friedemann Honecker, Valentin A Stonik, Carsten Bokemeyer, Gunhild von Amsberg
For patients with refractory or relapsed Burkitt lymphoma (BL), no standard therapy is available for second-line treatment to date. Nonfunctional caspases-dependent apoptosis pathways, inactivating p53 mutations and pro-survival autophagy prevent activity of conventional chemotherapy. Thus, new drugs bypassing these mechanisms of resistance are required. Here, we investigated the efficacy of the marine natural compound frondoside A (FrA) in eight BL cell lines. FrA revealed cytotoxic effects in all cell lines tested including the multiresistant CA46 cells...
May 16, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506087/differential-variations-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-permanent-focal-cerebral-ischaemia-rat-model
#10
Pengyue Zhang, Liqiang Yang, Hongyun He, Yihao Deng
OBJECTIVE: Autophagy and apoptosis coexist in stroke, but the relationship between effects and complex is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated dynamic changes of autophagy and apoptosis at the penumbra in permanent cerebral ischaemia. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rat models were prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The autophagy and apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence with LC3-II and cleaved caspase-3, respectively. The neurological deficit score and infarct volume were assessed...
May 16, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495516/7-o-geranylquercetin-induced-autophagy-contributes-to-apoptosis-via-ros-generation-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#11
En-Xia Wang, Bo-Yang Zou, Lei Shi, Lin-Ying Du, Yan-Yan Zhu, Ya-Meng Jiang, Xiao-Dong Ma, Xiao-Hui Kang, Chang-Yuan Wang, Yu-Hong Zhen, Li-Dan Sun
AIMS: To investigate the antitumor effects of 7-O-geranylquercetin (GQ), a novel O-alkylated derivative of quercetin, against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines A549 and NCI-H1975 and the corresponding mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. The expression of proteins involved in apoptosis and autophagy was measured using western blotting. Besides, apoptosis was determined with DAPI staining, Annexin V-PI staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assay, and autophagy was observed with TEM assay...
May 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488118/isoliquiritigenin-induces-cytotoxicity-in-pc-12-cells-in-vitro
#12
Hui-Hui Yang, Cheng Zhang, Shang-Hai Lai, Chuan-Chuan Zeng, Yun-Jun Liu, Xiu-Zhen Wang
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been reported to have a wide range of biological activities. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effect of ISL on norvegicus pheochromocytoma cell line (PC-12 cells) and its possible molecular mechanism. The cytotoxicity in vitro of ISL against PC-12 cells was investigated by MTT assay. The migration and invasion of PC-12 cells were performed by scratch test and transwell assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by microscopy and flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were studied by fluorescent microscopy...
May 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487766/malathion-increases-apoptotic-cell-death-by-inducing-lysosomal-membrane-permeabilization-in-n2a-neuroblastoma-cells-a-model-for-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Ramu Venkatesan, Yong Un Park, Eunhee Ji, Eui-Ju Yeo, Sun Yeou Kim
Malathion is an organophosphate with severe neurotoxic effects. Upon acute exposure, malathion initially enhances cholinergic activity by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which is its major pathological mechanism. Malathion also induces non-cholinergic neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative conditions; the associated molecular mechanism is not well-characterized. To investigate the molecular mechanism of malathion-induced cell death, N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells were exposed to malathion and cell death-related parameters were examined...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482931/caspase-1-participates-in-apoptosis-of-salivary-glands-in-rhipicephalus-haemaphysaloides
#14
Xinmao Yu, Yongzhi Zhou, Jie Cao, Houshuang Zhang, Haiyan Gong, Jinlin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Ticks are among the most harmful vectors worldwide. Their salivary glands play essential roles in blood-feeding and pathogen transmission and undergo apoptosis after feeding. Although it was previously reported that salivary degeneration in ixodid ticks is in response to hormonal stimulation, questions still exist with the underlying mechanisms of salivary gland apoptosis. METHODS: Salivary glands of Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides were collected from 1 to 7 days after attachment to the host...
