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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109183/chloride-ion-transport-and-overexpression-of-tmem16a-in-a-guinea-pig-asthma-model
#1
Mitsuko Kondo, Mayoko Tsuji, Kaori Hara, Ken Arimura, Osamitsu Yagi, Etsuko Tagaya, Kiyoshi Takeyama, Jun Tamaoki
BACKGROUND: TMEM16A, a Ca-activated Cl channel, regulates various physiological functions such as mucin secretion. However, the role of TMEM16A in hypersecretion in asthma is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate Cl ion transport via TMEM16A and determine the localization of TMEM16A in a guinea pig asthma model. METHODS: Guinea pigs were sensitized with OVA ip. on Day 1 and Day 8. On Day 22, we assessed OVA challenge-induced Cl ion transport in the sensitized tracheas ex vivo in an Ussing chamber, compared with the non-sensitized tracheas...
January 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104485/green-channel-autofluorescence-imaging-a-novel-and-sensitive-technique-to-delineate-infarcts
#2
Kang-Hoon Je, Wi-Sun Ryu, Su-Kyoung Lee, Eo Jin Kim, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Hee Jeong Jang, Jung E Park, Matthias Nahrendorf, Dawid Schellingerhout, Dong-Eog Kim
BACKGROUND: We have found that infarcted brain regions exhibit green channel autofluorescence (GCAF). Here, we compare ex vivo GCAF-imaging with 2,3,5-triphenylteterazolium chloride (TTC)-staining. NEW METHOD: C57BL/6 mice (n=120) underwent GCAF-imaging after transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or pMCAO). COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: TTC-staining may not reflect subtle ischemic injury. TTC-stained tissues, when reused, are prone to processing artifacts related to prior TTC-staining...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101447/functional-coupling-of-v-atpase-and-clc-5
#3
REVIEW
Nobuhiko Satoh, Masashi Suzuki, Motonobu Nakamura, Atsushi Suzuki, Shoko Horita, George Seki, Kyoji Moriya
Dent's disease is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and progressive renal failure. Disease aetiology is associated with mutations in the CLCN5 gene coding for the electrogenic 2Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter chloride channel 5 (CLC-5), which is expressed in the apical endosomes of renal proximal tubules with the vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Initially identified as a member of the CLC family of Cl(-) channels, CLC-5 was presumed to provide Cl(-) shunt into the endosomal lumen to dissipate H(+) accumulation by V-ATPase, thereby facilitating efficient endosomal acidification...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099811/nanomolar-potency-aminophenyl-1-3-5-triazine-activators-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-cftr-chloride-channel-for-pro-secretory-therapy-of-dry-eye-diseases
#4
Sujin Lee, Puay-Wah Phuan, Christian M Felix, Joseph-Anthony Tan, Marc H Levin, Alan S Verkman
Dry eye disorders are a significant health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. CFTR is a major pro-secretory chloride channel at the ocular surface. We previously identified, by high-throughput screening, aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine CFTRact-K089 (1) that activated CFTR with EC50 ~250 nM, which when delivered topically increased tear fluid secretion in mice and showed efficacy in an experimental dry eye model. Here, functional analysis of aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine analogs elucidated structure-activity relationships for CFTR activation and identified substantially more potent analogs than 1...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098465/rejection-of-commonly-used-electrolyte-in-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-effects-of-membrane-molecular-weight-cut-off-size-fluid-dynamics-and-valence-of-electrolytes
#5
Thilak K Mudalige, Haiou Qu, Sean W Linder
Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) is an efficient size based separation technique for the characterization of submicron size particulates. In AF4, membranes having various molecular weight cut-off sizes are used as a barrier to retain particles while allowing carrier fluid containing electrolytes to permeate. Here, we hypothesized that electrolyte rejection by the barrier membrane lead to the accumulation of the electrolytes in the channel during operation. Electrolyte accumulation can cause various adverse effects which can lead to membrane fouling...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096462/unique-contributions-of-an-arginine-side-chain-to-ligand-recognition-in-a-glutamate-gated-chloride-channel
#6
Timothy Lynagh, Vitaly V Komnatnyy, Stephan A Pless
Glutamate recognition by neurotransmitter receptors often relies on arginine (Arg) residues in the binding site, leading to the assumption that charge-charge interactions underlie ligand recognition. However, assessing the precise chemical contribution of Arg side chains to protein function and pharmacology has proven to be exceedingly difficult in such large and complex proteins. Using the in vivo nonsense suppression approach, we report the first successful incorporation of the isosteric, titratable Arg analog, canavanine, into a neurotransmitter receptor in a living cell, utilizing a glutamate-gated chloride channel from the nematode Haemonchus contortus...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094030/glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-protein-regulates-sodium-and-potassium-balance-in-the-distal-nephron
#7
Priyanka Rashmi, GianLuca Colussi, Michael Ng, Xinhao Wu, Atif Kidwai, David Pearce
Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) is an aldosterone-regulated protein that controls sodium transport in cultured kidney epithelial cells. Mice lacking GILZ have been reported previously to have electrolyte abnormalities. However, the mechanistic basis has not been explored. Here we provide evidence supporting a role for GILZ in modulating the balance of renal sodium and potassium excretion by regulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity in the distal nephron. Gilz(-/-) mice have a higher plasma potassium concentration and lower fractional excretion of potassium than wild type mice...
