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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727479/extracellular-chloride-is-required-for-efficient-platelet-aggregation
#1
Kirk A Taylor, Darren G S Wilson, Matthew T Harper, Nicholas Pugh
Anion channels perform a diverse range of functions and have been implicated in ATP release, volume regulation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelets have been shown to express several anion channels but their function is incompletely understood. Due to a paucity of specific pharmacological blockers, we investigated the effect of extracellular chloride substitution on platelet activation using aggregometry and flow cytometry. In the absence of extracellular chloride, we observed a modest reduction of the maximum aggregation response to thrombin or collagen-related peptide...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723651/suppression-of-clc-3-chloride-channel-reduces-the-aggressiveness-of-glioma-through-inhibiting-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#2
Bing Wang, Jing Xie, Hai-Yong He, En-Wen Huang, Qing-Hua Cao, Lun Luo, Yong-Shi Liao, Ying Guo
CLC-3 chloride channel plays important roles on cell volume regulation, proliferation and migration in normal and cancer cells. Recent growing evidence supports a critical role of CLC-3 in glioma metastasis, however, the mechanism underlying is unclear. This study finds that CLC-3 is upregulated in glioma tissues and positively correlated with WHO histological grade. Patients with high CLC-3 expression had an overall shorter survival time, whereas patients with low expression of CLC-3 had a better survival time...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723110/portable-sensor-for-the-detection-of-choline-and-its-derivatives-based-on-silica-isoporous-membrane-and-gellified-nanointerfaces
#3
Lisiqi Xie, Xiao Huang, Bin Su
A portable amperometric ion sensor was fabricated by integrating silica isoporous membrane (SIM) and organogel composed of polyvinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (PVC-DCE) on a 3D-printed polymer chip. The detection of ionic species in aqueous samples could be accomplished by adding a microliter of sample droplet to the sensor and by identifying the ion-transfer potential and current magnitude at the water/organogel interface array templated by SIM. Thanks to the ultrasmall channel size (2-3 nm in diameter), high channel density (4 × 10(8) μm(-2)), and ultrathin thickness (80 nm) of SIM, the ensemble of nanoscopic water/organogel (nano-W/Gel) interface array behaved like a microinterface with two back-to-back hemispherical mass diffusion zones...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722226/biology-of-slac1-type-anion-channels-from-nutrient-uptake-to-stomatal-closure
#4
REVIEW
Rainer Hedrich, Dietmar Geiger
Contents 1 I. 1 II. 2 III. 5 IV. 8 V. 11 VI. 12 13 13 References 13 SUMMARY: Stomatal guard cells control leaf CO2 intake and concomitant water loss to the atmosphere. When photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is limited and the ratio of CO2 intake to transpiration becomes suboptimal, guard cells, sensing the rise in CO2 concentration in the substomatal cavity, deflate and the stomata close. Screens for mutants that do not close in response to experimentally imposed high CO2 atmospheres identified the guard cell-expressed Slowly activating anion channel, SLAC1, as the key player in the regulation of stomatal closure...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720884/molecular-tools-for-gabaa-receptors-high-affinity-ligands-for-%C3%AE-1-containing-subtypes
#5
Xenia Simeone, David C B Siebert, Konstantina Bampali, Zdravko Varagic, Marco Treven, Sabah Rehman, Jakob Pyszkowski, Raphael Holzinger, Friederike Steudle, Petra Scholze, Marko D Mihovilovic, Michael Schnürch, Margot Ernst
γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are pentameric GABA-gated chloride channels that are, in mammalians, drawn from a repertoire of 19 different genes, namely α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, θ, π and ρ1-3. The existence of this wide variety of subunits as well as their diverse assembly into different subunit compositions result in miscellaneous receptor subtypes. In combination with the large number of known and putative allosteric binding sites, this leads to a highly complex pharmacology. Recently, a novel binding site at extracellular α+/β- interfaces was described as the site of modulatory action of several pyrazoloquinolinones...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713271/luminally-acting-agents-for-constipation-treatment-a-review-based-on-literatures-and-patents
#6
REVIEW
Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma
Constipation is one of the most frequently reported gastrointestinal (GI) disorders that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with a significant economic burden to the patients and society. Traditional treatments including lifestyle modification and laxatives are often ineffective in the more severe forms of constipation and over the long term. New medications targeting at intestinal chloride channels and colonic serotonin receptors have been demonstrated effective in recent years. Emerging agents focusing on improving intestinal secretion and/or colonic motility have been shown effective in animal models and even in clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706458/electrophysiological-characteristics-of-r47w-and-a298t-mutations-in-clc-1-of-myotonia-congenita-patients-and-evaluation-of-clinical-features
#7
Hyung Jin Chin, Chan Hyeong Kim, Kotdaji Ha, Jin Hong Shin, Dae-Seong Kim, Insuk So
