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Hepatitis c, lung cancer

Chia-Yen Dai, Yi-Shan Tsai, Wen-Wen Chou, Tawei Liu, Chung-Feng Huang, Shu-Chi Wang, Pei-Chien Tsai, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
Background/Aims: MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) has been found to regulate inflammation and acts as an oncogene in many cancers. The mechanisms of miR-125b expression during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be clarified. The present study aims to identify the factors that might regulate miR-125b expression in HCV infection. Results: High expression of miR-125b was found to correlate with HCV infection in replicon cells and in sera from HCV-infected patients, whereas the miR-125b inhibitor reduced HCV gene expression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
W-H Hsu, J C-H Yang, T S Mok, H H Loong
Front-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) therapy is the standard of care for lung cancer patients with sensitising EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletion or L858R mutation). Several phase III studies have demonstrated the superiority of gefitinib, erlotinib (first generation of TKIs) or afatinib (second generation) to chemotherapy in progression-free survival and response rates. Drug-related toxicities, such as diarrhoea, acneiform skin rash, mucositis, and paronychia, are frequently encountered in patients who receive EGFR TKIs...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Kazuhide Shimamatsu, Yoshiki Naito, Yutaro Mihara, Masamichi Nakayama, Masahiko Tanigawa, Yushi Abe, Ken Nakamura, Toshihiro Araki, Kenji Sakata, Kazunori Noguchi, Jun Akiba, Hirohisa Yano, Osamu Nakashima
The present case study documents an autopsy case of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), with an associated invasive carcinoma of the pancreas. A 65-year-old woman presented to Omuta City Hospital (Omuta Japan) with a primary complaint of abdominal pain. Multiple liver nodules and a pancreatic cyst were detected upon abdominal computed tomography. Initially, liver abscess was suspected as the patient exhibited leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein level...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
E E Vokes, N Ready, E Felip, L Horn, M A Burgio, S J Antonia, O Arén Frontera, S Gettinger, E Holgado, D Spigel, D Waterhouse, M Domine, M Garassino, L Q M Chow, G Blumenschein, F Barlesi, B Coudert, J Gainor, O Arrieta, J Brahmer, C Butts, M Steins, W J Geese, A Li, D Healey, L Crinò
Background: Long-term data with immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited. Two phase III trials demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) and a favorable safety profile with the anti-programmed death-1 antibody nivolumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced squamous (CheckMate 017) and non-squamous (CheckMate 057) NSCLC. We report results from ≥3 years' follow-up, including subgroup analyses of patients with liver metastases, who historically have poorer prognosis among patients with NSCLC...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Anita Kothapalli, Muhammad A Khattak
Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have shown durable long-term survival benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma. Limited evidence exists on the safety and efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections as these patients have traditionally been excluded from clinical trials because of a theoretical risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. We aim to determine the safety and efficacy of treatment with PD-1 inhibitors in seven patients with HBV/HCV infection and concurrent metastatic melanoma or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
February 5, 2018: Melanoma Research
Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Lucey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review the current status of liver transplantation for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). RECENT FINDINGS: Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) will increase as a source of patients requiring liver transplantation. Attitudes to use of liver transplantation as rescue therapy for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis are changing. The long-term health of ALD liver transplantation recipients requires continued assistance to patients with AUD...
February 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Roberta D'Ambrosio, Alessio Aghemo, Maria Grazia Rumi, Elisabetta Degasperi, Angelo Sangiovanni, Marco Maggioni, Mirella Fraquelli, Riccardo Perbellini, William Rosenberg, Pierre Bedossa, Massimo Colombo, Pietro Lampertico
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, a SVR may lead to cirrhosis regression. Whether histological changes translate into prevention of long-term complications, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. This was investigated in a cohort of histological cirrhotics who had been prospectively followed-up for 10 years after the achievement of a SVR to IFN. METHODS: 38 SVR cirrhotics who underwent a liver biopsy (LB) 5 years post-SVR were prospectively followed to assess the impact of cirrhosis regression on clinical endpoints...
January 27, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Meng-Xi Liu, Lei Jin, Si-Jia Sun, Peng Liu, Xu Feng, Zhou-Li Cheng, Wei-Ren Liu, Kun-Liang Guan, Ying-Hong Shi, Hai-Xin Yuan, Yue Xiong
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK or PCK) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis pathway to maintain blood glucose levels. Mammalian cells express two PCK genes, encoding for a cytoplasmic (PCPEK-C or PCK1) and a mitochondrial (PEPCK-M or PCK2) isoforms, respectively. Increased expressions of both PCK genes are found in cancer of several organs, including colon, lung, and skin, and linked to increased anabolic metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we report that the expressions of both PCK1 and PCK2 genes are downregulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and low PCK expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC...
January 16, 2018: Oncogene
Marcus D Goncalves, Seo-Kyoung Hwang, Chantal Pauli, Charles J Murphy, Zhe Cheng, Benjamin D Hopkins, David Wu, Ryan M Loughran, Brooke M Emerling, Guoan Zhang, Douglas T Fearon, Lewis C Cantley
The cancer anorexia cachexia syndrome is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by the catabolism of stored nutrients in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that is particularly prevalent in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of skeletal muscle results in functional impairments and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in systemic metabolism in a genetically engineered mouse model of NSCLC. We show that a portion of these animals develop loss of skeletal muscle, loss of adipose tissue, and increased inflammatory markers mirroring the human cachexia syndrome...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yusuke Tanaka, Isao Matsumoto, Daisuke Saito, Syuhei Yoshida, Seiichi Kakegawa, Masaya Tamura, Hirofumi Takemura
It is often difficult to control perioperative bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis and concurrent thrombocytopenia and coagulation factor deficiency. Partial splenic embolization (PSE), an auxiliary treatment strategy in management of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, can not only increase platelets but also improve liver function. With advances in interventional radiology, PSE is a safer and more reliable procedure compared to a splenectomy. We present the case of a 69-year-old man diagnosed with left lung cancer, with thrombocytopenia, and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis...