January 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093304/chloride-conducting-light-activated-channel-gtacr2-can-produce-both-cessation-of-firing-and-generation-of-action-potentials-in-cortical-neurons-in-response-to-light
#8
A Y Malyshev, M V Roshchin, G R Smirnova, D A Dolgikh, P M Balaban, M A Ostrovsky
Optogenetics is a powerful technique in neuroscience that provided a great success in studying the brain functions during the last decade. Progress of optogenetics crucially depends on development of new molecular tools. Light-activated cation-conducting channelrhodopsin2 was widely used for excitation of cells since the emergence of optogenetics. In 2015 a family of natural light activated chloride channels GtACR was identified which appeared to be a very promising tool for using in optogenetics experiments as a cell silencer...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088107/gaas-laser-therapy-reestablishes-the-morphology-of-the-nmj-and-nachrs-after-injury-due-to-bupivacaine
#9
Cristiane Neves Alessi Pissulin, Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Flávio Codina, Carina Guidi Pinto, Ivan Jose Vechetti-Junior, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics are used to relieve pre- and postoperative pain, acting on both sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Bupivacaine acts as a non-competitive antagonist and has limitations, such as myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and analgesic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a gallium arsenide laser (GaAs) on the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after application of bupivacaine in the sternomastoid muscle...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079883/cysteamine-re-establishes-the-clearance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-macrophages-bearing-the-cystic-fibrosis-relevant-f508del-cftr-mutation
#10
Eleonora Ferrari, Romina Monzani, Valeria R Villella, Speranza Esposito, Francesca Saluzzo, Federica Rossin, Manuela D'Eletto, Antonella Tosco, Fabiola De Gregorio, Valentina Izzo, Maria C Maiuri, Guido Kroemer, Valeria Raia, Luigi Maiuri
Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074656/atomistic-modeling-of-ion-conduction-through-the-voltage-sensing-domain-of-the-shaker-k-ion-channel
#11
Mona L Wood, J Alfredo Freites, Francesco Tombola, Douglas J Tobias
Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are modular membrane protein units that sense changes in the membrane electrostatic potential, and through conformational changes, regulate a specific function. The VSDs of voltage-dependent K+, Na+, and Ca2+ channels do not conduct ions under physiological conditions, but they can become ion-permeable under pathological conditions through mutations in the voltage sensor, particularly of basic residues (mostly arginines) in the S4 helix. Relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms of conduction through VSDs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071216/disinhibition-of-the-rat-prelimbic-cortex-promotes-serotonergic-activation-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-and-panicolytic-like-behavioral-effects
#12
Paula Sm Yamashita, Ailton Spiacci, James E Hassel, Christopher A Lowry, Helio Zangrossi
Several studies have shown that serotonin plays a dual role in the modulation of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic. A major source of serotonergic projections to limbic structures responsible for this modulation is the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anatomical studies indicate that the prelimbic (PL) cortex sends dense glutamatergic projections to the DR, leading to stimulation or inhibition of serotonin release in structures innervated by the DR. The objective of the present study was to investigate if GABAergic disinhibition of the PL by means of local administration of picrotoxin (PIC), a chloride channel blocker, can affect serotonergic tone and the expression of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067240/cd8-t-cells-stimulate-na-cl-co-transporter-ncc-in-distal-convoluted-tubules-leading-to-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#13
Yunmeng Liu, Tonya M Rafferty, Sung W Rhee, Jessica S Webber, Li Song, Benjamin Ko, Robert S Hoover, Beixiang He, Shengyu Mu
Recent studies suggest a role for T lymphocytes in hypertension. However, whether T cells contribute to renal sodium retention and salt-sensitive hypertension is unknown. Here we demonstrate that T cells infiltrate into the kidney of salt-sensitive hypertensive animals. In particular, CD8(+) T cells directly contact the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) in the kidneys of DOCA-salt mice and CD8(+) T cell-injected mice, leading to up-regulation of the Na-Cl co-transporter NCC, p-NCC and the development of salt-sensitive hypertension...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056803/de-novo-transcriptome-and-expression-profile-analyses-of-the-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis-reveals-relevant-flubendiamide-response-genes
#14
Li Cui, Changhui Rui, Daibin Yang, Zhenying Wang, Huizhu Yuan
