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Apoptosis, autophagy, caspases

Ying Yang, Hui Fang, Gang Xu, Yanfeng Zhen, Yazhong Zhang, Jinli Tian, Dandan Zhang, Guyue Zhang, Jing Xu
Liraglutide is a type of glucagon‑like‑peptide 1 receptor agonist, which has been reported as a novel type of antidiabetic agent with numerous benefits, including cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, few studies to date have reported the potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective actions of liraglutide in diabetic rats and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiaoye Wang, Genglin Guo, Xin Zhang, Ming Li, Kai Xiao, Chuanhuo Hu, Xun Li
RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) and its receptor (GPR147) play an important role in reproduction regulation in mammals. To understand the role of RFRP-3 in male reproductive function of epididymis, we first investigated the expression changes in RFRP-3 and its receptor at different stages of development, that is, postnatal day 20 (P20), 40 (P40), 60 (P60) and 80 (P80). Our results showed that fluctuations in the expression of GnIH and GPR147 during postnatal development occurred, and the highest epididymal GnIH and GPR147 expression were both detected in P60...
June 5, 2018: Theriogenology
Mario Menk, Jan Adriaan Graw, Deniz Poyraz, Nadine Möbius, Claudia D Spies, Clarissa von Haefen
Background: Chronic alcohol consumption is a major cause of liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol impairs hepatocellular function and induces cell death remain unclear. Macroautophagy (hereafter called 'autophagy') is a degradation pathway involved in the survival or death of cells during conditions of cellular stress. This study examines the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on hepatocellular autophagy in an animal model. Methods: During a 12-week period male Wistar rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol (EtOH group; n=10), or an isocaloric diet (control group; n=10)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Xiaolin Liu, Yintao Xu, Lu Zhang, Ting Liu, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignant tumor of the female reproductive system and is the leading cause of death of gynecological malignancies, but at present there is no effective and safe therapy. There is no previously published report on the anti-cancer effect of prucalopride, which is a high-affinity 5-HT4 receptor. The aim of the present study was to determine whether prucalopride can inhibit proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cell viability was detected by use of the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
June 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jiping Sun, Jing Lv, Wenjing Zhang, Lili Li, Jia Lv, Yingzhou Geng, Aiping Yin
This in vitro study was performed to identify the role of miR-124a in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) therapy for H2 O2 -induced rat podocyte injury, and determine whether combination treatment with miR-124a could improve the protective effect of BMSCs. Cell viability of podocytes was detected by CCK-8 assay. Detection of ROS level, apoptotic rate, and autophagy rate was carried out using flow cytometry assays. Oxidative stress parameters were analyzed using the ELISA assays. MiR-124a and mRNA levels were determined using real-time PCR...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Songsong Luo, Liping Jiang, Qiannan Li, Xiance Sun, Ting Liu, Fuyang Pei, Tianjiao Zhang, Tiehong Liu, Linlin Dong, Xiaofang Liu, Lijie Jiang
Acrolein, a highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a toxic component of cigarette smoke. As a lipid peroxidation biomarker, acrolein plays an important role in a wide variety of disease states, such as neurodegenerative, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Endothelial cell injury is one of the initiating factors of atherosclerosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our study primarily focused on acrolein-induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis and the possible molecular mechanism...
June 11, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Feng Jiang, Jin-Yong Zhou, Dan Zhang, Ming-Hao Liu, Yu-Gen Chen
The present study assessed the antitumor effect of artesunate (ART) in vitro and in vivo, as well as its underlying mechanism of action in HCT116 colon cancer cells. An MTT assay, DAPI staining, flow cytometry, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL assay were performed to study the molecular mechanism underlying the antitumor effects of ART in HCT116 colon cancer cells. ART was observed to inhibit proliferation by inducing the apoptosis of HCT116 cells both in vitro and in vivo...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Mara Livezey, Rui Huang, Paul J Hergenrother, David J Shapiro
The endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, the unfolded protein response (UPR), regulates intracellular protein homeostasis. While transient activation of the reactive UPR by unfolded protein is protective, prolonged and sustained activation of the reactive UPR triggers CHOP-mediated apoptosis. In the recently characterized, evolutionarily conserved anticipatory UPR, mitogenic hormones and other effectors pre-activate the UPR; how strong and sustained activation of the anticipatory UPR induces cell death was unknown...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Xing Li, Mengning Zheng, Jinding Pu, Yumin Zhou, Hui Pan, Wei Hong, Xin Fu, Yan Peng, Wenqu Zhou, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
To investigate the effect of stimulation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (HBEC) by arterial traffic ambient PM2.5 (TAPM2.5) and wood smoke PM2.5 (WSPM2.5) on the expression of lncRNAs in order to find new therapeutic targets for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). HBECs were exposed to TAPM2.5 and WSPM2.5 at a series of concentrations. The microarray analysis was used to detect the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and gene ontology (GO) enrichment were conducted to analyze the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs...
June 13, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Dan Zhang, Linlin Wu, Yanna Du, Yuting Zhu, Bingting Pan, Xindong Xue, Jianhua Fu
AIM: Autophagy is a common process during development. Abnormal autophagy can impact cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is present during bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, there is no consensus on the level of coexisting autophagy. This study was designed to investigate the role of autophagy and the effects of autophagy inducers in a BPD model. METHOD: A total of 100 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to model and control groups...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Suling Ding, Mieradilijiang Abudupataer, Zheliang Zhou, Jinmiao Chen, Hui Li, Lili Xu, Weiwei Zhang, Shuning Zhang, Yunzeng Zou, Tao Hong, Timothy C Wang, Xiangdong Yang, Junbo Ge
Histamine is a widely distributed biogenic amine involved in the regulation of an array of biological processes. Serum histamine level is markedly elevated in the early stages of acute myocardial infarction, whereas the role it plays remains unclear. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the unique enzyme responsible for histamine production, and cardiac injury is significantly aggravated in HDC knockout mice (HDC-/- ), in which histamine is deficient. We also observed that autophagy was highly activated in cardiomyocytes of HDC-/- mice post acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which was abolished by compensation of exogenous histamine...
