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chloride channels

Kevin M Anderson, Fenna M Krienen, Eun Young Choi, Jenna M Reinen, B T Thomas Yeo, Avram J Holmes
The human brain is comprised of a complex web of functional networks that link anatomically distinct regions. However, the biological mechanisms supporting network organization remain elusive, particularly across cortical and subcortical territories with vastly divergent cellular and molecular properties. Here, using human and primate brain transcriptional atlases, we demonstrate that spatial patterns of gene expression show strong correspondence with limbic and somato/motor cortico-striatal functional networks...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Takaomi Kessoku, Kento Imajo, Takashi Kobayashi, Yasushi Honda, Takayuki Kato, Yuji Ogawa, Wataru Tomeno, Shingo Kato, Takuma Higurashi, Masato Yoneda, Hiroyuki Kirikoshi, Kazuki Kubota, Masataka Taguri, Takeharu Yamanaka, Haruki Usuda, Koichiro Wada, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND: This paper reports the protocol of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of lubiprostone (LUB) vs. placebo on suppressing gut permeability in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with constipation. NAFLD, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a common chronic liver disorder. Progression is associated with increased gut permeability and gut-derived endotoxins. Most NAFLD/NASH clinical trial drugs aim to improve liver function or systemic metabolism...
April 5, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Staci M Dreyer, Kelsey J Morin, Jefferson A Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Vector control is a crucial element of anti-malaria campaigns and works best when there is a thorough knowledge of the biology and behaviour of the Anopheles vector species responsible for transmitting malaria within a given locale. With the push to eradicate malaria stronger than ever, there is a growing need to develop and deploy control strategies that exploit the behavioural attributes of local vector species. This is especially true in regions where the vectors are exophagic (i...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Cunjing Wang, Dapeng Wu, Hongju Wang, Zhiyong Gao, Fang Xu, Kai Jiang
A facile potassium chloride salt-locking technique combined with hydrothermal treatment on precursors was explored to prepare nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sheets in air from biomass. Benefiting from the effective synthesis strategy, the as-obtained carbon possesses a unique nitrogen-doped thin carbon sheet structure with abundant hierarchical pores and large specific surface areas of 1459 m2  g-1 . The doped nitrogen in carbon framework has a positive effect on the electrochemical properties of the electrode material, the thin carbon sheet structure benefits for fast ion transfer, the abundant meso-pores provide convenient channels for rapid charge transportation, large specific surface area and lots of micro-pores guarantee sufficient ion-storage sites...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Kyoung-Yong Chun, Young Jun Son, Sunghwan Jo, Chang-Soo Han
A low-powered and highly selective photomechanical sensor system mimicking stomata in the epidermis of leaves harvested from nature is demonstrated. This device uses a light-responsive composite consisting of 4-amino-1,1'-azobenzene-3,4'-disulfonic acid monosodium salt (AZO) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) coated on a membrane with tens of nanometer-size pores. The ionic current change through the pore channels as a function of pore size variation is then measured. The tran-cis isomerism of AZO-PDDA during light irradiation and the operation mechanism of photomechanical ion channel sensor are discussed and analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis...
April 3, 2018: Small
Nancy A Erickson, Kristina Dietert, Jana Enders, Rainer Glauben, Geraldine Nouailles, Achim D Gruber, Lars Mundhenk
The secreted airway mucus cell protein chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated 1, CLCA1, plays a role in inflammatory respiratory diseases via as yet unidentified pathways. For example, deficiency of CLCA1 in a mouse model of acute pneumonia resulted in reduced cytokine expression with less leukocyte recruitment and the human CLCA1 was shown to be capable of activating macrophages in vitro. Translation of experimental data between human and mouse models has proven problematic due to several CLCA species-specific differences...
April 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Yuling Wang, Xinfu Zhang, Yongzhang Wang, Shaolan Yang, Haiyong Qu
Hard end is a physiological disorder of pear fruit that is frequently observed in the 'Whangkeumbae' (Pyrus pyrifolia) variety, however, the mechanisms that are involved in its development are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the causes of hard end disorder in pear fruit in relation to calcium deficiency. During fruit development, the ratio of Ca/N, Ca/K, Ca/Mg and the content of B were significantly lower in the hard end fruit as compared to normal fruit. However, no calcium deficiency was detected in the soil and leaves of the orchard where the hard end fruit were located...