BACKGROUND: The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging insect pest of corn in Asia. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinders our further understanding of ACB in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. Here, we used the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) Sequencer to explore the ACB transcriptome and to identify relevant genes in response to flubendiamide, showing high selective activity against ACB...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053034/simultaneous-loss-of-nckx4-and-cng-channel-desensitization-impairs-olfactory-sensitivity
#15
Christopher H Ferguson, Haiqing Zhao
: In vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Ca(2+) plays key roles in both mediating and regulating the olfactory response. Ca(2+) enters OSN cilia during the response through the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel and stimulates a depolarizing chloride current by opening the olfactory Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel to amplify the response. Ca(2+) also exerts negative regulation on the olfactory transduction cascade, through mechanisms that include reducing the CNG current by desensitizing the CNG channel via Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM), to reduce the response...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046119/permeation-mechanisms-in-the-tmem16b-calcium-activated-chloride-channels
#16
Simone Pifferi
TMEM16A and TMEM16B encode for Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) and are expressed in many cell types and play a relevant role in many physiological processes. Here, I performed a site-directed mutagenesis study to understand the molecular mechanisms of ion permeation of TMEM16B. I mutated two positive charged residues R573 and K540, respectively located at the entrance and inside the putative channel pore and I measured the properties of wild-type and mutant TMEM16B channels expressed in HEK-293 cells using whole-cell and excised inside-out patch clamp experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045581/overexpression-of-the-pp2a-c5-gene-confers-increased-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Rongbin Hu, Yinfeng Zhu, Guoxin Shen, Hong Zhang
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways in plants. PP2A is made of three subunits: a scaffolding subunit A, a regulatory subunit B, and a catalytic subunit C. It is believed that the B subunit recognizes specific substrates and the C subunit directly acts on the selected substrates, whereas the A subunit brings a B subunit and a C subunit together to form a specific PP2A holoenzyme. Because there are multiple isoforms for each PP2A subunit, there could be hundreds of novel PP2A holoenzymes in plants...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043338/molecular-diagnostics-for-detecting-pyrethroid-and-abamectin-resistance-mutations-in-tetranychus-urticae
#18
Aris Ilias, Vassilis A Vassiliou, John Vontas, Anastasia Tsagkarakou
Avermectin and pyrethroid resistance mutations (the G314D and the G326E in the glutamate gated chloride channels, and the F1538I in the voltage gated sodium channel) have been reported in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, one of the most devastating pests of protected and open field crops worldwide. We developed three TaqMan molecular diagnostic assays for monitoring the presence and frequency of these mutations in T. urticae field populations. The TaqMan assays were validated against known genotypes and subsequently used to monitor the frequency of the resistance mutations in eleven T...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040564/role-of-potassium-channels-in-chlorogenic-acid-induced-apoptotic-volume-decrease-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-candida-albicans
#19
JiEun Yun, Dong Gun Lee
BACKGROUND: Chlorogenic acid (CRA) is an abundant phenolic compound in the human diet. CRA has a potent antifungal effect, inducing cell death in Candida albicans. However, there are no further studies to investigate the antifungal mechanism of CRA, associated with ion channels. METHODS: To evaluate the inhibitory effects on CRA-induced cell death, C. albicans cells were pretreated with potassium and chloride channel blockers, separately. Flow cytometry was carried out to detect several hallmarks of apoptosis, such as cell cycle arrest, caspase activation, and DNA fragmentation, after staining of the cells with SYTOX green, FITC-VAD-FMK, and TUNEL...
December 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027799/regulation-of-epithelial-ion-transport-in-exocrine-glands-by-store-operated-ca-2-entry
#20
REVIEW
Axel R Concepcion, Stefan Feske
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a conserved mechanism of Ca(2+) influx that regulates Ca(2+) signaling in many cell types. SOCE is activated by depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in response to physiological agonist stimulation. After it was first postulated by J.W. Putney Jr. in 1986, SOCE has been described in a large number of non-excitable cell types including secretory cells of different exocrine glands. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which SOCE controls salt and fluid secretion in exocrine glands, with a special focus on eccrine sweat glands...
December 21, 2016: Cell Calcium
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