May 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478808/anticancer-activities-of-harmine-by-inducing-a-pro-death-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-human-gastric-cancer-cells
#15
Chuan Li, Yihai Wang, Chunhua Wang, Xiaomin Yi, Mingya Li, Xiangjiu He
BACKGROUND: Harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid from Peganum harmala, has multiple anti-tumor activities, especially for its folk therapy for digestive system neoplasm. However, the underlying mechanism of harmine on gastric cancer remains unclear. PURPOSE: To illuminate the potential anti-tumor activity and mechanism of harmine against gastric cancer cells. METHODS/STUDY DESIGNS: The anti-proliferative activity of harmine in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay...
May 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472754/ruthenium-ii-polypyridyl-complexes-synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-activity-studies-on-bel-7402-cells
#16
Dan Wan, Shang-Hai Lai, Chuan-Chuan Zeng, Cheng Zhang, Bing Tang, Yun-Jun Liu
Two new ligand PTTP (2-phenoxy-1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene) and FTTP (2-(3-fluoronaphthalen-2-yloxy)-1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene) and their six ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(N-N)2(PTTP)](ClO4)2 and [Ru(N-N)2(FTTP)](ClO4)2 (N-N=dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipiridine; dmp: 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline; ttbpy: 4,4'-ditertiarybutyl-2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes against cancer cells HeLa, BEL-7402, A549, HepG-2, HOS and normal cell LO2 was evaluated by MTT method...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469798/inhibition-of-autophagy-results-in-a-reversal-of-taxol-resistance-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-enhancing-taxol-induced-caspase-dependent-apoptosis
#17
Yexun Song, Wei Li, Xiaowei Peng, Jun Xie, Heqing Li, Guolin Tan
Drug resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains a major obstacle of clinical therapy. We found that the taxol-resistant cells demonstrated higher basal levels of autophagy than parental cells, which could be inhibited by 3-MA and Beclin-1-siRNA. We further revealed that inhibition of autophagy enhanced taxol-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, resulted in partial reversal of the acquired taxol resistance in taxol-resistant cells. Our results suggest that the combination of an autophagy inhibitor with taxol may be a promising approach to promote therapeutic efficacy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463842/inhibition-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-reversine
#18
Mohamed Jemaà, Myriam Fezai, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The A3 adenosine receptor antagonist reversine (2-(4-morpholinoanilino)-6-cyclohexylaminopurine) influences cellular differentiation, inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell-cycle arrest, triggers apoptosis, causes cell swelling with polyploidy and stimulates autophagy. The effect on apoptosis involves mitochondria and caspases. Erythrocytes are lacking mitochondria but express caspases and are, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, able to enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis...
April 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460485/hispidin-induces-autophagic-and-necrotic-death-in-sgc-7901-gastric-cancer-cells-through-lysosomal-membrane-permeabilization-by-inhibiting-tubulin-polymerization
#19
Long-Xian Lv, Zhen-Xing Zhou, Zhan Zhou, Li-Jiang Zhang, Ren Yan, Zhao Zhao, Li-Ya Yang, Xiao-Yuan Bian, Hui-Yong Jiang, Yu-Dong Li, Yi-Sheng Sun, Qin-Qin Xu, Gui-Li Hu, Wen-Jun Guan, Yong-Quan Li
Hispidin and its derivatives are widely distributed in edible mushrooms. Hispidin is more cytotoxic to A549, SCL-1, Bel7402 and Capan-1 cancer cells than to MRC5 normal cells; by contrast, hispidin protects H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced or doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Consequently, further research on how hispidin affects normal and cancer cells may help treat cancer and reduce chemotherapy-induced side effects. This study showed that hispidin caused caspase-independent death in SGC-7901 cancer cells but not in GES-1 normal cells...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455291/hyper-phosphorylation-of-sequestosome-1-distinguishes-resistance-to-cisplatin-in-patient-derived-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-cells
#20
Elizabeth V Nguyen, Kaisa Huhtinen, Young Ah Goo, Katja Kaipio, Noora Andersson, Ville Rantanen, Johanna Hynninen, Riitta Lahesmaa, Olli Carpen, David R Goodlett
Platinum-resistance is a major limitation to effective chemotherapy regimens in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). To better understand the mechanisms involved we characterized the proteome and phosphoproteome in cisplatin sensitive and resistant HGSOC primary cells using a mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy. PCA analysis identified a distinctive phosphoproteomic signature between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. The most phosphorylated protein in cisplatin resistant cells was sequestosome-1 (p62/SQSTM1)...
April 28, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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