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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071216/disinhibition-of-the-rat-prelimbic-cortex-promotes-serotonergic-activation-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-and-panicolytic-like-behavioral-effects
#1
Paula Sm Yamashita, Ailton Spiacci, James E Hassel, Christopher A Lowry, Helio Zangrossi
Several studies have shown that serotonin plays a dual role in the modulation of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic. A major source of serotonergic projections to limbic structures responsible for this modulation is the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anatomical studies indicate that the prelimbic (PL) cortex sends dense glutamatergic projections to the DR, leading to stimulation or inhibition of serotonin release in structures innervated by the DR. The objective of the present study was to investigate if GABAergic disinhibition of the PL by means of local administration of picrotoxin (PIC), a chloride channel blocker, can affect serotonergic tone and the expression of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040564/role-of-potassium-channels-in-chlorogenic-acid-induced-apoptotic-volume-decrease-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-candida-albicans
#2
JiEun Yun, Dong Gun Lee
BACKGROUND: Chlorogenic acid (CRA) is an abundant phenolic compound in the human diet. CRA has a potent antifungal effect, inducing cell death in Candida albicans. However, there are no further studies to investigate the antifungal mechanism of CRA, associated with ion channels. METHODS: To evaluate the inhibitory effects on CRA-induced cell death, C. albicans cells were pretreated with potassium and chloride channel blockers, separately. Flow cytometry was carried out to detect several hallmarks of apoptosis, such as cell cycle arrest, caspase activation, and DNA fragmentation, after staining of the cells with SYTOX green, FITC-VAD-FMK, and TUNEL...
December 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027400/elevated-intracellular-na-concentrations-in-developing-spinal-neurons
#3
Casie Lindsly, Carlos Gonzalez-Islas, Peter Wenner
Over 25 years ago it was first reported that intracellular chloride levels (Cl(-)in ) were higher in developing neurons than in maturity. This finding has had significant implications for understanding the excitability of developing networks and recognizing the underlying causes of hyperexcitability associated with disease and neural injury. While there is some evidence that intracellular sodium levels (Na(+)in ) change during the development of non-neural cells, it has largely been assumed that Na(+)in is the same in developing and mature neurons...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011945/orexin-a-modulates-ins-1e-cell-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-and-transient-receptor-potential-channels
#4
M Skrzypski, N Khajavi, S Mergler, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) control energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, energy expenditure and sleep-wake cycle. Several studies showed that OXA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation of beta cells. However, mechanisms of action are still not well understood. Here, we investigated whether ERK and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) play a role in mediating the effect of OXA on cell growth, insulin production, and secretion using the established INS-1E cell line. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU assay...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999941/extracellular-phosphates-enhance-activities-of-voltage-gated-proton-channels-and-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-murine-osteoclast-like-cells
#5
Guangshuai Li, Katsuyuki Miura, Miyuki Kuno
Osteoclasts are highly differentiated bone-resorbing cells and play a significant role in bone remodelling. In the resorption pit, inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations increase because of degradation of hydroxyapatite. We studied effects of extracellular Pi on voltage-gated H(+) channels in osteoclast-like cells derived from a macrophage cell line (RAW264). Extracellular Pi (1.25-20 mM) increased the H(+) channel currents dose dependently and reversibly. The Pi-induced increases were attenuated by removal of extracellular Na(+) and by phosphonoformic acid, a blocker of Na(+)-dependent Pi transporters...
December 21, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989677/salt-controls-feeding-decisions-in-a-blood-sucking-insect
#6
Gina Pontes, Marcos H Pereira, Romina B Barrozo
Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984129/aluminum-exposure-for-one-hour-decreases-vascular-reactivity-in-conductance-and-resistance-arteries-in-rats
#7
Patrícia Medeiros Schmidt, Alyne Goulart Escobar, João Guilherme Dini Torres, Caroline Silveira Martinez, Danize Aparecida Rizzetti, Simone Noremberg Kunz, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, María Jesús Alonso, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers
AIMS: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl3: single dose of AlCl3 (100mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channels blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries...
October 27, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940997/real-time-label-free-detection-of-local-exocytosis-outside-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-using-laser-tweezers-raman-spectroscopy
#8
Rui-Qiong Luo, Fang Wei, Shu-Shi Huang, Yue-Ming Jiang, Shan-Lei Zhang, Wen-Qing Mo, Hong Liu, Xi Rong
The examination of insulin (Ins) exocytosis at the single-cell level by conventional methods, such as electrophysiological approaches, total internal reflection imaging, and two-photon imaging technology, often requires an invasive microelectrode puncture or label. In this study, high concentrations of glucose and potassium chloride were used to stimulate β cell Ins exocytosis, while low concentrations of glucose and calcium channel blockers served as the blank and negative control, respectively. Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used to capture the possible Raman scattering signal from a local zone outside of the cell edge...
