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Jiří Polívka, Martin Pešta, Pavel Pitule, Ondřej Hes, Luboš Holubec, Jiří Polívka, Tereza Kubíková, Zbyněk Tonar
Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most malignant primary brain tumor characterized by pathological vascularization. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) were observed in GBM. We aimed to assess the intra-tumor hypoxia, angiogenesis and microvessel formation in GBM and to find their associations with IDH1 mutation status and patients prognosis. Methods: 52 patients with a diagnosis of GBM were included into the study...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Amir Qorbani, Farzad Fereidouni, Richard Levenson, Sana Yasmine Lahoubi, Zachary T Harmany, Austin Todd, Maxwell A Fung
Traditional histology relies on processing and physically sectioning either frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue into thin slices (typically 4-6 microns) prior to staining and viewing on a standard wide-field microscope. MUSE represents a novel alternative microscopy method that works with ultraviolet (UV) excitation using oblique cis-illumination which can generate high-quality images from the cut surface of fresh or fixed tissue after brief staining, with no requirement for fixation, embedding and histological sectioning of tissue specimens...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Samira M Sadowski, Marc Pusztaszeri, Marie-Claude Brulhart-Meynet, Volodymyr Petrenko, Claudio De Vito, Jonathan Sobel, Céline Delucinge-Vivier, Electron Kebebew, Romano Regazzi, Jacques Philippe, Frédéric Triponez, Charna Dibner
Context: Hyperparathyroidism is associated with hypercalcemia and the excess of parathyroid hormone secretion. However, the alterations in molecular pattern of functional genes during parathyroid tumorigenesis have not been unraveled. We aimed at establishing transcriptional patterns of normal and pathological parathyroid glands (PG) in sporadic primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT1, 2). Objective: To evaluate dynamic alterations in molecular patterns as a function of the type of PG pathology, a comparative transcript analysis was conducted in subgroups of healthy samples, sporadic HPT1 adenoma and hyperplasia, and HPT2...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Katsushige Inada, Yasushi Okoshi, Yukiko Cho-Isoda, Shingo Ishiguro, Hisashi Suzuki, Akinori Oki, Yoshio Tamaki, Toru Shimazui, Hitoaki Saito, Mitsuo Hori, Tatsuo Iijima, Hiroshi Kojima
Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors for tumor dissemination. Quantifying microRNA (miRNA) expression using real-time PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lymph node can provide valuable information regarding the biological research for cancer metastasis. However, a universal endogenous reference gene has not been identified in FFPE lymph node. This study aimed to identify suitable endogenous reference genes for miRNA expression analysis in FFPE lymph node. FFPE lymph nodes were obtained from 41 metastatic cancer and from 16 non-cancerous tissues...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kenji Amemiya, Yosuke Hirotsu, Toshio Oyama, Masao Omata
It is critical to determine the mutational status in cancer before administration and treatment of specific molecular targeted drugs for cancer patients. In the clinical setting, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are widely used for genetic testing. However, FFPE DNA is generally damaged and fragmented during the fixation process with formalin. Therefore, FFPE DNA is sometimes not adequate for genetic testing because of low quality and quantity of DNA. Here we present a method of touch imprint cytology (TIC) to obtain genomic DNA from cancer cells, which can be observed under a microscope...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Boglarka Donczo, Andras Guttman
More than a century ago in 1893, a revolutionary idea about fixing biological tissue specimens was introduced by Ferdinand Blum, a German physician. Since then, a plethora of fixation methods have been investigated and used. Formalin fixation with paraffin embedment became the most widely used types of fixation and preservation method, due to its proper architectural conservation of tissue structures and cellular shape. The huge collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sample archives worldwide holds a large amount of unearthed information about diseases that could be the Holy Grail in contemporary biomarker research utilizing analytical omics based molecular diagnostics...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Aleš Holfeld, Alberto Valdés, Per-Uno Malmström, Ulrika Segersten, Sara Bergström Lind
Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and optimal cutting temperature (OCT)-embedded and frozen tissue specimens in biobanks are highly valuable in clinical studies but proteomic and post-translational modification (PTM) studies using mass spectrometry (MS) have been limited due to structural arrangement of proteins and contaminations from embedding material. This study aims to develop a parallel proteomic workflow for FFPE and OCT/frozen samples that allows for large-scale, quick, reproducible, qualitative, and quantitative high-resolution MS analysis...
