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chloride channels

Laurence D Picton, Keith T Sillar
Dopamine plays important roles in the development and modulation of motor control circuits. Here we show that dopamine exerts potent effects on the central pattern generator circuit controlling locomotory swimming in post-embryonic Xenopus tadpoles. Dopamine (0.5-100 μM) reduced fictive swim bout occurrence and caused both spontaneous and evoked episodes to become shorter, slower and weaker. The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole mimicked this repertoire of inhibitory effects on swimming, whilst the D4 receptor antagonist, L745,870, had the opposite effects...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Can-Zhao Liu, Xiang-Yu Li, Ren-Hong Du, Min Gao, Ming-Ming Ma, Fei-Ya Li, Er-Wen Huang, Hong-Shuo Sun, Guan-Lei Wang, Yong-Yuan Guan
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that ClC-3 is responsible for volume-regulated Cl(-)current (ICl.vol) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, it is still not clear whether and how ClC-3 is transported to cell membranes, resulting in alteration ofICl.vol.Methods and Results:Volume-regulated chloride current (ICl.vol) was recorded by whole-cell patch clamp recording, and Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to examine protein expression and protein-protein interaction...
October 19, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Haiyan Luan, Peng Wu, Mingxiao Wang, Hongyu Sui, Lili Fan, Ruimin Gu
Adenosine is a molecule produced by several organs within the body, including the kidneys, where it acts as an autoregulatory factor. It mediates ion transport in several nephron segments, including the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL). Ion transport is dictated in part by anionic chloride channels, which regulate crucial kidney functions, including the reabsorption of Na+ and Cl‑, urine concentration, and establishing and maintaining the corticomedullary osmotic gradient. The present study investigated the effects of adenosine on the mRNA expression of chloride voltage‑gated channel Kb (CLCNKB), a candidate gene involved in hypertension, which encodes for the ClC‑Kb channel...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Masaaki Ikeda, Yoshitaka Yoshimura, Takashi Kikuiri, Mino Matsuno, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Kumu Fukushima, Takako Hayakawa, Hajime Minamikawa, Kuniaki Suzuki, Junichiro Iida
Bone remodeling is an important factor in orthodontic tooth movement. During orthodontic treatment, osteoclasts are subjected to various mechanical stimuli, and this promotes or inhibits osteoclast differentiation and fusion. It has been previously reported that the release from tensile force induces osteoclast differentiation. However, little is known about how release from compressive force affects osteoclasts. The present study investigated the effects of release from compressive force on osteoclasts. The number of tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)‑positive multinucleated osteoclasts derived from RAW264...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Imranul Alam, Amie K McQueen, Dena Acton, Austin M Reilly, Rita L Gerard-O'Riley, Dana K Oakes, Charishma Kasipathi, Abigail Huffer, Weston B Wright, Michael J Econs
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO2) is a heritable osteosclerotic bone disorder due to dysfunctional osteoclast activity. ADO2 is caused by missense mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene characterized by osteosclerosis with multiple fractures. ADO2 can result in osteomyelitis, visual loss and bone marrow failure. Currently, there is no cure for ADO2, and until recently no appropriate animal model of ADO2 existed to understand better the pathogenesis of this disease and to test new therapies...
October 13, 2016: Bone
Bailin Cong, Yingmei Chai, Bo Wang, Shenghao Liu, Jihong Shen, Nengfei Wang, Quanqi Zhang, Xiaohang Huang
Potassium ion channels are one of the most diversely and widely distributed channels, which are involved in all kinds of physiological functions in both excitable and non-excitable cells. The expression of voltage-gated potassium ion (Kv) channels is highly variable according to the state of macrophages activation. Macrophages have an important function in innate immunity against intruding pathogens. They produce a variety of inflammatory and immunoactive molecules that modulate imflammatory responses. Here we show that blockade of K(+) channels by non-selective Kv channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) inhibited proinflammatory cytokines expression, cell proliferation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in LPS-stimulated macrophages of Sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas)...
October 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Salzitsa Anastasova, Blair Crewther, Pawel Bembnowicz, Vincenzo Curto, Henry Md Ip, Bruno Rosa, Guang-Zhong Yang
In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel...
September 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Zhifeng Xu, Qiong Wu, Qiang Xu, Lin He
The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), is one of the most important pests in the agricultural industry. Avermectins, as efficient acaricides, have been extensively used in the mite control. The targets for avermectins in mammals, nematodes and insects had already been identified as γ-amino butyric acid and glutamate chloride channels. However, the targets for avermectins in mites are still not clear. Here we report the cloning of five full-length glutamate chloride channel genes (TcGluCls) and three γ-amino butyric acid chloride channel genes (TcGABACls) and their expression levels in different developmental stages in T...
October 13, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Mei Hong Zhu, Tae Sik Sung, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lauren E O'Kane, Kate O'Driscoll, Sang Don Koh, Kenton M Sanders
ICC generate electrical slow waves by coordinated openings of ANO1 channels, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) conductance. Efflux of Cl(-) during slow waves must be significant as there is high current density during slow wave currents and slow waves are of sufficient magnitude to depolarize the syncytium of smooth muscle cells and PDGFRα(+) cells to which they are electrically coupled. We investigated how the driving force for Cl(-) current is maintained in ICC. We found robust expression of Slc12a2 (which encodes a Na(+)K(+)Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1) and immunohistochemical confirmation that NKCC1 is expressed in ICC...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Awa R N'Diaye, Camille Leclerc, Takfarinas Kentache, Julie Hardouin, Cecile Duclairoir Poc, Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi, Sylvie Chevalier, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Marc G J Feuilloley
Staphylococci can sense Substance P (SP) in skin, but this molecule is generally released by nerve terminals along with another neuropeptide, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP). In this study, we investigated the effects of αCGRP on Staphylococci. CGRP induced a strong stimulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence with a low threshold (<10(-12 )M) whereas Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to CGRP. We observed that CGRP-treated S. epidermidis induced interleukin 8 release by keratinocytes...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
H H Quan, M Li, Y Huang, J-H Hahn
This paper demonstrates a novel compartmentalized sampling/labelling method and its separation techniques using a hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL) - 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imidate (BmimNTf2 ) - as the immiscible phase, which is capable of minimizing signal losses during microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE). The MCE device consists of a silica tube connected to a straight polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) separation channel. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDAC) was coated on the inner surface of channel to ease the introduction of IL plugs and enhance the IL wetting on the PDMS surface for sample releasing...