December 9, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940219/anoctamin2-tmem16b-forms-the-ca-2-activated-cl-channel-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#9
Susanne Keckeis, Nadine Reichhart, Christophe Roubeix, Olaf Strauß
Chloride channels (Cl channels) play an essential role for the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). They provide a plasma membrane conductance for Cl(-) important for transepithelial transport and volume regulation. Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channels (CaCC) in the RPE were found to adapt Cl(-) transport to specific needs by increasing intracellular free Ca(2+). Although a variety of Cl channels have been identified in the RPE, the molecular identity of the CaCC remains controversial. Sagittal sections of mouse retina were stained against anoctamin2 (Ano2) and analyzed by confocal microscopy...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939722/the-effects-of-linalool-on-the-excitability-of-central-neurons-of-snail-caucasotachea-atrolabiata
#10
Jafar Vatanparast, Sara Bazleh, Mahyar Janahmadi
Linalool is a major constituent of the essential oil of several plant species and possesses several biological activities. In this work, we studied the effects of linalool on excitability of central neurons of land snail Caucasotachea atrolabiata and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The lower concentration of linalool (0.1mM) showed suppressive action on spontaneous activity and pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptiform activity. These effects were associated with elevation of the action potential threshold and reduction of action potential rising phase, supporting the inhibitory action of linalool on Na(+) channels...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933932/mechanism-of-the-pseudoirreversible-binding-of-amantadine-to-the-m2-proton-channel
#11
Salomé Llabrés, Jordi Juárez-Jiménez, Matteo Masetti, Rosana Leiva, Santiago Vázquez, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Anna Moroni, Andrea Cavalli, F Javier Luque
The M2 proton channel of influenza A virus is an integral membrane protein involved in the acidification of the viral interior, a step necessary for the release of the viral genetic material and replication of new virions. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism of drug (un)binding to the M2 channel in order to gain insight into the structural and energetic features relevant for the development of novel inhibitors. To this end, we have investigated the binding of amantadine (Amt) to the wild type (wt) M2 channel and its V27A variant using multiple independent molecular dynamics simulations, exploratory conventional metadynamics, and multiple-walkers well-tempered metadynamics calculations...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844056/hyperpolarization-activated-currents-and-subthreshold-resonance-in-granule-cells-of-the-olfactory-bulb
#12
Ruilong Hu, Katie A Ferguson, Christina B Whiteus, Dimphna H Meijer, Ricardo C Araneda
An important contribution to neural circuit oscillatory dynamics is the ongoing activation and inactivation of hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih). Network synchrony dynamics play an important role in the initial processing of odor signals by the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). In the mouse olfactory bulb, we show that Ih is present in granule cells (GCs), the most prominent inhibitory neuron in the olfactory bulb, and that Ih underlies subthreshold resonance in GCs. In accord with the properties of Ih, the currents exhibited sensitivity to changes in extracellular K(+) concentration and ZD7288 (4-ethylphenylamino-1,2-dimethyl-6-methylaminopyrimidin chloride), a blocker of Ih...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785939/vasorelaxant-action-of-the-chloroform-fraction-of-orthosiphon-stamineus-via-no-cgmp-pathway-potassium-and-calcium-channels
#13
Mun Fei Yam, Chu Shan Tan, Mariam Ahmad, Shibao Ruan
Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an important plant in traditional folk medicine that is used to treat hypertension and kidney stones. In humans, this plant has been tested as an addition regiment for antihypertensive treatment. Among the treatments for hypertension, O. stamineus had been to have diuretic and vasorelaxant effects in animal models. There is still very little information regarding the vasorelaxant effect of O. stamineus. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxant activity and mechanism of action of the fractions of O...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760989/mechanisms-underlying-the-endogenous-dopaminergic-inhibition-of-spinal-locomotor-circuit-function-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#14
Laurence D Picton, Keith T Sillar