June 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Yuan-Hsi Wang, Yuh-Ching Twu, Chung-Kwe Wang, Fu-Zhen Lin, Chun-Ya Lee, Yi-Jen Liao
Liver fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A high-cholesterol diet is associated with liver fibrosis via the accumulation of free cholesterol in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular free cholesterol homeostasis via direct binding with free cholesterol. Previously, we reported that NPC2 was downregulated in liver cirrhosis tissues. Loss of NPC2 enhanced the accumulation of free cholesterol in HSCs and made them more susceptible to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qian Li, Yuanfang Yue, Lin Chen, Chang Xu, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Xiaolei Xue, Qiang Liu, Yafei Wang, Feiyue Fan
The proteasome inhibitor is a target therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) patients, which has increased the overall survival rate of multiple myeloma in clinic. However, relapse and toxicity are major challenges for almost all MM patients. Thus, there is an urgent need for an effective and less toxic combination therapy. Here, we demonstrated that a natural compound, resveratrol (RSV) displayed anti-proliferative activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner in a panel of MM cell lines. More importantly, a low concentration of RSV was synergistic with a low dose of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) to induce apoptosis in myeloma cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hong Qiao, Yong-Bo Wang, Yu-Mei Gao, Li-Li Bi
BACKGROUNDS: Glioma is the most fatal primary brain glioma in central nervous system mainly attributed to its high invasion. Prucalopride, a Serotonin-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist, has been reported to regulate neurodevelopment. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the Prucalopride on glioma cells and unveil underlying mechanism. METHODS: In this study, glioma cells proliferation was evaluated by Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8). Wound healing and transwell assay were used to test cellular migration and invasion...
June 4, 2018: BMC Neurology
Toshiaki Yoshimoto, Yuji Morine, Chie Takasu, Rui Feng, Tetsuya Ikemoto, Kozo Yoshikawa, Syuichi Iwahashi, Yu Saito, Hideya Kashihara, Masatake Akutagawa, Takahiro Emoto, Yosuke Kinouchi, Mitsuo Shimada
Background: Light emitting-diodes (LED) have various effects on living organisms and recent studies have shown the efficacy of visible light irradiation from LED for anticancer therapies. However, the mechanism of LED's effects on cancer cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of LED on colon cancer cell lines and the role of photoreceptor Opsin 3 (Opn3) on LED irradiation in vitro. Methods: Human colon cancer cells (HT-29 or HCT-116) were seeded onto laboratory dishes and irradiated with 465-nm LED at 30 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes...
March 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Aritra Mallik, Raghunatha R Yammani
Obesity and associated metabolic factors are major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Previously, we have shown that the free fatty acid palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces apoptosis in meniscus cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are not clearly understood. In our current study, we found that palmitate inhibits autophagy by modulating the protein levels of autophagy-related genes-5 (ATG5) that is associated with decreased lipidation of LC3 and increased activation of cleaved caspase 3...
May 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wei Yu, Wenliang Zha, Jun Ren
Mitochondrial injury and defective autophagy are common in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Recent evidence supports benefits of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists exendin-4 (Exe) and liraglutide (LIRA) against diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study was designed to examine the effect of Exe and LIRA on glucose-induced cardiomyocyte and mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy change. Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult mice and H9c2 myoblast cells were exposed to high glucose (HG, 33 mM) with or without Exe or LIRA...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Santi Phosri, Nisachon Jangpromma, Leng Chee Chang, Ghee T Tan, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Surachai Maijaroen, Preeyanan Anwised, Wisarut Payoungkiattikun, Sompong Klaynongsruang
Cancer represents one of the most significant threats to human health on a global 26 scale. Hence, the development of effective cancer prevention strategies, as well as the discovery of novel therapeutic agents against cancer, is urgently required. In the light of this challenge, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of several potent bioactive peptides and proteins contained in crocodile white blood cell extract (cWBC) against LU-1, LNCaP, PC-3, MCF-7 and CaCo-2 cancer cell lines. The results demonstrate that 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml cWBC exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against all investigated cell lines (IC₅₀ 70...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhibing Tang, Lin Zhao, Zaixing Yang, Zhaohui Liu, Jia Gu, Bing Bai, Jinlian Liu, Jiaying Xu, Huilin Yang
Background: Graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO) have been implicated in a wide range of anticancer effects. Purpose: The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of GO on two osteosarcoma (OSA) cancer cell lines, MG-63 and K7 M2 cells. Methods: MG-63 and K7 M2 cells were treated by GO (0-50 µg/mL) for various time periods. Cell viability was tested by MTT and Live/Dead assays...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Fei Peng, Xiaoxiong Wang, Mengting Shu, Mingfei Yang, Ligang Wang, Zhongrui Ouyang, Chen Shen, Xu Hou, Boyan Zhao, Xinzhuang Wang, Linda Wei Zhang, Yaohua Liu, Shiguang Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Raddeanin A (RA), an active pharmacological ingredient from Anemone raddeana Regel, plays an important role in tumor suppression. In this study, we assessed the potentially therapeutic effect of RA on glioblastoma and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability was examined using the MTT assay. Invasive and migratory capacities were examined using Transwell and wound healing assays. Apoptosis was determined by Hoechst staining, flow cytometry, DCFH-fluorescent probe and immunohistochemical staining...
May 25, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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