October 13, 2016: Electrophoresis
Xin Meng, Jack Clews, Vasileios Kargas, Xiaomeng Wang, Robert C Ford
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is responsible for the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). It is a membrane protein belonging to the ABC transporter family functioning as a chloride/anion channel in epithelial cells around the body. There are over 1500 mutations that have been characterised as CF-causing; the most common of these, accounting for ~70 % of CF cases, is the deletion of a phenylalanine at position 508. This leads to instability of the nascent protein and the modified structure is recognised and then degraded by the ER quality control mechanism...
October 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Lizhao Guan, Yan Song, Jian Gao, Jianjun Gao, KeWei Wang
ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, has been reported to be amplified or overexpressed in tissues of several cancers. However, reports on its roles in tumor progression obtained from cancer cell lines are inconsistent, suggesting that the role of ANO1 in tumorigenesis is likely dependent on either its expression level or cell-type expressing ANO1. To investigate the biological roles of ANO1 in different tumor cells, we, in this study, selected several cancer cell lines and a normal HaCaT cell line with high expression levels of ANO1, and examined the function of ANO1 in these cells using approaches of lentiviral knockdown and pharmacological inhibition...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
B E Brito, E Vazquez, P Taylor, Y Alvarado, H Vanegas, A Millan, V Tortorici
BACKGROUND: Opioid effectiveness to treat cancer pain is often compromised by the development of tolerance and the occurrence of undesirable side effects, particularly during long-term treatment. Hence, the search for more efficient analgesics remains a necessity. The main goal of this study was to relieve neuropathic symptoms associated with tumour growth by administering the non-opioid analgesic dipyrone (DIP) alone or in combination with magnesium chloride (MgCl2 ), an adjuvant that blocks the NMDA receptor channel...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Axel R Concepcion, Martin Vaeth, Larry E Wagner, Miriam Eckstein, Lee Hecht, Jun Yang, David Crottes, Maximilian Seidl, Hyosup P Shin, Carl Weidinger, Scott Cameron, Stuart E Turvey, Thomas Issekutz, Isabelle Meyts, Rodrigo S Lacruz, Mario Cuk, David I Yule, Stefan Feske
Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sen Li, Sai-Jie Zuo, Lei Cao, Dong-Zheng Liu, San-Qi Zhang, Yong-Xiao Cao
A novel 3-benzylquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivative Z32, namely 6,7-dimethoxy-3-(3-chloro-4-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)benzyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one was synthesized. The vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of Z32 and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. The following methods were used. The isometric tension of artery ring segments was recorded using an in vitro myography system. Changes in the calcium influx in mesenteric arteries were surveyed using a real-time confocal microscopy. The arterial pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats was measured in vivo using a non-invasive tail cuff blood pressure system...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Katherine Hughes, Maximilian Blanck, Sara Pensa, Christine J Watson
Mammary gland regression at the cessation of lactation (involution) is an exquisitely orchestrated process of cell death and tissue remodelling in which Stat3 signalling has an essential role. The involution microenvironment of the mammary gland is considered to be pro-tumourigenic and a proportion of cases of pregnancy-associated breast cancer are suggested to originate in tandem with involution. However, the apparent paradox that STAT3 is required for cell death in normal mammary gland, but is associated with breast cancer cell survival, has not been resolved...
October 6, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Amir Mizbani, Edlira Luca, Elisabeth J Rushing, Jan Krützfeldt
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of skeletal muscle regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, comparative miRNA sequencing analysis of myogenic progenitor cells (MPs) and non-myogenic fibroblast-adipocyte progenitors (FAPs) during cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury uncovered miR-501 as a novel muscle-specific miRNA. miR-501 is an intronic miRNA and its expression levels in MPs correlated with its host gene, chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 5, Clcn5 Pharmacological inhibition of miR-501 dramatically blunted the induction of embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) and, to a lesser extent, adult myosin isoforms during muscle regeneration and promoted small-diameter neofibers...
October 5, 2016: Development
You Song, Jan Thomas Rundberget, Linn Mari Evenseth, Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Tore Høgåsen, Taisen Iguchi, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Emamectin benzoate (EMB) is an anti-sea lice chemical widely used in the aquaculture that may also unintentionally affect non-target crustaceans in the environment. Although the adverse effects of this compound are well documented in various species, the full modes of action (MoAs) are still not well characterized. The current study was therefore conducted to characterize the MoAs of EMB and link perturbations of key toxicological pathways to adverse effects in the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Olga Zegarra-Moran, Luis J V Galietta
CFTR protein is an ion channel regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and expressed in many types of epithelial cells. CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate secretion play an important role in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Pharmacological modulators of CFTR represent promising drugs for a variety of diseases. In particular, correctors and potentiators may restore the activity of CFTR in cystic fibrosis patients. Potentiators are also potentially useful to improve mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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