Myotonia congenita (MC) is a genetic disease that displays impaired relaxation of skeletal muscle and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is mainly caused by mutations of CLCN1 that encodes human skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLC-1). CLC-1 is a voltage gated chloride channel that activates upon depolarizing potentials and play a major role in stabilization of resting membrane potentials in skeletal muscle. In this study, we report 4 unrelated Korean patients diagnosed with myotonia congenita and their clinical features...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694756/electro-pharmacological-profiles-of-two-brain-mitoplast-anion-channels-inferences-from-single-channel-recording
#8
Javad Fahanik-Babaei, Farzad Shayanfar, Naser Khodaee, Reza Saghiri, Afsaneh Eliassi
We have characterized the conduction and blocking properties of two different chloride channels from brain mitochondrial inner membranes after incorporation into planar lipid bilayers. Our experiments revealed the existence of channels with a mean conductance of 158 ± 7 and 301 ± 8 pS in asymmetrical 200 mM cis/50 mM trans KCl solutions. We determined that the channels were ten times more permeable for Cl(-) than for K(+), calculated from the reversal potential using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. The channels were bell-shaped voltage dependent, with maximum open probability 0...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692650/expression-purification-and-contaminant-detection-for-structural-studies-of-ralstonia-metallidurance-clc-protein-rm1
#9
Priyanka D Abeyrathne, Nikolaus Grigorieff
Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a popular method for high-resolution study of the structural and functional properties of proteins. However, sufficient expression and purification of membrane proteins holds many challenges. We describe methods to overcome these obstacles using ClC-rm1, a prokaryotic chloride channel (ClC) family protein from Ralstonia metallidurans, overexpressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) strain. Mass spectrometry and electron microscopy analyses of purified samples revealed multiple contaminants that can obfuscate results of subsequent high-resolution structural analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680296/distribution-and-function-of-the-bestrophin-1-best1-channel-in-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee
Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel identified from retinal pigment epithelium where human mutations are associated with Best's macular degeneration. Best1 is known to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain, and is thought to be involved in many physiological processes. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on aspects of expression and function of Best1 in the brain. Best1 protein is observed in cortical and hippocampal astrocytes, in cerebellar Bergmann glia and lamellar astrocytes, in thalamic reticular neurons, in meninges and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678861/ecstasy-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-kidney-water-absorption-and-rhabdomyolysis-in-normal-rats-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-and-allopurinol-in-oxidative-stress-and-muscle-fiber-damage
#11
Ana C de Bragança, Regina L M Moreau, Thales de Brito, Maria H M Shimizu, Daniele Canale, Denise A de Jesus, Ana M G Silva, Pedro H Gois, Antonio C Seguro, Antonio J Magaldi
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy (Ec) use produces hyperthermia, excessive sweating, intense thirst, an inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and a multisystemic toxicity due to oxidative stress (OS). Intense thirst induces high intake of pure water, which associated with SIADH, usually develops into acute hyponatremia (Hn). As Hn is induced rapidly, experiments to check if Ec acted directly on the Inner Medullary Collecting Ducts (IMCD) of rats were conducted. Rhabdomyolysis and OS were also studied because Ec is known to induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and tissue damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675213/catching-the-chloride-searching-for-non-hofmeister-selectivity-behavior-in-systematically-varied-polyamide-macrocyclic-receptors
#12
Kajetan Dabrowa, Filip Ulatowski, Dawid Lichosyt, Janusz Jurczak
The binding selectivity of structurally simple anion receptors is governed by the Hofmeister series (SO4(2-) > HPO4(2-) > carboxylates ∼ H2PO4(-) > HCO3(-) > Cl(-)), and exceptions to this rule are rare and require utilization of structurally sophisticated receptors. In this paper we examined a set of 48 structurally diverse anion receptors, barely one fourth of which exhibit selectivity for chloride over more basic dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4(-)) or carboxylates (MeCO2(-) and PhCO2(-)). Searching for regularities in the properties of these mainly macrocyclic-derived receptors across quite systematic changes in structure, combined with analysis of multiple crystal structures, allowed us to identify the crucial structural features that are likely required for the occurrence of the phenomenon of selective chloride binding...
July 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670699/the-desert-plant-phoenix-dactylifera-closes-stomata-via-nitrate-regulated-slac1-anion-channel
#13
Heike M Müller, Nadine Schäfer, Hubert Bauer, Dietmar Geiger, Silke Lautner, Jörg Fromm, Markus Riederer, Amauri Bueno, Thomas Nussbaumer, Klaus Mayer, Saleh A Alquraishi, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Erwin Neher, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Peter Ache, Rainer Hedrich
Date palm Phoenix dactylifera is a desert crop well adapted to survive and produce fruits under extreme drought and heat. How are palms under such harsh environmental conditions able to limit transpirational water loss? Here, we analysed the cuticular waxes, stomata structure and function, and molecular biology of guard cells from P. dactylifera. To understand the stomatal response to the water stress phytohormone of the desert plant, we cloned the major elements necessary for guard cell fast abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and reconstituted this ABA signalosome in Xenopus oocytes...