May 2018: Cell Calcium
Joaquín Cordero-Martínez, Tania Reyes-Miguel, Lorena Rodríguez-Páez, Leticia Garduño-Siciliano, Deneb Maldonado-García, Ana L Roa-Espitia, Enrique O Hernández-González
Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) are anionic channels that regulate many important physiological functions associated with chloride and calcium flux in some somatic cells. The molecular identity of CaCCs was revealed to be TMEM16A and TMEM16B (also known as Anoctamin or ANO1 and ANO2, respectively) in all eukaryotes. A recent study suggests the presence of TMEM16A in human sperm and a relationship with the rhZP-induced acrosome reaction. However, to the best of our knowledge, little is known about the role of TMEM16A in other spermatic processes such as capacitation or motility...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Chun-Hung Wang, Adam W Duster, Baris O Aydintug, MacKenzie G Zarecki, Hai Lin
We performed steered molecular dynamics (SMD) and umbrella sampling simulations of Cl- ion migration through the transmembrane domain of a prototypical E. coli CLC Cl- /H+ antiporter by employing combined quantum-mechanical (QM) and molecular-mechanical (MM) calculations. The SMD simulations revealed interesting conformational changes of the protein. While no large-amplitude motions of the protein were observed during pore opening, the side chain rotation of the protonated external gating residue Glu148 was found to be critical for full access of the channel entrance by Cl- ...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Victoria S Fahrenbach, Edward J Bertaccini
General anesthetics are thought to allosterically bind and potentiate the inhibitory currents of the GABAA receptor through drug-specific binding sites. The physiologically relevant isoform of the GABAA receptor is a transmembrane ligand-gated ion channel consisting of five subunits (γ-α-β-α-β linkage) symmetrically arranged around a central chloride-conducting pore. Although the exact molecular structure of this heteropentameric GABAA receptor remains unknown, molecular modeling has allowed significant advancements in understanding anesthetic binding and action...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Mohammad Ghalwash, Ahlam Elmasry, Nabil El-Adeeb
BACKGROUND: Statins therapy is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events. However, its use is associated with skeletal muscle myopathy, which may be severe enough to discontinue statin therapy, thus exposing patients to more morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of L-carnitine on the skeletal muscle contractility in a rat model of statin-induced myopathy and to clarify its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Twenty-one female Sprague Dawley rats were used throughout this study...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Duyoung Min, Robert E Jefferson, Yifei Qi, Jing Yang Wang, Mark A Arbing, Wonpil Im, James U Bowie
ClC chloride channels and transporters are important for chloride homeostasis in species from bacteria to human. Mutations in ClC proteins cause genetically inherited diseases, some of which are likely to involve folding defects. The ClC proteins present a challenging and unusual biological folding problem because they are large membrane proteins possessing a complex architecture, with many reentrant helices that go only partway through membrane and loop back out. Here we were able to examine the unfolding of the Escherichia coli ClC transporter, ClC-ec1, using single-molecule forced unfolding methods...
March 26, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Tzyh-Chang Hwang, Jiunn-Tyng Yeh, Jingyao Zhang, Ying-Chun Yu, Han-I Yeh, Samantha Destefano
Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel plays a critical role in regulating transepithelial movement of water and electrolyte in exocrine tissues. Malfunction of the channel because of mutations of the cftr gene results in CF, the most prevalent lethal genetic disease among Caucasians. Recently, the publication of atomic structures of CFTR in two distinct conformations provides, for the first time, a clear overview of the protein. However, given the highly dynamic nature of the interactions among CFTR's various domains, better understanding of the functional significance of these structures requires an integration of these new structural insights with previously established biochemical/biophysical studies, which is the goal of this review...
March 26, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Dominic Gioia, Minfu Xu, Wesley Wayman, John Woodward
Channelrhodopsins are light activated ion channels used extensively over the past decade to probe the function of genetically defined neuronal populations and distinct neural circuits with high temporal and spatial precision. The widely used Channelrhodopsin-2 variant (ChR2) is an excitatory opsin that undergoes conformational changes in response to blue light, allowing non-selective passage of protons and cations across the plasma membrane thus leading to depolarization. In the addiction neuroscience field, opsins such as ChR2 provide a means to disambiguate the overlapping circuitry involved in mediating the reinforcing and aversive effects of drugs of abuse as well as to determine the plasticity that can occur in these circuits during the development of dependence...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jinbao Huang, Xinsheng Li, Guisheng Zeng, Xiaocai Cheng, Hong Tong, Daiqiang Wang
The studies on the pyrolysis mechanisms of waste PVC contribute to development and application of pyrolysis technology for mixed waste plastics. In the article, the thermal decomposition mechanisms of model compound of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) have been investigated by employing density functional theory methods at M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) level in order to illuminate the elimination of HCl and the formation of hydrocarbons. Various possible pyrolysis paths for the formation of main products were proposed, and the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in every path were calculated...
March 22, 2018: Waste Management
Bo Chen, Gandi Ng, Yahui Gao, See Wee Low, Edwin Sandanaraj, Boominathan Ramasamy, Sakthivel Sekar, Kishore Bhakoo, Tuck Wah Soong, Bernd Nilius, Carol Tang, Edward G Robins, Julian Goggi, Ping Liao
The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel has been suggested to play a key role in the treatment of ischemic stroke. However, in vivo evaluation of TRPM4 channel, in particular by direct channel suppression, is lacking. In this study, we used multimodal imaging to assess edema formation and quantify the amount of metabolically functional brain salvaged after a rat model of stroke reperfusion. TRPM4 upregulation in endothelium emerges as early as 2 h post-stroke induction. Expression of TRPM4 channel was suppressed directly in vivo by treatment with siRNA; scrambled siRNA was used as a control...
March 22, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Sarath Chandra Veerla, Da Reum Kim, Sung Yun Yang
Background: Controlled drug delivery system is highly important for not only prolonged the efficacy of drug but also cellular development for tissue engineering. A number of biopolymer composites and nanostructured carriers behave been used for the controlled drug delivery of therapeutics. Recently, in vitro microfluidic devices that mimic the human body have been developed for drug-delivery applications. Methods: A microfluidic channel was fabricated via a two-step process: (i) polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and curing agent were poured with a 10:2 mass ratio onto an acrylic mold with two steel pipes, and (ii) calcium alginate beads were synthesized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Chu Shan Tan, Mun Fei Yam
Previous studies have demonstrated that 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) content in Orthosiphon stamineus fractions correlate with its vasorelaxation activity. Even with the availability of previous studies, there is still very little information on the vasorelaxation effect of TMF, and few scientific studies have been carried out. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxation activity and mechanism of action of the TMF. The vasorelaxation activity and the underlying mechanisms of TMF were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats...
March 19, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Dongxia Fu, Haibin Cui, Yunna Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. This study aims to investigate whether chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) is involved in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: ClC-2 expression was liver-specifically downregulated using adeno-associated virus in C57BL/6 mice treated with a chow diet or HFD for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and pathological estimation respectively...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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