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chloride channels

Martin W Nicholson, Aaron Sweeney, Eva Pekle, Sabina Alam, Afia B Ali, Michael Duchen, Jasmina N Jovanovic
Benzodiazepines facilitate the inhibitory actions of GABA by binding to γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs), GABA-gated chloride/bicarbonate channels, which are the key mediators of transmission at inhibitory synapses in the brain. This activity underpins potent anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines in patients. However, extended benzodiazepine treatments lead to development of tolerance, a process which, despite its important therapeutic implications, remains poorly characterised...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Andrew Thomas, Yashaswini Ramananda, Kyushik Mun, Anjaparavanda P Naren, Kavisha Arora
The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported a world-wide surge in cases of cholera caused by the intestinal pathogen Vibrio cholerae, and, combined, such surges have claimed several million lives, mostly in early childhood. Elevated cAMP production in intestinal epithelial cells challenged with cholera toxin (CTX) results in diarrhea due to chloride transport by a cAMP-activated channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). However, the identity of the main cAMP-producing proteins that regulate CFTR in the intestine and may be relevant for secretory diarrhea is unclear...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pan Li, Xuehua Zhang, Chunchao Hou, Lin Lin, Yong Chen, Tao He
Construction of solid solution semiconductors has attracted much attention in photocatalysis by virtue of their tunable elemental composition and band structure. The integration of semiconductor sensitizers with molecular catalysts provides a promising way to fabricate highly efficient, selective and stable systems for CO2 photoreduction. Here ZnxCd1-xS (ZCS) solid solutions with a well-defined floccule-like morphology composed of nanoribbons are synthesized and used as the photosensitizer to couple with tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin iron(iii) chloride (FeTCPP) for CO2 reduction...
June 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yan Song, Jian Gao, Lizhao Guan, Xiaoling Chen, Jianjun Gao, KeWei Wang
Overexpression of the Ca2+ -activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A is implicated in tumorigenesis, and inhibition of ANO1 overexpression suppresses xenograft tumor growth and invasiveness. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for ANO1 inhibition in suppression of tumorigenesis remains unknown. Here, we show that silencing or inhibition of endogenous ANO1 inhibits cell growth, induces apoptosis and upregulates TNF-α expression in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Enhancement of TNF-α signaling by ANO1 knockdown leads to upregulation of phosphorylated Fas-associated protein with death domain and caspase activation...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Feng Jing, Haijiang Li, Dan Yang, Tao Chen, Yuexian Liu, Lidan Yu
OBJECTIVE: To detect potential mutations of chloride channel l (CLCN1) gene in a family affected with myotonia congenita. METHODS: Clinical data of the proband and her parents and brother was collected. The coding regions of the CLCN1 gene were subjected to PCR and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Two missense mutations (c.937G>A and c.1205C>T), which were respectively located within exons 8 and 11 of the CLCN1 gene, were identified in the proband...
June 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Elisabeth E L Nyström, George M H Birchenough, Sjoerd van der Post, Liisa Arike, Achim D Gruber, Gunnar C Hansson, Malin E V Johansson
Many epithelial surfaces of the body are covered with protective mucus, and disrupted mucus homeostasis is coupled to diseases such as ulcerative colitis, helminth infection, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive lung disease. However, little is known how a balanced mucus system is maintained. By investigating the involvement of proteases in colonic mucus dynamics we identified metalloprotease activity to be a key contributor to mucus expansion. The effect was mediated by calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) as application of recombinant CLCA1 on intestinal mucus in freshly dissected tissue resulted in increased mucus thickness independently of ion and mucus secretion, but dependent on its metallohydrolase activity...