July 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670393/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-decreases-pulmonary-clearance-of-99m-tc-labelled-particulate-matter-in-mice
#14
Cuiping Fu, Huan Lu, Xu Wu, Jie Liu, Chengying Liu, Zilong Liu, Wei Yuan, Jian Zhou, Shanqun Li
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) could cause systematic inflammation including pulmonary inflammatory response, whereas the influence of OSAHS in pulmonary clearance ability remains unknown. The main pathophysiological feature of OSAHS is chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The goal of this study is to clarify the airway clearance of particulate matter (PM) in CIH mice, and to explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into a CIH group and a control group, exposed to intermittent hypoxia and air chamber, respectively...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668375/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-channels-trpm2-mediate-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#15
Sammen Huang, Ekaterina Turlova, Feiya Li, Mei-Hua Bao, Vivian Szeto, Raymond Wong, Ahmed Abussaud, Haitao Wang, Shuzhen Zhu, Xinzheng Gao, Yasuo Mori, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel, is reported to mediate brain damage following ischemic insults in adult mice. However, the role of TRPM2 channels in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury remains unknown. We hypothesize that TRPM2(+/-) and TRPM2(-/-) neonatal mice have reduced hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. To study the effect of TRPM2 on neonatal brain damage, we used 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining to assess the infarct volume and whole brain imaging to assess morphological changes in the brain...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668031/ultrafast-proton-migration-and-coulomb-explosion-of-methyl-chloride-in-intense-laser-fields
#16
Pan Ma, Chuncheng Wang, Xiaokai Li, Xitao Yu, Xu Tian, Wenhui Hu, Jiaqi Yu, Sizuo Luo, Dajun Ding
We investigated the ultrafast proton migration and the Coulomb explosion (CE) dynamics of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in intense femtosecond laser fields at the wavelengths of 800 nm (5.5 × 10(14) W/cm(2)) and 400 nm (4 × 10(14) W/cm(2)), respectively. Various fragment channels from molecular dication and trication were observed by coincidence momentum imaging through the measurement of their kinetic energy releases (KERs). The proton migration from different charged parent ions was analyzed from the obtained KER distributions...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666267/cell-specific-regulation-of-proliferation-by-ano1-tmem16a-in-breast-cancer-with-different-er-pr-and-her2-status
#17
Huizhe Wu, Hui Wang, Shu Guan, Jing Zhang, Qiuchen Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Ke Ma, Pengfei Zhao, Haishan Zhao, Weifan Yao, Feng Jin, Qinghuan Xiao, Minjie Wei
The calcium-activated chloride channel Ano1 (TMEM16A) is overexpressed in many tumors. However, conflicting data exist regarding the role of Ano1 in cell proliferation. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in 403 patients with breast cancer, and analyzed the association between the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in breast cancer subtypes categorized according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665275/immune-disorders-induced-by-exposure-to-pyrethroid-insecticides
#18
Justyna Skolarczyk, Joanna Pekar, Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka
Pyrethroids are biocides, which belong to the third generation of insecticides. They are used as biocides, insecticides and medicines. These agents react selectively, because they are less harmful to birds and mammals (due to poor intestinal absorption and rapid detoxification in the body of homeothermic organisms) and they are poisonous for fish and insects. The aim of the article is to present the current state of knowledge on the effects of pyrethroids on the immune system based on the latest scientific research...
June 8, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664138/naringenin-inhibits-pacemaking-activity-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-from-murine-small-intestine
#19
Hyun Jung Kim, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Naringenin (NRG) is a common dietary polyphenolic constituent of fruits. NRG has diverse pharmacological activities, and is used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells of the GI tract. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of NRG on ICCs and on GI motility in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: ICCs were dissociated from mouse small intestines by enzymatic digestion...
June 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657312/molecular-dynamics-flexible-fitting-simulations-identify-new-models-of-the-closed-state-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-protein
#20
Luba Simhaev, Nael A McCarty, Robert C Ford, Hanoch Senderowitz
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal, genetic disease found in particular in humans of European origin which is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. The search for CF therapies acting by modulating the impaired function of mutant CFTR will be greatly advanced by high resolution structures of CFTR in different states. To date, two medium resolution electron microscopy (EM) structures of CFTR are available (one of a distant zebrafish (Danio rerio) CFTR ortholog and one of human CFTR)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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