Dopamine plays important roles in the development and modulation of motor control circuits. Here we show that dopamine exerts potent effects on the central pattern generator circuit controlling locomotory swimming in post-embryonic Xenopus tadpoles. Dopamine (0.5-100 μM) reduced fictive swim bout occurrence and caused both spontaneous and evoked episodes to become shorter, slower and weaker. The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole mimicked this repertoire of inhibitory effects on swimming, whilst the D4 receptor antagonist, L745,870, had the opposite effects...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678152/in-silico-prediction-of-the-molecular-basis-of-cltx-and-aactx-interaction-with-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-mmp-2-to-inhibit-glioma-cell-invasion
#15
Houcemeddine Othman, Silke Andrea Wieninger, Mohamed ElAyeb, Michael Nilges, Najet Srairi-Abid
Glioblastoma is the deadliest type of brain cancer. Treatment could target the Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which is known to be involved in the invasion process of glioblastoma cells. But current available inhibitors are not selective to MMP-2 due to their interaction with the catalytic binding site, which is highly conserved in all MMPs structures. Interestingly, members of the chloride channel blocker scorpion toxins, such as chlorotoxin (ClTx) and AaCTx, inhibit glioblastoma cell invasion and show a promising therapeutic potential...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578144/propofol-inhibits-carbachol-induced-chloride-secretion-by-directly-targeting-the-basolateral-k-channel-in-rat-ileum-epithelium
#16
S-H Tang, H-Y Wang, H Sun, N An, L Xiao, Q Sun, D-B Zhao
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a widely used intravenous general anesthetic. Acetylcholine (ACh) is critical in controlling epithelial ion transport. This study was to investigate the effects of propofol on ACh-evoked secretion in rat ileum epithelium. METHODS: The Ussing chamber technique was used to investigate the effects of propofol on carbachol (CCh)-evoked short-circuit currents (Isc). KEY RESULTS: Propofol (10(-2) -10(-6)  mol/L) attenuated CCh-evoked Isc of rat ileum mucosa in a dose-dependent manner...
August 30, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511837/control-of-sensory-neuron-excitability-by-serotonin-involves-5ht2c-receptors-and-ca-2-activated-chloride-channels
#17
Isabella Salzer, Enkhbileg Gantumur, Arsalan Yousuf, Stefan Boehm
Serotonin (5HT) is a constituent of the so-called "inflammatory soup" that sensitizes nociceptors during inflammation. Nevertheless, receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate an excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by 5HT remained controversial. Therefore, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons dissociated from rat DRGs were used to investigate effects of 5HT on membrane excitability and currents through ligand- as well as voltage-gated ion channels. In 58% of the neurons tested, 5HT increased action potential firing, an effect that was abolished by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, but not by the 5HT3 antagonist tropisetron...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486083/effects-of-salinity-on-short-term-waterborne-zinc-uptake-accumulation-and-sub-lethal-toxicity-in-the-green-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas
#18
Som Niyogi, Tamzin A Blewett, Trevor Gallagher, Sandra Fehsenfeld, Chris M Wood
Waterborne zinc (Zn) is known to cause toxicity to freshwater animals primarily by disrupting calcium (Ca) homeostasis during acute exposure, but its effects in marine and estuarine animals are not well characterized. The present study investigated the effects of salinity on short-term Zn accumulation and sub-lethal toxicity in the euryhaline green shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The kinetic and pharmacological properties of short-term branchial Zn uptake were also examined. Green crabs (n=10) were exposed to control (no added Zn) and 50μM (3...
September 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471568/inhibition-of-regulatory-volume-decrease-enhances-the-cytocidal-effect-of-hypotonic-shock-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Michihiro Kudou, Atsushi Shiozaki, Toshiyuki Kosuga, Daisuke Ichikawa, Hirotaka Konishi, Ryo Morimura, Shuhei Komatsu, Hisashi Ikoma, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Kazuma Okamoto, Shigekuni Hosogi, Takashi Nakahari, Yoshinori Marunaka, Eigo Otsuji
Background : Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470386/endothelium-and-smooth-muscle-dependent-vasodilator-effects-of-citrus-aurantium-l-var-amara-focus-on-ca-2-modulation
#20
Purum Kang, Kang-Hyun Ryu, Jeong-Min Lee, Hyo-Keun Kim, Geun Hee Seol
Neroli, the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara, is a well-characterized alleviative agent used to treat cardiovascular symptoms. However, because it has been found to have multiple effects, its mechanism of action requires further exploration. We sought to clarify the mechanism underlying the actions of neroli in mouse aorta. In aortic rings from mice precontracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha, neroli induced vasodilation. However, relaxation effect of neroli was decreased in endothelium-denuded ring or pre-incubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-Nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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