December 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Tufan Egeli, Tarkan Unek, Mucahit Ozbilgin, Cihan Agalar, Serhan Derici, Mesut Akarsu, Ilkay Tugba Unek, Murat Aysin, Aylin Bacakoglu, Ibrahim Astarcıoglu
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to analyze characteristics, risk factors, and incidence of de novo malignancies after liver transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hospital records of 557 patients who underwent liver transplant were analyzed from the point of de novo malignancy development. We evaluated the demographic features and survival of these patients retrospectively. RESULTS: The research covered 429 patients, 9 (2%) of whom developed de novo malignancy...
December 14, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Chipman Rg Stroud, Aparna Hegde, Cynthia Cherry, Abdul R Naqash, Nitika Sharma, Srikala Addepalli, Sulochana Cherukuri, Teresa Parent, Jessica Hardin, Paul Walker
Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors are poised to revolutionize the management of a growing number of malignancies. Unfortunately, the management of steroid-refractory immune mediated adverse events is based on a paucity of randomized data and limited to single center experiences. Our initial experience with the IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab showed clinical improvement in a wide variety of irAEs. As a result, we adopted the use of tocilizumab for the management of steroid refractory irAEs. Methods The character and clinical course of irAEs were abstracted from the medical record and analyzed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Sandra Beinhardt, Ramona Al-Zoairy, Karin Kozbial, Albert F Stättermayer, Andreas Maieron, Rudolf Stauber, Michael Strasser, Heinz Zoller, Ivo Graziadei, Susanne Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Michael Trauner, Peter Ferenci, Harald Hofer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Excellent efficacy and safety profile of second-generation DAA combinations improved treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) as well as in HCV recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The need of ribavirin addition is under debate as anaemia and decreased renal function are prevalent in transplant cohorts. The aim of this study was thus to assess safety and long-term efficacy of RBV-free DAA combinations in HCV-recurrent patients after OLT. PATIENTS & METHODS: A total of 62 OLT recipients (male: 50%/81%; age: 60...
December 2, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Eric Santoni-Rugiu, Morten Grauslund, Linea C Melchior, Junia C Costa, Jens B Sørensen, Edyta M Urbanska
Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) obtain substantial clinical benefit from EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but will ultimately develop TKI-resistance resulting in median progression-free survival of 9-15 months during first-line TKI-therapy. However, type and timing of TKI-resistance cannot be predicted and several mechanisms may simultaneously/subsequently occur during TKI-treatment. In this respect, we present a 49 year-old Caucasian male ex-smoker with metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADC) that concomitantly harbored an EGFR exon 19-mutation (p...
November 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Gansukh Choijilsuren, Ren-Shiang Jhou, Shu-Fan Chou, Ching-Jen Chang, Hwai-I Yang, Yang-Yuan Chen, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu, Chiaho Shih
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a blood-borne pathogen responsible for chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The mechanism of HBV entry into hepatocytes remains to be investigated. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was discovered as a major HBV receptor based on an in vitro infection system using NTCP-reconstituted HepG2 cells. However, this infection system relies on the compound polyethylene glycol (4% PEG), which is not physiologically relevant to human infection. High concentration of heparin has been commonly used as an inhibitor control for in vitro infection in the field...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Ming-Lun Yeh, Ching-I Huang, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Zu-Yau Lin, Jee-Fu Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Ming-Lung Yu, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Wan-Long Chuang
BACKGROUND: The impact of additional extra-hepatic primary cancer (EHPC) on the outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains uncertain. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cancer registration database from a tertiary hospital in Southern Taiwan. Patients who were diagnosed with HCC from 2008 to 2012 were enrolled. Overall survival (OS), HCC-specific survival and recurrence after curative therapy were analyzed and compared between the patients with and the patients without EHPC...
2017: PloS One
Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A Sakoff, Christopher J Scarlett
Background:Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657...
June 18, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Yasuyuki Fukami, Yuji Kaneoka, Atsuyuki Maeda, Yuichi Takayama, Takamasa Takahashi, Masahito Uji, Takashi Kumada
BACKGROUND: The most frequent pattern of recurrence is remnant liver after hepatectomy for gastric cancer liver metastases (GLM). The evidence of adjuvant hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) after hepatectomy for GLM is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant HAIC after hemihepatectomy for GLM. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2012, 14 patients who underwent hemihepatectomy for GLM were included in this study. Adjuvant HAIC to the remnant hemiliver was the FEM regimen (333 mg/m(2) 5-fluorouracil each week, 30 mg/m(2) epirubicin once every 4 weeks, and 2...
October 2017: International Journal of Surgery
Ian C Roberts-Thomson, Thomas Lung
The Asia-Pacific region contains more than half of the world's population and is markedly heterogeneous in relation to income levels and the provision of public and private health services. For low-income countries, the major health priorities are child and maternal health. In contrast, priorities for high-income countries include vascular disease, cancer, diabetes, dementia and mental health disorders as well as chronic inflammatory disorders such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Cost-effectiveness analyses are methods for assessing the gains in health relative to the costs of different health interventions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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