April 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Eric Bonnet, Marie-Laure Moutet, Céline Baulard, Delphine Bacq-Daian, Florian Sandron, Lilia Mesrob, Bertrand Fin, Marc Delépine, Marie-Ange Palomares, Claire Jubin, Hélène Blanché, Vincent Meyer, Anne Boland, Robert Olaso, Jean-François Deleuze
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies are becoming routinely used for the detection of novel and clinically actionable DNA variants at a pangenomic scale. Such analyses are now used in the clinical practice to enable precision medicine. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are still one of the most abundant source of cancer clinical specimen, unfortunately this method of preparation is known to degrade DNA and therefore compromise subsequent analysis. Some studies have reported that variant detection can be performed on FFPE samples sequenced with NGS techniques, but few or none have done an in-depth coverage analysis and compared the influence of different state-of-the-art FFPE DNA extraction kits on the quality of the variant calling...
2018: PloS One
Gines Luengo-Gil, Enrique Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, Sergio Alejo Perez-Henarejos, Esther Navarro Manzano, Asuncion Chaves-Benito, Elena Garcia-Martinez, Elisa Garcia-Garre, Vicente Vicente, Francisco Ayala de la Peña
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a key process for tumor progression and a target for treatment. However, the regulation of breast cancer angiogenesis and its relevance for clinical resistance to antiangiogenic drugs is still incompletely understood. Recent developments on the contribution of microRNA to tumor angiogenesis and on the oncogenic effects of miR-17-92, a miRNA cluster, point to their potential role on breast cancer angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to establish the contribution of miR-20a, a member of miR-17-92 cluster, to tumor angiogenesis in patients with invasive breast carcinoma...
2018: PloS One
Ahwon Lee, Sung-Hak Lee, Chan Kwon Jung, Gyungsin Park, Kyo Young Lee, Hyun Joo Choi, Ki Ouk Min, Tae Jung Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Youn Soo Lee
Targeted application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology allows detection of specific mutations that can provide treatment opportunities for cancer patients. We evaluated the applicability of the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel V2 (CHV2) using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue of clinical specimens. Thirty-five FFPE tumour samples with known mutational status were collected from four different hospitals and sequenced with CHV2 using an Ion Chef System and Ion S5 XL system. Out of 35 cases, seven were sequenced with Oncomine focus Assay Panel for comparison...
March 29, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Simona De Rosa, Nora Sahnane, Maria Grazia Tibiletti, Francesca Magnoli, Alessandro Vanoli, Fausto Sessa, Anna Maria Chiaravalli
Both EBV⁺ and MSI gastric cancers (GCs) have high lymphoid infiltration which is rare in MSS/EBV- cancers. PD-L1/PD-1 interaction leads to a down-regulated immune response and it is one of the most promising targets for gastric cancer immunotherapy. PD-L1/PD-1 and CD8 expression were immunohistochemically investigated in a series of 169 FFPE GCs, including 33 EBV⁺, 59 MSI and 77 MSS/EBV- cases. PD-L1 membrane immunoreactivity in more than 5% of tumor cells was present in 31/169 GCs and was associated with high levels of CD8 intraepithelial lymphocytes (TILs; p < 0...
April 1, 2018: Cancers
Suet-Feung Chin, Angela Santonja, Marta Grzelak, Soomin Ahn, Stephen-John Sammut, Harry Clifford, Oscar M Rueda, Michelle Pugh, Mae A Goldgraben, Helen A Bardwell, Eun Yoon Cho, Elena Provenzano, Federico Rojo, Emilio Alba, Carlos Caldas
Pathology archives with linked clinical data are an invaluable resource for translational research, with the limitation that most cancer samples are formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Therefore, FFPE tissues are an important resource for genomic profiling studies but are under-utilised due to the low amount and quality of extracted nucleic acids. We profiled the copy number landscape of 356 breast cancer patients using DNA extracted FFPE tissues by shallow whole genome sequencing. We generated a total of 491 sequencing libraries from 2 kits and obtained data from 98...