June 6, 2018: EBioMedicine
Mengmeng Li, Xiao Chen, Liang Chen, Kai Chen, Jianye Zhou, Jiangping Song
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that function as regulators of gene expression and thereby contribute to the complex disease phenotypes. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can cause sudden cardiac death and eventually develop into heart failure. However, they have different clinical and pathophysiological phenotype and the expressional spectrum of miRNAs in left ventricles of HCM and DCM has never been compared before. METHODS: This study selected 30 human left ventricular heart samples belonged to three diagnostic groups (Control, HCM, DCM)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Liang Wang, Hong Gao, Xiaoya Yang, Xiechou Liang, Qiuchan Tan, Zhanru Chen, Chan Zhao, Zhuoyu Gu, Meisheng Yu, Yanfang Zheng, Yanqing Huang, Linyan Zhu, Tim J C Jacob, Liwei Wang, Lixin Chen
Zoledronic acid (ZA), a third-generation bisphosphonate, has been applied for treatment of bone metastases caused by malignant tumors. Recent studies have found its anti-cancer effects on various tumor cells. One of the mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of ZA is induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of ZA-induced apoptosis in tumor cells have not been clarified clearly. In this study, we investigated the roles of chloride channels in ZA-induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Apoptosis and chloride current were induced by ZA and suppressed by chloride channel blockers...
June 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Christopher Engelhard, Igor Chizhov, Friedrich Siebert, Martin Engelhard
Early research on the four microbial rhodopsins discovered in the archaeal Halobacterium salinarum revealed a structural template that served as a scaffold for two different functions: light-driven ion transport and phototaxis. Bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin are proton and chloride pumps, respectively, while sensory rhodopsin I and II are responsible for phototactic behavior of the archaea. Halorhodopsins have been identified in various other species. Besides this group of archaeal halorhodopsins distinct chloride transporting rhodopsins groups have recently been identified in other organism like Flavobacteria or Cyanobacteria...
June 8, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Zhicai She, Li Li, Jie Meng, Zhen Jia, Huayong Que, Guofan Zhang
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an important cultivated shellfish. As a euryhaline species, it has evolved adaptive mechanisms responding to the complex and changeable intertidal environment that it inhabits. To investigate the genetic basis of this salinity adaptation mechanism, we conducted a genome-wide association study using phenotypically differentiated populations (hyposalinity and hypersalinity adaptation populations, and control population), and confirmed our results using an independent population, high-resolution melting, and mRNA expression analysis...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hikaru Hashitani, Retsu Mitsui, Kyoko Miwa-Nishimura, Michelle Lam
Mural cells in microvasculature of visceral organs develop spontaneous Ca2+ transients. However, the mechanisms underlying the integration of these Ca2+ transients within a microvascular unit remain to be elucidated. Here, the origin of spontaneous Ca2+ transients and their propagation in the bladder suburothelial microvasculature were explored. Cal-520 fluorescence Ca2+ imaging and immunohistochemistry were carried out on mural cells using mice expressing DsRed under control of the NG2 promotor. NG2(+) pericytes in both pre-capillary arterioles (PCAs) and capillaries developed synchronous spontaneous Ca2+ transients...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Bo Sun, Tingjun Fu, Hua Chun Zeng
Noble metal nanoparticles smaller than 2 nm were immobilized inside the channels of mesoporous silica via a self-assembly method using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as a structural directing agent. This general approach can be used for integration of various precious metals into mesoporous silica matrixes of ∼30 nm to achieve better matter utilisation and higher catalytic activity.
June 6, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Juan Martinez-Pinna, Sergi Soriano, Eva Tudurí, Angel Nadal, Fernando de Castro
Ca2+ -activated ion channels shape membrane excitability in response to elevations in intracellular Ca2+ . The most extensively studied Ca2+ -sensitive ion channels are Ca2+ -activated K+ channels, whereas the physiological importance of Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels has been poorly studied. Here we show that a Ca2+ -activated Cl- currents (CaCCs) modulate repetitive firing in mouse sympathetic ganglion cells. Electrophysiological recording of mouse sympathetic neurons in an in vitro preparation of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) identifies neurons with two different firing patterns in response to long depolarizing current pulses (1 s)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pin-Hsun Hsieh, Cheng-En Tsai, Bor-Chen Chang, Kwang-Hwa Lii
A new borate fluoride, Ba2 B5 O9 F·0.5H2 O, has been synthesized by high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal method, characterized by a combination of techniques and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group P4̅ n2 (No. 118) and powder SHG measurements were performed to confirm the absence of a center of symmetry. Its crystal structure is formed of a new fundamental building block which shares oxygen atoms with neighboring blocks to form a 3D borate framework with 12- and 8-ring channels where the Ba2+ cations, F- anions, and water molecules are located...
June 4, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Anne Hahn, Johanna J Salomon, Dominik Leitz, Dennis Feigenbutz, Lisa Korsch, Ina Lisewski, Katrin Schrimpf, Pamela Millar-Büchner, Marcus A Mall, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Physiological processes of vital importance are often safeguarded by compensatory systems that substitute for primary processes in case these are damaged by gene mutation. Ca2+ -dependent Cl- secretion in airway epithelial cells may provide such a compensatory mechanism for impaired Cl- secretion via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels in cystic fibrosis (CF). Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) Ca2+ -gated Cl- channels are known to contribute to calcium-dependent Cl- secretion in tracheal and bronchial epithelia...
June 2, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mohammad Yaser Khani Meynaq, Britta Lindholm-Sethson, Solomon Tesfalidet
HYPOTHESIS: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is useful to monitor anionic interactions with a Lipid Cubic Phase, as previously demonstrated for cationic interaction (Khani Meynaq et al., 2016). It was expected that the smaller hydrophilic anions, acetate and chloride, would interact differently than the large tryptophan anion with its hydrophobic tail. EXPERIMENT: The impedance measurements enabled estimation of resistances and capacitances of a freestanding lipid cubic phase membrane at exposure to 4 and 40 mM solutions of NaCl, NaOAc and NaTrp...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Simona Portaro, Alberto Cacciola, Antonino Naro, Demetrio Milardi, Rosa Morabito, Francesco Corallo, Silvia Marino, Alessia Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
RATIONALE: Myotonia congenita (MC) is a non-dystrophic myotonia inherited either in dominant (Thomsen) or recessive (Becker) form. MC is due to an abnormal functioning of skeletal muscle voltage-gated chloride channel (CLCN1), but the genotype/phenotype correlation remains unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 48-year-old man, from consanguineous parents, presented with a fixed muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and a cognitive impairment. Notably, his brother presented the same mutation but with a different phenotype, mainly involving cognitive function...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thomas J Jentsch, Michael Pusch
CLC anion transporters are found in all phyla and form a gene family of eight members in mammals. Two CLC proteins, each of which completely contains an ion translocation parthway, assemble to homo- or heteromeric dimers that sometimes require accessory β-subunits for function. CLC proteins come in two flavors: anion channels and anion/proton exchangers. Structures of these two CLC protein classes are surprisingly similar. Extensive structure-function analysis identified residues involved in ion permeation, anion-proton coupling and gating and led to attractive biophysical models...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Eunyong Park, Roderick MacKinnon
CLC channels mediate passive Cl- conduction, while CLC transporters mediate active Cl- transport coupled to H+ transport in the opposite direction. The distinction between CLC-0/1/2 channels and CLC transporters seems undetectable by amino acid sequence. To understand why they are different functionally we determined the structure of the human CLC-1 channel. Its 'glutamate gate' residue, known to mediate proton transfer in CLC transporters, adopts a location in the structure that appears to preclude it from its transport function...
May 29, 2018: ELife
Wentao Yu, Ran Cui, Hong Qu, Chongdong Liu, Haiteng Deng, Zhenyu Zhang
The clinical significance of the chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) protein in ovarian cancer is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the association between CLIC1 expression, and clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. In this retrospective study, CLIC1 level was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The association between CLIC1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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