March 30, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Sebastian Moran, Manel Esteller
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples usually yield fragmented DNA, which is incompatible with traditional Infinium Methylation beadchips. In this chapter, we aim to explain in detail all the processes carried out in order to obtain high-quality methylation profiles from FFPE samples through an FFPE restoration procedure. High-throughput methylation profiling platforms such as the Infinium Methylation beadchips have been extensively used by the scientific community to elucidate many hypotheses in multiple scenarios, now with the incorporation of FFPE samples to these platforms, a myriad of new opportunities is being opened...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiang Pan, Jing Quan, Zuwei Li, Liwen Zhao, Liang Zhou, Xu Jinling, Xu Weijie, Xin Guan, Hang Li, Shangqi Yang, Yaoting Gui, Yongqing Lai
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a heterogeneous type of cancer originating from the nephron, occupies approximately 3.9% of new carcinomas, with an increasing incidence in the past two decades. The most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma is clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Though surgery and other treatments are applied to RCC, it has the highest recurrence rate and mortality rate among the genitourinary cancers. As the study progressed, miRNAs are found to be the biomarkers for tumor diagnosis, prognosis and the targets for tumor management...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Junjie Zhao, Lei Shi, Shuxiong Zeng, Chong Ma, Weidong Xu, Zhensheng Zhang, Qingzuo Liu, Peng Zhang, Yinghao Sun, Chuanliang Xu
OBJECTIVES: We recently determined that a novel oncogene, IPO11 from 5q12, participates in bladder cancer (BCa) progression. However, the biological function of IPO11 and the molecular mechanisms through which it contributes to BCa progression remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IPO11 in BCa aggressiveness and elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects in BCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of IPO11 in BIU-87, RT4, UMUC3, EJ, 5637, T24, J82, and HT-1376 cell lines were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
March 27, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Cora Ballmann, Anne Thiel, Hannah E Korah, Anna-Carinna Reis, Wolfgang Saeger, Stefanie Stepanow, Karl Köhrer, Guido Reifenberger, Christiane B Knobbe-Thomsen, Ulrich J Knappe, Ute I Scholl
Gain-of-function somatic mutations in the ubiquitin specific protease 8 ( USP8 ) gene have recently been reported as a cause of pituitary adenomas in Cushing disease. Molecular diagnostic testing of tumor tissue may aid in the diagnosis of specimens obtained through therapeutic transsphenoidal surgery; however, for small tumors, availability of fresh tissue is limited, and contamination with normal tissue is frequent. We performed molecular testing of DNA isolated from single formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections of 42 pituitary adenomas from patients with Cushing disease (27 female patients and 15 male patients; mean age at surgery, 42...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Juliana Guarize, Fabrizio Bianchi, Elena Marino, Elena Belloni, Manuela Vecchi, Stefano Donghi, Giorgio Lo Iacono, Chiara Casadio, Roberto Cuttano, Massimo Barberis, Pier Paolo Di Fiore, Francesco Petrella, Lorenzo Spaggiari
Background: Novel cancer biomarkers like microRNA (miRNA) are promising tools to gain a better understanding of lung cancer pathology and yield important information to guide therapy. In recent years, new less invasive methods for the diagnosis and staging of NSCLC have become key tools in thoracic oncology and the worldwide spread of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). However, appropriate specimen handling is mandatory to achieve adequate results and reproducibility...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Georgia Kontogianni, Georgia Piroti, Ilias Maglogiannis, Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Olga Papadodima
Melanoma is a lethal type of skin cancer, unless it is diagnosed early. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a valuable source for molecular assays after diagnostic examination, but isolated nucleic acids often suffer from degradation. Here, for the first time, we examine primary melanomas from Greek patients, using whole exome sequencing, so as to derive their mutational profile. Application of a bioinformatic framework revealed a total of 10,030 somatic mutations. Regarding the genes containing putative protein-altering mutations, 73 were common in at least three patients...
March 29, 2018: Cancers
Aidan M Rose, Lindsay C Spender, Christopher Stephen, Alastair Mitchell, William Rickaby, Susan Bray, Alan T Evans, Jasbani Dayal, Karin J Purdie, Catherine A Harwood, Charlotte M Proby, Irene M Leigh, Philip J Coates, Gareth J Inman
The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is rising. Whilst the majority are cured surgically, aggressive metastatic cSCC carry a poor prognosis. Inactivating mutations in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptors have been identified amongst genetic drivers of sporadic tumours and murine models of cSCC, suggesting a tumour suppressor function for TGF-β in normal skin. However, paradoxically, TGF-β acts as a tumour promoter in some murine model systems. Few studies have analysed the role of TGF-β/activin signalling in human normal skin, hyper-proliferative skin disorders and cSCC...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Shigeo Yamaguchi, Shin Takahashi, Kaoru Mogushi, Yuki Izumi, Yumi Nozaki, Tadashi Nomizu, Yoichiro Kakugawa, Takanori Ishida, Noriaki Ohuchi, Chikashi Ishioka, Shunsuke Kato
Purpose: TP53 signature has a robust predictive performance for prognosis in early-stage breast cancer, but the experiment that reported this relied on public microarray data and fresh-frozen samples. Before TP53 signature can be used in a clinical setting, a simple and low-cost diagnostic system using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples is needed. New treatments based on the biological characteristics of TP53 signature are expected to follow. Experimental Design: TP53 signature was evaluated in 174 FFPE early breast cancer specimens using digital quantification via the nCounter technique (NanoString)...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
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